Life Sciences and Agriculture

Journal of Water and Land Development


Journal of Water and Land Development | 2019 | No 41 |

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Evaporation and evapotranspiration is crucial part of hydrological and water resource management studies e.g. water footprinting. Proper methods for estimating evaporation/potential evapotranspiration using limited climatic data are critical if the availability of climatic data is extremely limited. In a large scale studies are very often used generalized (modelled or gridded) input data. For a large scale water footprint studies is also important to find methods as simple as possible with quantifiable error. In our study, nine simple temperature-based empirical equations were compared with a long term time series of real evaporation data from a 20 m2 tank at Hlasivo station. In the first step, we used real temperature measured at Hlasivo station for validation of equations. In the second step, the gridded temperature data (interpolated datasets) derived from the meteorological stations were used. For both datasets, the differences between observed and predicted values were categorized into three groups of accuracy and the statistical indices of each equation were calculated. Very good results were achieved with the Hamon equation from 1961 and the Oudin equation for both datasets with index of agreement (d) higher than 0.9, cross-correlation coefficient (R2) around 0.7 and root mean square error (RMSE) around 0.5 mm∙(24 h)–1The Kharrufa equation, which was developed for semi-arid or arid areas, also provides results with sufficient accuracy. Comparison of the results with similar studies showed a lower accuracy of very simple equations against more complex equations, which have RMSE lower than 0.25 mm∙(24 h)–1. But for some kind of studies, quantifiable errors with sufficient accuracy can be more important than the absolute accuracy.

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Authors and Affiliations

Libor Ansorge
Adam Beran
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Green roofs play a significant role in sustainable drainage systems. They form absorbent surfaces for rainwater, which they retain with the aid of profile and plants. Such roofs therefore take an active part in improving the climatic conditions of a city and, more broadly, the water balance of urbanized areas. One of the factors influencing the hydrological efficiency of green roofs is the drainage layer. In the article, column studies were carried out under field conditions involving the comparison of the retention abilities of two aggregates serving as the drainage layer of green roofs, i.e. Leca® and quartzite grit. The average retention of the substrate was 48%; for a 5 cm drainage layer of Leca® retention was 57%, for a 10 cm layer of Leca average retention was 61%. For a 5 cm layer of quartzite grit average retention was 50%, for 10 cm layer of quartzite grit 53%. The highest retention was obtained for the column with the substrate and 10-centimeter layer of Leca®. At the same time, it was shown that Leca® is a better retention material than quartzite grit. The initial state of substrate moisture content from a green roof appears to be a significant factor in reducing rainfall runoff from a green roof; the ob-tained values of initial moisture content made for a higher correlation than the antecedent dry weather period.

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Authors and Affiliations

Anna M. Baryła
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The materials mining from rivers have a variety of negative and positive effects. Currently, one of the most important issues in river engineering is the proper management of materials mining. In this research, global experiences and interna-tional standards for managing sand and gravel mining have been applied to evaluate the mining area in the Zohreh River in Khuzestan province (Iran). One of the evaluation methods in this field is the river matrix method. In this method, which is defined on the basis of river pattern, river characteristics such as river size, site location of materials, associated channel and type of deposit are being considered. In this research, a segment of the Zohreh River between Sardasht Zeydun bridge and Mohseniyeh village in which has good potential for gravel mining was selected and evaluated for river characteristics, mining potential and application of river matrix method. The study indicates that the Zohreh River has a braided pattern in the range. The volume of sediment materials in the target area is about 10 000 m3, the length and width of the mining area are 125 and 80 m respectively, and surface extraction with a maximum depth of 1 m was recommended for extraction of materials. At the end of the research, management solutions and solutions for mining of river materials were presented using various standards.

