Life Sciences and Agriculture

Journal of Water and Land Development


Journal of Water and Land Development | 2008 | No 12 |

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The paper deals with calibration of the simulation models of hydraulic part of an irrigation project. Calibrated simulation model can be used in design, reconstruction, enlargement or maintenance of the pressurized irrigation systems. Computer model of the water distribution system is a valuable tool which can assist engineers and planners in analyzing the hydraulic performance of water delivery systems. Calibration of the water distribution model consists in comparison of pressures and flows predicted with observed pressures and flows for known operating conditions (i.e., pump operation, tank levels, pressure-reducing valve settings), and adjustment of the input data for the model to improve agreement between observed and predicted values. In practice, given a set or sets of measured state variables, engineers apply trial and error techniques with their judgment to vary the parameters and accomplish this task. Trial and error techniques are tedious do not guarantee reasonable results. The paper introduces the methodology of determination of calibrated parameters automatically. Described methodology of calibration is based on optimizing procedures using the harmony search approach.

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Authors and Affiliations

Milan Čistý
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The abundance of water has certainly been a very important resource for the development of the Po Valley and has necessitated, more than once, interventions of regulation and drainage that have contributed strongly to imprint a particular conformation on the land. Already in Roman times there were numerous projects of canalisation and intense and diligent commitment to the maintenance of the canals, used for navigation, for irrigation and for the working of the mills. The need to control the excessive amount of water present was the beginning of the exploitation of this great font of richness that was constantly maintained in subsequent eras. In the early Middle Ages, despite the conditions of political instability and great economic and social difficulty, the function of the canals continued to be of great importance, also because the paths of river communication often substituted land roads, then left abandoned. After the 11th century A.D. the resumption of agricultural activity was conducive to the intense task of land reclamation of the Lombardian countryside and of commitment by the cities to amplify their waterways with the construction of new canals and the improvement of those already existing. The example given by Milan, a city lacking a natural river, that equipped itself with a dense network of canal, used in various ambits of the city life (defence, hygiene, agriculture, transport, milling systems) and for connections with the surrounding territory, can be considered as emblematic. In the surrounding countryside, the activity of the Cistercian monks of Chiaravalle represents one of the situations more indicative of how land reclamation and waterways contributed fundamentally to the organisation of the territory over the span of the ages.

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Authors and Affiliations

Giuliana Fantoni
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The irrigation system control is identified as a complex hierarchical process of stochastic nature, at the head of which the uncertainties, caused by random variations of meteorological factors (climate) and diversion capacity regime from irrigation canals, were laid.

Under such conditions application of the determinate methods for irrigation system control regarding the effectiveness surrenders to the formalistic and empirical methods.

The most appropriate method is the developed by us, method of preventive control.

As a result of retrospective analysis, to each system status, for example, diversion capacity, it is fixed the factors which lead to its changes, for example, rain layer or total evaporation. To every consequence “factor – system status” it is fixed the indicator and it is determined the probability of its exceeding in retrospective series.

The control is in following of such indicator dynamics, forecasting of the most probably changes within system status and adjustment of the water delivery regime to canal reaches with diversion capacity regime from irrigation canals by means of standard preventive graphical chats of water flow control within hydraulic structures and pumping stations.

Use of such control method allows to minimize the uncertainty influence, also it does not require the major modifications in the design and engineering infrastructure.

As an exception can be the measures, directed to the increase of self-regulating qualities of irrigation systems, namely the ability of on-line water volume control, which is regulated in the idle capacities, provided in canal beds or special reservoirs.

The example of such decision in practice is the Kakhovskaya irrigation system in the South of Ukraine. The use factor of water resources on this system reaches 0.85, the technological discharge water does not exceed 7%, the deficit of productive moisture reserve in soil at the end of interirrigation period does not exceed 20% and all these data were obtained under adverse weather conditions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Peter Kovalenko
Yuri Mikhaylov
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Canal connecting Elbląg with Ostróda was built in the XIX century to transport corn to the port of Elbląg. Due to economic and political changes it never played its economic function. Now it is a tourist attraction. The canal is thus of some tourist value which is difficult to assess. Tourist value of the Elbląg Canal was assessed with the travel cost method (TCM) within the study carried out in 2003. The study allowed for estimating the object’s value based on its usefulness expressed by inclination to payment. Three groups of users were distinguished when analysing the demand for recreational canal’s services: tourists using ships of the Elbląg–Ostróda Navigation Company, individual sailors and anglers. Total tourist value of the canal calculated as NPV of the annual value of canal’s services depends on adopted interest rate. At a rate of 3.2% the value is 328 thous. PLN (73.9 thous. euro), at a rate of 4% – 282 thous. PLN (63.5 thous. euro), while at 8% interest rate it decreases to 160 thous. PLN (36.0 thous. euro).

