Science and earth science

Polish Polar Research

Content

Polish Polar Research | 2020 | vol. 41 | No 1 |

Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

This paper presents a review of geophysical studies of the crust and the lithosphere- asthenosphere boundary (LAB) in the ocean-continent transition in the area of Spitsbergen (Svalbard Archipelago) in high Arctic. Over last decades many investigations were performed during Polish geophysical expeditions, as well as in the framework of international cooperation with scientists from Germany, Japan, Norway and USA. We compiled here existing seismic, gravity and thermal models down to LAB depth along the 800 km long transect extending from the actively spreading Knipovich Ridge, across southern Spitsbergen to the Kong Karls Land Volcanic Province. The results of all methods are very consistent, although they are sensitive to different physical parameters: seismic wave velocities, densities and thermal. The thinnest lithosphere of only 12 km is found beneath the Knipovich Ridge. Only 50 km to the west and 50 km to the east of the ridge the LAB depth increases to about 30 km, and this value corresponds to the oceanic structure of the North Atlantic Ocean. Beneath southern Spitsbergen the LAB depth is about 55 km and increases to 90–100 km beneath continental structure of the Barents Sea. The uplift of the LAB close to distance of 700 km along transect could be correlated with Kong Karls Land Volcanic Province.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Marek Grad
Jacek Majorowicz
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Independent Arctic records of temperature and precipitation from the same proxy archives are rare. Nevertheless, they are important for providing detailed information on long-term climate changes and temperature-precipitation relationships in the context of large-scale atmospheric dynamics. Here, we used chironomid and cladoceran fossil assemblages to reconstruct summer air- temperature and water-level changes, during the past 400 years, in a small lake located in Finnish Lapland. Temperatures remained persistently cold over the Little Ice Age (LIA), but increased in the 20th century. After a cooler phase in the 1970s, the climate rapidly warmed to the record-high temperatures of the most recent decades. The lake-level reconstruction suggested persistently wet conditions for the LIA, followed by a dry period between ~1910 and 1970 CE, when the lake apparently became almost dry. Since the 1980s, the lake level has returned to a similar position as during the LIA. The temperature development was consistent with earlier records, but a significant local feature was found in the lake-level reconstruction – the LIA appears to have been continuously wet, without the generally depicted dry phase during the 18th and 19th centuries. Therefore, the results suggest local precipitation patterns and enforce the concept of spatially divergent LIA conditions.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Tomi P. Luoto
E. Henriikka Kivilä
Bartosz Kotrys
Mateusz Płóciennik
Marttiina V. Rantala
Liisa Nevalainen
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Aeolian activity is common on ice free areas in regions with permafrost occurrence. Sparse high-Arctic tundra vegetation, modifying surface air flow and sediments transport, influences the generation of individual landforms and their assemblages. Observations were carried in central Spitsbergen (Svalbard), characterized by quasi-continental polar climate conditions with dry summers and common existence of winds velocities above loamy-sandy sediments transportation threshold. Dryas aeolian landforms created from aeolian material trapped by Dryas octopetala dwarf shrub were diagnosed. Main morphogenetic plants are accompanied by Saxifraga oppositifolia and Bistorta vivipara, rounded out with biological soil crust. Small size of semi-circular and semi-elliptic forms (0.25–0.85 m2) is related to low type of D. octopetala slowly growing on raised marine terraces. Aeolian sediments are characterised by low level of organic matter content. They exhibit diversified mineralogical composition resulting from variable petrography of source glacial and fluvioglacial covers. Eightpetal mountain avens are a dendroflora species composing phytocoenoses of plant communities related to the end stages of biocoenotic succession. Presented data indicate the reference environmental state for any research on plant cover response in the environment of aeolian activity during climate change.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Janina Borysiak
Krzysztof Pleskot
Grzegorz Rachlewicz
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Thirty-one tidewater glacier bays in Spitsbergen Island were visited by yachts in August 2011, 2015, 2016 and 2017. Surface water samples were taken by volunteers, the members of the yacht crews, to measure concentrations of suspended matter, salinity, and temperature. Secchi disc measurements were used to measure water transparency. A series of photographs along the glacier fronts were taken and used to count seabirds that were present near the glacier cliff. Basic topographic features (depth, presence of a sill, exposure, glacier width) were obtained from sea charts and analysed. The number of preying Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla; a target species) ranged from zero to over 2000 birds during 89 visits. High concentrations of individuals (above 100) were observed in 20% of the visits, while no birds were recorded in 42% of the visits. There was no statistical correlation between the topographic features of the glacier and bird concentrations. To our present knowledge, Black-legged Kittiwake feeding spots are random and temporary in time in which (or soon after) the juveniles are leaving the colony. They are a recurrent phenomenon related to krill abundance and simultaneous jet-like meltwater discharges.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Katarzyna Dragańska-Deja
Małgorzata Błaszczyk
Kajetan Deja
Jan Marcin Węsławski
Jan Rodak
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Here we investigate the microbiomes of the soil samples from the Yamal Peninsula (the surroundings of Salekhard city, Russian Federation) using a high-throughput sequencing approach. The main goal was to investigate the impact of mining on soils within the following regeneration, both during the reclamation practice and natural self-growth. Several quarries were studied, engaged in sand, clay and chromatic ores mining. The taxonomic analysis of the soil microbiomes revealed 50 bacterial and archaeal phyla; among the dominant phyla were: Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chroloflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes, Bacteroidetes, AD3, and Nitrospirae. Compared to the typical tundra soil, which was chosen as a control, the disturbed soils had increased biodiversity and total counts for soil bacteria, archaea, and fungi, especially in the cryosolic horizon. The different mining strategies caused significantly different transformations of soil microbiomes, which was less pronounced for self-growth compared to reclaimed quarries. This isolation of the reclaimed quarry was mainly associated with the increase of the amount of acidobacteria (fam. Koribacteraceae and Acidobacteriaceae and order Ellin6513), some proteobacterial taxa (fam. Syntrophobacteraceae), and Chloroflexi (fam. Thermogemmatisporaceae). The study also revealed bacteria, which tend to be specific for marine tundra environments: gemmatimonadetes from the order N1423WL and Chloroflexi bacteria from the order Gitt-GS-136.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Elizaveta Pershina
Ekaterina Ivanova
Anastasia Kimeklis
Alexey Zverev
Arina Kichko
Tatiana Aksenova
Evgeny Andronov
Evgeny Abakumov