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Authors and Affiliations

Farhang Azarang
Mahmood Shafaei Bejestan
Ghazal Jafari
Maryam Karami
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The paper discusses the use of multiclustering statistical analysis in the assessment of domestic wastewater filtration effectiveness. Calculations included data collected over four months of experiments with using waste as filling material of vertical flow filters for domestic sewage treatment. The effectiveness of pollutants removal was analysed in case of me-chanically shredded waste in the form of PET flakes, PUR foam trims, shredded rubber tires and wadding. The organic compounds (CODcr, BOD5) removal, suspend solids, biogens (as NH4+, PO43– ions) and oxygen saturation changing com-pared with sand filling was analysed. Multiclustering statistical analysis allowed to divide pollutants removal efficiency of analysed materials into 3 clusters, depending on the hydraulic loading. The first group consisted in quality parameters of treated sewage: the highest reduction of BOD5 and NH4-N. It included the values of quality parameters and indicators for the filtrates obtained at the lowest hydraulic load from columns filled with 60 cm of rubber tires or sand. The second group comprised the results for fillings containing foam, PET and rubber tires (the other hydraulic loads).It featured the highest reduction of total suspended solids and PO43–. Removal of easily biodegradable organic compounds was at a similar level in both cluster groups. The filter filled with polyester waste (wadding), which was as effective as 30 cm layer of sand, and the filters filled with 60 cm of sand working at the highest hydraulic load. Third group showed the lowest values of parameters and indicators for analysed filtrates.

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Authors and Affiliations

Dawid Bedla
Ewa Dacewicz
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Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate (WSSE), located in the flood plain of the Awash River (Ethiopia), has been under long-term (>60 years) irrigation, industrial activities and agro-chemical usage. In this study, the hydrochemical properties of ground-water bodies available at WSSE have been characterized for quality compositions. Water samples were collected from groundwater monitoring piezometers distributed in the sugarcane plantation and then analysed for physico-chemical quality parameters (pH, EC,major cations and anions) following standard procedures. Other chemical indices (e.g., total dissolved solids (TDS),total hardness(TH),magnesium absorption ratio(MAR), base exchange (r1), meteoric genesis(r2)) were de-rived from the measured water quality parameters. The compositional variability and groundwater classification has been presented using the Box and Piper plots. The potential sources of minerals were suggested for each of the considered water sources based on their quality characteristics. Both trilinear Piper plot and meteoric genesis index revealed that groundwaterof the area is shallow meteoric water percolation type with a changing of hydrochemical facies and mixing trend. Ground-water of the area, is group 1 (Ca-Mg-HCO3) type, with no dominant cations and HCO3 are the dominant anions. Overall, the study result elucidates that the chemical composition of GW of the area showed spatial variability depending upon the variations in hydrochemical inputs from natural processes and/or anthropogenic activities within the region. The local an-thropogenic processes could be discharges from sugar factory, domestic sewage and agricultural activities.

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Authors and Affiliations

Megersa Olumana Dinka
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The increasingly stringent requirements for wastewater treatment enforce the adoption of technologies that reduce pol-lution and minimize waste production. By combining the typical activated sludge process with membrane filtration, biolog-ical membrane reactors (MBR) offer great technological potential in this respect. The paper presents the principles and ef-fectiveness of using an MBR at the Głogów Małopolski operation.Physicochemical tests of raw and treated wastewater as well as microscopic analyses with the use of the FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) method were carried out. More-over, the level of electric energy consumption during the operation of the wastewater treatment plant and problems related to fouling were also discussed. A wastewater quality analysis confirmed the high efficiency of removing organic impurities (on average 96% in case of BOD5 and 94% in case of COD) and suspension (on average 93%).

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Authors and Affiliations

Magdalena Domańska
Anna Boral
Kamila Hamal
Magdalena Kuśnierz
Janusz Łomotowski
Paulina Płaza-Ożóg
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In this paper we studied the intensification of the water clarification process on contact clarifiers with quartz sand fil-tering bed, which was modified with a solution of aluminum sulphate coagulant. The modification of the quartz sand filter-ing bed was carried out by applying to the surface of grains of quartz sand solution of coagulant aluminum sulphate with different doses. Investigation of the electrokinetic potential of the filtering material (quartz sand) was carried out by the percolation potential method.

The influence of electrical properties (size and sign of the charge) of the filtering bed itself and suspended solids in the water on the filtration process was studied. The filter material – quartz sand used in contact clarifiers has a negative electric charge. When the electric charge of the particles decreases, that is, as the ζ-potential decreases, the repulsive forces de-crease and it the adhesion of particles becomes possible. This is the process of coagulation of the colloid. The forces of mu-tual gravity between the colloidal particles begin to predominate over the electric repulsive forces at the ζ-potential of thesystem less than 0.03 V.