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Authors and Affiliations

Tadeusz Liziński
Marcin Bukowski
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Many of already existing roads cross wetland river valleys. Also the roads nowadays planned are cutting through valuable wetlands. It is necessary to evaluate the range of their impact on the natural environment. This paper focuses only on the analysis of the road crossing impact on the groundwater level. Two options of crossing the wetlands were analyzed, building the road on embankments and in the bridge. It was assumed that the valley is filled with organic material under laid by permeable sands. Calculation results showed that building a road in the valley affects groundwater level only to the slight extend. Water conditions in the valley may be affected only during the construction of the road. Calculation results were confirmed by field observations.

It should be stressed that the object of this paper is the evaluation of water conditions. Environment might be influenced by other factors.

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Authors and Affiliations

Waldemar Mioduszewski
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The research was set up in the Neretva River valley in the Southern part of Croatian Karst area, where implementation of modern hydrotechnical practices within the river catchment’s area led to intrusion of seawater to groundwater resulting in soil salinization in the delta. The region has great agro-ecological potential for intensive production of vegetables and Mediterranean fruits. Since the combination of the effects of saline groundwater and the use of this water for irrigation may have disastrous effects on the productivity of agricultural soils water, a project was started in order to set up a permanent monitoring network. The aim of this study was to determine the salt dynamics in the surface water on five locations which are considered as potential sources of the irrigation water (Modric canal, Neretva River near Opuzen, Crepina, Jasenska and Vidrice pumping station) during a 4-year period (1999–2002). The surface water samples had been collected on monthly basis and analyzed for all parameters required in the irrigation water quality classification. The results show considerable spatial and temporal variability of determined parameters. Thus, in the Neretva River near Opuzen, total salt concentrations in water ranged from 0.4 to 7.7 dS·m–1, and in Modric from 1.65 up to17.2 dS·m–1. Dominant cations and anions on all observed locations were Na+ and Cl–. Constantly high concentration of Na+ in sampled surface waters is of a special concern. Utilization of the water of such quality may cause problems related to the use of alkaline waters for irrigation, which can further cause permanent loss of fertile soil.

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Authors and Affiliations

Davor Romić
Monika Zovko
Marija Romić
Gabrijel Ondrašek
Zoran Salopek
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Two-third of the area of the Netherlands is flood prone. Storm surges at the North Sea, floods in the rivers, failure of secondary dikes, as well as heavy rainfall may cause flooding. Most of the flood prone areas rely for their existence on drainage by pumping, because their surface level may be permanently or during floods up to several metres below the surrounding water levels. During the past decades climate change is generally felt as a reason for major concern. However, the impacts of climate change on increase in extreme conditions may be up to 45% per century. If we look at the man-induced changes in land use, due to increase in population and rapid increase in the value of public and private property, then one may observe an increase of 100–1,000% per century. One should therefore wonder what would have to be our major concern.

In the paper the relevant processes are described, based on some characteristic data on water management and flood protection in the Netherlands. It is shown that impacts of climate change on water management and flood protection may be expected, but that such impacts can easily be accommodated during improvement works on water management systems and flood protection provisions that from time to time will be required. It will be much more important to take carefully into account the risk of flooding in the planning of land use development, especially for valuable types of land use like urban and industrial areas, green houses and recreation areas.

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Authors and Affiliations

Bart Schultz
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Irrigation in Croatia was until recently a neglected measure in food production, especially in continental part of the country. Development of drainage system in the last fifty years was more important due to the problems caused by floods and excess water in the fields. In the last decade the hydrological regime has been changed and drought events became as frequent as flood events, causing even more damage. Future development of agriculture in the northern counties of Croatia depends on the introduction of new, profitable crops which imply irrigation as an essential factor of future social and economic growth.

The first step in the implementation of irrigation was the development of National Irrigation Master

Plan as a framework for future activities.

According to the recommendations of the National Master Plan all counties have created County Irrigation Plans considering local natural conditions, social and economic background.

This paper is going to present how is that process of integrated water resources management developing in the continental part of Croatia on the example of Osijek County Irrigation Plan located in the Danube river basin.