Instructions for authors



The quarterly Polish Polar Research invites original scientific papers dealing with all aspects of polar research. The journal aims to provide a forum for publication of high-quality research papers, which are of international interest.


We warmly welcome review papers and proposals for thematic Special Issues .


Articles must be written in English. Authors are requested to have their manuscript read by a person fluent in English before submission. They should not be longer than 30 typescript pages, including tables, figures and references. However, upon request, longer manuscripts may be considered for publication. All papers are peer-reviewed. With a submitted manuscript, authors should provide their names, affiliations, ORCID number and e-mail addresses of at least three suggested reviewers.

Submission of the manuscript should be supported with a declaration that the work described has not been published previously nor is under consideration by another journal.


For text submission, Word file format is preferred. The text should be prepared in single-column double-spaced format and 25 mm margins. Consult the current issue of the journal for layout and conventions. Figures and tables should be prepared as separate files. Line art images should be scanned and saved as bitmap (black and white) images at a resolution of 600–1200 dpi and tightly cropped. Computer versions of the photographs should be saved in TIFF format of at least 400 dpi (non-interpolated). Maximal publication size of illustrations is 126×196 mm. Authors must make sure that graphics are clearly readable at this size. ‘Hairline’ line width must not be used. All chart axes need to be labeled in full. For labeling sub-graphics in a single figure, capital letters placed in the upper left corner are preferred. Bold letters should not be used in tables (including headers), except to highlight a significant value/information.


A limited number of color reproductions in print is free of charge. Color artwork in PDF is free of charge.


Title should be concise, informative and no longer than 15 words. Abstract should have no more than 250 words. The authors are requested to supply up to 5 keywords, different than words used in the title. The references should be arranged alphabetically and chronologically. Journal names should not be abbreviated. Please, ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list and vice versa. Responsibility for the accuracy of bibliographic citations lies entirely with the authors. The inline references to published papers should consist of the surname of the author(s) followed by the year of publication. More than two authors should be cited with the first author’s surname, followed by et al. (Dingle et al. 1998) but in full in the References.


For formatting Reference list, please
Download file or see journal’s latest issues.



The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges. No honorarium will be paid to authors for publishing papers.
Please submit your manuscripts to Polish Polar Research using our online submission system.





This page uses 'cookies'. Learn more