Modification of quarts filtering bed with a solution of coagulant aluminum sulphate recommended for the purification of surface water allows: to intensify the process of water clarification, to reduce the consumption of reagents by 25–30%, with the obtaining purified water of the required quality, to reduce the production areas necessary for reagent management of treatment facilities, and to reduce the cost of water treatment by 20–25%.

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Authors and Affiliations

Stanislav S. Dushkin
Serhii Martynov
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Time of concentration, Tc, is defined as time elapsed from the beginning of rainfall infiltrated into soil layer until it reaches a constant infiltration rate (fc) which is indicated an equilibrium subsurface flow rate. In hydrological view, time of concentration plays a significant role in elaboration of transformation of rainfall into runoff in a watershed. The aims of this research are to define influence of soil density and soil water content in determining time of concentration using infiltration concept based on water balance theory, and to find out the effect of land slope this time. Watershed laboratory experiment using rainfall simulator was employed to examine time of concentration associated with infiltration process under different slope, soil density and soil water content based on water balance concept. The steady rainfall intensity was simulated using sprinklers which produced 2 dm3∙min–1. Rainfall, runoff and infiltration analysis were carried out at laboratory experiment on soil media with varied of soil density (d) and soil water content (w), where variation of land slopes (s) were designed in three land slopes 2, 3 and 4%. The results show that relationship between soil density and land slope to time of concentra-tion showed a quadratic positive relationship where the higher the soil density address to the longer time of concentration. Moreover, time of concentration had an inverse relationship with soil water content and land slope that means time of con-centration decreased when the soil water content increased.

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Authors and Affiliations

Donny Harisuseno
Dian Noorvy Khaeruddin
Riyanto Haribowo
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The paper presents the results of analysis of duration of precipitation sequences and the amounts of precipitation in in-dividual sequences in Legnica. The study was aimed at an analysis of potential trends and regularities in atmospheric pre-cipitations over the period of 1966–2015. On their basis a prediction attempt was made for trends in subsequent years. The analysis was made by fitting data to suitable distributions – the Weibull distribution for diurnal sums in sequences and the Pascal distribution for sequence durations, and then by analysing the variation of the particular indices such the mean value,variance and quartiles. The analysis was performed for five six-week periods in a year, from spring to late autumn, ana-lysed in consecutive five-year periods. The trends of the analysed indices, observed over the fifty-year period, are not sta-tistically significant, which indicates stability of precipitation conditions over the last half-century.

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Authors and Affiliations

Teresa Jakubczyk
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The analysis of the current state of weather and climatic conditions and evaluation of their predicted changes for im-mediate and distant prospect in the drained areas of Ukrainian Polissia region was carried out in the article. The main trendsin changes of meteorological characteristics and their possible effect on the conditions of functioning water management and ameliorative objects and complexes as well as on the natural and ameliorative state of drained areas were identified. The research uses a method of predictive-simulation modelling with used predictive assessment models of normalized dis-tribution of the basic meteorological characteristics in the long-term and one-year vegetation context. According to the re-sults of the research it was established that, for today a high variability in meteorological characteristics can lead to the sig-nificant deterioration of operation conditions of water management and ameliorative objects and units, as well as natural and ameliorative conditions of drained lands in Polissia region as a whole. Core measures regarding the adaptive potential enhancement and development in the region under the conditions of climate change were examined.

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Authors and Affiliations

Pyotr Kovalenko
Anatoliy Rokochinskiy
Jerzy Jeznach
Roman Koptyuk
Pavlo Volk
Nataliіa Prykhodko
Ruslan Tykhenko

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Authors should submit manuscripts via the Editorial Board ( Editorial system - Submit Your Manuscript )