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Authors and Affiliations

Lidija Tadić
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Lublin Upland and Roztocze region are known for the occurrence of a large number of springs of high yield. These springs are fed mainly from Cretaceous or Tertiary water-bearing horizon. In order to determine variability of springs’ yield, 61 selected springs were analysed in spring periods of the years 1998–2008. Collected hydrometric materials allowed for comparing average and extreme yield values of springs in various physiographic regions within the period of 11 years. Average value was 76.1 dm3·s–1, while the mean of the minimal yields was 44.7 dm3·s–1 and of the maximal – 132.7 dm3·s–1. Coefficient of irregularity of the springs’ yield ranged from 1.5 to 5.0, which may lead to the conclusion that the springs’ yield is constant or varies slightly. In some cases the irregularity was higher but it was determined by hydrogeological, meteorological and local factors.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zdzisław Michalczyk
Stanisław Chmiel
Sławomir Głowacki
Beata Zielińska
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Nutrient emissions by point and diffuse sources and their loads were estimated for the Odra catchment over the time period of the last 50 years by means of the model MONERIS. For nitrogen a change of the total emissions from 38 kt·a–1 N in the mid of 1950s a maximum of 105 kt·a–1 N in the early 1980s and a recent value of about 84 kt·a–1 N were estimated for the total Odra Basin. The share of the point source discharges on the total N emissions varied between 24% (1955) and 35% (1995). The emissions from groundwater and tile drained areas represent the dominant pathway (37–56% of total N emissions) during all investigated time periods. Emissions from tile drained areas increased from the mid of 1950s to end of 1980s by a factor of 20 and reached in this period the same amount as emissions by groundwater. For phosphorus the emissions changed from 4 kt·a–1 P in 1955 to 14 kt·a–1 P in 1990 and a recent level of 7 kt·a–1 P. Point source discharges caused between 36 to 66% of total P emissions and represent the dominant pathway for all investigated time periods. Erosion and discharges from paved urban areas and sewer systems was the dominant diffuse pathway of the total P emissions into the river system. The comparison of calculated and observed nutrient loads for the main monitoring stations along the Odra River shows that the average deviation is 12% for total phosphorus (1980–2000) and 15% for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (1960–2000). From the analysis it can be concluded that the present load of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and total nitrogen (TN) of the Odra into the Baltic Sea is about 2.3 times higher than in the mid of 1960s. The maximum DIN load (1980s) was more than 3 times higher than in the 1960s. The change of the total phosphorus (TP) load is characterized by an increase from the 1955s to 1980 from 2 to 7 kt·a–1 P (factor 2.6). Around 2000 the TP load was 4 kt·a–1 which is only the double of the level of the 1955s

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Authors and Affiliations

Horst Behrendt
Dieter Opitz
Agnieszka Kolanek
Rafalina Korol
Marzenna Strońska
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Along the paper the new method called Invertebrate Bankfull Assessment method (IBA method) of determination of bankfull discharge is presented. The investigation of bankfull discharge using IBA were performed within one Polish Carpathian stream in the mountain region: the Ochotnica Stream. As an index of bankfull the existence of certain species of invertebrates was used which are present and resistant to specific water discharge conditions. The borders within a cross section of the mountain stream with a gravel bed were defined where characteristic invertebrates are present which are recognized as bankfull borders. Finally three invertebrates benches (IB-ms) were recognized which are characterized by very specific invertebrate species. Bankfull discharge was calculated up to this IB-ms and corelated using Canonical Correspondence Analysis with other values of bankfull calculated for a cross section using different bankfull.

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Authors and Affiliations

Artur Radecki-Pawlik
Tomasz Skalski
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An increase of water retention in the programmes of small retention in the country to the year 2015 is estimated at 1141 million m3. It means annual mean increase of retention capacity by c. 60 million m3. Accomplishment of relevant actions in the years 1997–2007 allowed collecting 57 million m3 in lakes, c. 56 million m3 in artificial reservoirs, 18.5 million m3 in fishponds, c. 10.5 million m3 with the channel retention and over 2 million m3 in other investments. It makes total increase of water retention by 142 million m3 which is 12.4% of target retention and the mean annual increment of c. 13 million m3. The paper presents volumes of retained water, sources and structure of financing, mean unit costs of retention increments and the increase of retention capacity in particular voivodships (acc. to new administration division) in the years 1998–2007.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zbigniew Kowalewski

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1. "Journal of Water and Land Development” is published four times a year in English, articles are followed by a short (not exceeding 200 words) summary in Polish.
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Publication Ethics Policy


Editors of the "Journal of Water and Land Development" pay attention to maintain ethical standards in scientific publications and undertake any possible measure to counteract neglecting the standards. Papers submitted for publication are evaluated with respect to reliability, conforming to ethical standards and the advancement of science. Principles given below are based on COPE's Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors, which may be found at:

Authors’ duties

Authorship should be limited to persons, who markedly contributed to the idea, project, realization and interpretation of results. All of them have to be listed as co-authors. Other persons, who affected some important parts of the study should be listed or mentioned as co-workers. Author should be certain that all co-authors were enlisted, saw and accepted final version of the paper and agreed upon its publication.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Author should disclose all sources of financing of his/her study, the input of scientific institutions, associations and other subjects and all important conflicts of interests that might affect results and interpretation of the study.