1. "Journal of Water and Land Development” is published four times a year in English, articles are followed by a short (not exceeding 200 words) summary in Polish.
2. Conciseness of style is a prequisite, avoid verbose phrases and abvious statements. Manuscript should not exceed 1 printing sheet (20 standard pages of 1800 characters per page). Tables, figures and short summary should be typed at the end of the paper on separate pages.
3. Each article should contain the following elements: title, name and surname of the author(s), authors' affiliation, short abstract no longer than 150–200 words, key words, text of the paper divided into Introduction, Material and Methods, Results and Discussion, References (arranged in alphabetic order as shown below) and summary in Polish BENCALA K.E., WALTERS R.A. 1983. Simulation of solute transport in mountain pool-and riffle stream: a transient storage model. Water Resources Research. Vol. 19 p. 718–724. GÓRECKI A. 1987. Rozpoznanie i opis sztucznych pól odniesień przestrzennych [Recognition and description of the artificial plots of spatial relations]. Manuscript. Wrocław. Uniwersytet Wrocławski pp. 18. JANKOWSKI M. 2006. Elementy grafiki komputerowej [Elements of the computer graphics]. Warszawa. WNT. ISBN 8320431638 pp. 220. STRZELECKI T. 1994. Rola systemów informacji geograficznej w zarządzaniu państwem, województwem i gminą. W: Komputerowe wspomaganie badań naukowych [The role of GIS in the management of the state, voivodship and community. In: Computer aided research]. I Konferencja Środowiskowa. Wrocław. Wrocławskie Towarzystwo Naukowe p. 19–25. Papers referred to should be quoted in the text as KOWALSKI [1997], [KOWALSKI, NOWAK 1997]. If there are more than two authors, please add et al. after the first name i.e. NOWAK et al. [1997]. English version of the non-congress language title should be added in brackets.
4. Figures should be draw on tracing paper or delivered as laser printouts. Legends in the graphs should be restricted to numerical and letter descriptions, other explanations should be placed in the figure caption. Descriptions remaining within the graph should be in English and of the proportional size (i.e. they must ensure readability after graph size reduction).
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Publication Ethics Policy


Editors of the "Journal of Water and Land Development" pay attention to maintain ethical standards in scientific publications and undertake any possible measure to counteract neglecting the standards. Papers submitted for publication are evaluated with respect to reliability, conforming to ethical standards and the advancement of science. Principles given below are based on COPE's Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors, which may be found at:

Authors’ duties

Authorship should be limited to persons, who markedly contributed to the idea, project, realization and interpretation of results. All of them have to be listed as co-authors. Other persons, who affected some important parts of the study should be listed or mentioned as co-workers. Author should be certain that all co-authors were enlisted, saw and accepted final version of the paper and agreed upon its publication.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Author should disclose all sources of financing of his/her study, the input of scientific institutions, associations and other subjects and all important conflicts of interests that might affect results and interpretation of the study.

Standards in reporting
Authors of papers based on original studies should present precise description of performed work and objective discussion on its importance. Source data should be accurately presented in the paper. The paper should contain detailed information and references that would enable others to use it. False or intentionally not true declarations are not ethical and are not accepted by the editors.

Access to and storage of data
Authors may be asked for providing raw data used in the paper for editorial assessment and should be prepared to store them within the reasonable time period after publication.

Multiple, unnecessary and competitive publications
As a rule author should not publish papers describing the same studies in more than one journal or primary publication. Submission of the same paper to more than one journal at the same time is not ethical and prohibited.

Confirmation of sources
Author should cite papers that affected the creation of submitted manuscript and every time he/she should confirm the use of other authors’ work.

Important errors in published papers
When author finds an important error or inaccuracy in his/her paper, he/she is obliged to inform Editorial Office about this as soon as possible.

Originality and plagiarism
Author may submit only original papers. He/she should be certain that the names of authors referred to in the paper and/or fragments of their texts are properly cited or mentioned.

Ghost writing/guest authorship are manifestation of scientific unreliability and all such cases will be revealed including notification of appropriate subjects. Signs of scientific unreliability, especially violation of ethical principles in science will be documented by the Editorial Office.

Duties of the Editorial Office

Editors’ duties
Editors know the rules of journal editing including the procedures applied in case of uncovering non-ethical practices.

Decisions on publication
Editor-in Chief is obliged to apply present legal status as to defamation, violation of author’s rights and plagiarism and bears the responsibility for decisions. He/she may consult thematic editors and/or referees in that matter.

Selection of referees
Editorial Office provides appropriate selection of referees and takes care about appropriate course of peer –reviewing (the review has to be substantive).

Every member of editorial team is not allowed to disclose information about submitted paper to any person except its author, referees, other advisors and editors.

To counteract discrimination the Editorial Office obeys the legally binding rules.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Not published papers or their fragments cannot be used in the studies of editorial team or ref-erees without written consent of the author.

Referees' duties

Editorial decisions

Referee supports Editor-in-Chief in taking editorial decisions and may also support author in improving the paper.

Back information
In case a selected referee is not able to review the paper or cannot do it in due time period, he/she should inform secretary of the Editorial Office about this fact.

Objectivity standards
Reviews should be objective. Personal criticism is inappropriate. Referees should clearly ex-press their opinions and support them with proper arguments.

All reviewed papers should be dealt with as confidential. They should not be discussed or revealed to persons other than the secretary of the Editorial Office.

All reviews should be made anonymously and the Editorial Office does not disclose names of the authors to referees.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Confidential information or ideas resulting from reviewing procedure should be kept secret and should not be used to gain personal benefits. Referees should not review papers, which might generate conflict of interests resulting from relationships with the author, firm or institution involved in the study.

Confirmation of sources
Referees should indicate publications which are not referred to in the paper. Any statement that the observation, source or argument was described previously should be supported by appropriate citation. Referee should also inform the secretary of the Editorial Office about significant similarity to or partial overlapping of the reviewed paper with any other published paper and about suspected plagiarism.

Peer-review Procedure

Reviewing procedure

Procedure of reviewing submitted papers agrees with recommendations of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education published in a booklet: „Dobre praktyki w procedurach recenzyjnych w nauce”.

Reviewing form may be downloaded from the Journal’s web page.

1.Papers submitted to the Editorial Office are primarily verified by editors withrespect to merit and formal issues. Texts with obvious errors (formatting other than requested, missing references, evidently low scientific quality) will be rejected at this stage.
2.Primarily accepted papers are sent to the two independent referees from outside the author’s institution, who:
  • have no conflict of interests with the author,
  • are not in professional relationships with the author,
  • are competent in a given discipline and have at least doctor’s degree and respective scientific achievements,
  • have unblemished reputation as reviewers.
3.In case of papers written in foreign language, at least one referee is affiliated in a foreign institution other than the author’s nationality.
4.Reviewing proceeds in the double blind process (authors and reviewers do notknow each other’s names) recommended by the Ministry.
5.A number is attributed to the paper to identify it in further stages of editorial procedure.
6.Potential referee obtains summary of the text and it is his/her decision upon accepting/rejecting the paper for review within a given time period.
7.Referees are obliged to keep opinions about the paper confidential and to not use knowledge about it before publication.
8.Review must have a written form and end up with an explicit conclusion about accepting or rejecting the paper from publication. Referee has a possibility to conclude his/her opinion in a form:
  • accept without revision;
  • accept with minor revision;
  • accept after major revision,
  • re-submission and further reviewing after complete re-arrangement of the paper,
  • reject.
9.Referee sends the review to the journal “Woda-Środowisko-Obszary Wiejskie”and “Problemy Inżynierii Rolniczej”by e-mail and in the printed undersigned form to the Editorial Office. Referee sends the review to the “Journal of Water and Land Development”by Editorial System. The review is archived there for 5 years.
10.Editors do not accept reviews, which do not conform to merit and formal rules of scientific reviewing like short positive or negative remarks not supported by a close scrutiny or definitely critical reviews with positive final conclusion and vice versa. Referee’s remarks are presented to the author. Rational and motivated conclusions are obligatory for the author. He/she has to consider all remarks and revise the text accordingly. Referee has the right to verify so revised text.
11.Author of the text has the right to comment referee’s conclusions in case he/she does not agree with them.
12.Editor-in Chief (supported by members of the Editorial Board) decides upon publication based on remarks and conclusions presented by referees, author’s comments and the final version of the manuscript.
13.Rules of acceptation or rejection of the paper and the review form are available at the web page of the Editorial House or the journal.
14.Once a year Editorial Office publishes present list of cooperating reviewers.
15.According to usual habit, reviewing is free of charge.
16.Papers rejected by referees are archived at the Editorial Office for 5 years.

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