Standards in reporting
Authors of papers based on original studies should present precise description of performed work and objective discussion on its importance. Source data should be accurately presented in the paper. The paper should contain detailed information and references that would enable others to use it. False or intentionally not true declarations are not ethical and are not accepted by the editors.

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Authors may be asked for providing raw data used in the paper for editorial assessment and should be prepared to store them within the reasonable time period after publication.

Multiple, unnecessary and competitive publications
As a rule author should not publish papers describing the same studies in more than one journal or primary publication. Submission of the same paper to more than one journal at the same time is not ethical and prohibited.

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Author should cite papers that affected the creation of submitted manuscript and every time he/she should confirm the use of other authors’ work.

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When author finds an important error or inaccuracy in his/her paper, he/she is obliged to inform Editorial Office about this as soon as possible.

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Author may submit only original papers. He/she should be certain that the names of authors referred to in the paper and/or fragments of their texts are properly cited or mentioned.

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Referee supports Editor-in-Chief in taking editorial decisions and may also support author in improving the paper.

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In case a selected referee is not able to review the paper or cannot do it in due time period, he/she should inform secretary of the Editorial Office about this fact.

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Referees should indicate publications which are not referred to in the paper. Any statement that the observation, source or argument was described previously should be supported by appropriate citation. Referee should also inform the secretary of the Editorial Office about significant similarity to or partial overlapping of the reviewed paper with any other published paper and about suspected plagiarism.

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Reviewing procedure

Procedure of reviewing submitted papers agrees with recommendations of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education published in a booklet: „Dobre praktyki w procedurach recenzyjnych w nauce”.

Reviewing form may be downloaded from the Journal’s web page.

1.Papers submitted to the Editorial Office are primarily verified by editors withrespect to merit and formal issues. Texts with obvious errors (formatting other than requested, missing references, evidently low scientific quality) will be rejected at this stage.
2.Primarily accepted papers are sent to the two independent referees from outside the author’s institution, who:
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  • are not in professional relationships with the author,
  • are competent in a given discipline and have at least doctor’s degree and respective scientific achievements,
  • have unblemished reputation as reviewers.
3.In case of papers written in foreign language, at least one referee is affiliated in a foreign institution other than the author’s nationality.
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5.A number is attributed to the paper to identify it in further stages of editorial procedure.
6.Potential referee obtains summary of the text and it is his/her decision upon accepting/rejecting the paper for review within a given time period.
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8.Review must have a written form and end up with an explicit conclusion about accepting or rejecting the paper from publication. Referee has a possibility to conclude his/her opinion in a form:
  • accept without revision;
  • accept with minor revision;
  • accept after major revision,
  • re-submission and further reviewing after complete re-arrangement of the paper,
  • reject.
9.Referee sends the review to the journal “Woda-Środowisko-Obszary Wiejskie”and “Problemy Inżynierii Rolniczej”by e-mail and in the printed undersigned form to the Editorial Office. Referee sends the review to the “Journal of Water and Land Development”by Editorial System. The review is archived there for 5 years.
10.Editors do not accept reviews, which do not conform to merit and formal rules of scientific reviewing like short positive or negative remarks not supported by a close scrutiny or definitely critical reviews with positive final conclusion and vice versa. Referee’s remarks are presented to the author. Rational and motivated conclusions are obligatory for the author. He/she has to consider all remarks and revise the text accordingly. Referee has the right to verify so revised text.
11.Author of the text has the right to comment referee’s conclusions in case he/she does not agree with them.
12.Editor-in Chief (supported by members of the Editorial Board) decides upon publication based on remarks and conclusions presented by referees, author’s comments and the final version of the manuscript.
13.Rules of acceptation or rejection of the paper and the review form are available at the web page of the Editorial House or the journal.
14.Once a year Editorial Office publishes present list of cooperating reviewers.
15.According to usual habit, reviewing is free of charge.
16.Papers rejected by referees are archived at the Editorial Office for 5 years.

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