Applied sciences

International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications

Content

International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications | 2021 | vol. 67 | No 2 |

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Abstract

In order to solve the problem of misjudgment caused by the traditional power grid fault diagnosis methods, a new fusion diagnosis method is proposed based on the theory of multisource information fusion. In this method, the fault degree of the power element is deduced by using the Bayesian network. Then, the time-domain singular spectrum entropy, frequencydomain power spectrum entropy and wavelet packet energy spectrum entropy of the electrical signals of each circuit after the failure are extracted, and these three characteristic quantities are taken as the fault support degree of the power components. Finally, the four fault degrees are normalized and classified as four evidence bodies in the D-S evidence theory for multifeature fusion, which reduces the uncertainty brought by a single feature body. Simulation results show that the proposed method can obtain more reliable diagnosis results compared with the traditional methods.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Xin Zeng
1 2
Xingzhong Xiong
1 3
Zhongqiang Luo
1 3

  1. School of Automation and Information Engineering, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Yibin, China
  2. Artificial Intelligence Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Yibin, China
  3. Artificial Intelligence Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Universityof Science and Engineering, Yibin, China
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Abstract

This article presents the design of a miniaturized wearable patch antenna to be utilized for the body area network (BAN) applications. To reduce the size of the antenna a crown fractal geometry antenna design technique has been adopted, and which resulted in a size reduction of 26.85%. Further, the polyester cloth has been used as the substrate of the antenna to make the proposed antenna a flexible one, and suitable for wearable biomedical devices. The designed antenna functions for the 2.45 GHz ISM band and has the gain and bandwidth of 4.54 dB and 131 MHz respectively, covering the entire ISM band. The antenna characteristics like return loss (S11), directivity and radiation pattern have been simulated and analyzed. Specific absorption rate (SAR) and front to back ratio (FBR) of the proposed antenna at the human body tissue model (HBTM) in the planer and different bending conditions of the antenna have also simulated and analyzed, and the proposed antenna fulfils the desired design standards.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Vikas Jain
1
Balwinder Singh Dhaliwal
2

  1. Research Scholar of IK Gujral Punjab Technical University, Kapurthala, Punjab, India
  2. Faculty of Electronics & Communication Engineering Department, National Institute of Technical Teachers’ Training and Research, Chandigarh, India
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Abstract

The article considers the problem of stability of interval-defined linear systems based on the Hurwitz and Lienard- Shipar interval criteria. Krylov, Leverier, and Leverier- Danilevsky algorithms are implemented for automated construction and analysis of the interval characteristic polynomial. The interval mathematics library was used while developing the software. The stability of the dynamic system described by linear ordinary differential equations is determined and based on the properties of the eigenvalues of the interval characteristic polynomial. On the basis of numerical calculations, the authors compare several methods of constructing the characteristic polynomial. The developed software that implements the introduced interval arithmetic operations can be used in the study of dynamic properties of automatic control systems, energy, economic and other non-linear systems.
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Authors and Affiliations

Talgat Mazakov
1
Waldemar Wójcik
2
Sholpan Jomartova
1
Nurgul Karymsakova
3
Gulzat Ziyatbekova
1
Aisulu Tursynbai
3

  1. Institute of Information and Computational Technologies CS MES RK, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
  2. Lublin Technical University, Poland
  3. Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
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Abstract

The article deals with the features and characteristics of intelligent systems for modelling business processes. Their classification was made and criteria for comparison were developed. According to the comparative analysis of existing expert systems for intelligent analysis, a reasonable choice of system for modelling business processes of a particular enterprise has been carried out. In general, it was found that the introduction of intelligent systems for modelling business processes of the enterprise and forecasting its activities for future allows management of the company to obtain relevant and necessary information for the adoption of effective management decisions and the development of a strategic plan.
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Authors and Affiliations

Svetlana A. Yaremko
1
Elena M. Kuzmina
1
Nataliia B. Savina
2
Konrad Gromaszek
3
Bakhyt Yeraliyeva
4
Gauhar Borankulova
4

  1. Vinnytsia Institute of Trade and Economics of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics, Ukraine
  2. National University of Water and Environmental Engineering, Rivne, Ukraine
  3. Lublin University of Technology, Lublin, Poland
  4. Taraz State University after M.Kh.Dulaty, Taraz, Kazakhstan
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Abstract

The possibility and expediency of estimation of risk factors based on fundamental positions of information and entropy are grounded. In accordance with the principle of addiction, the possibility of using the H-criterion as an indicator of business uncertainty is shown. The algorithm of risk estimation of these investments is offered.
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Authors and Affiliations

Nataliia B. Savina
1
Nina V. Slyusarenko
2
Maryna S. Yakobchuk
1
Konrad Gromaszek
3
Saule Smailova
4
Kuanysh Muslimov
5

  1. National University of Water and Environmental Engineering, Rivne, Ukraine
  2. Kherson State University, Ukraine
  3. Lublin University of Technology, Lublin, Poland
  4. East Kazakhstan State Technical University named after D.Serikbayev, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan
  5. Kazakh National Research Technical University named after K.I.Satpayev, Almaty, Kazakhstan
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Abstract

Due to the severe damages of nuclear accidents, there is still an urgent need to develop efficient radiation detection wireless sensor networks (RDWSNs) that precisely monitor irregular radioactivity. It should take actions that mitigate the severe costs of accidental radiation leakage, especially around nuclear sites that are the primary sources of electric power and many health and industrial applications. Recently, leveraging machine learning (ML) algorithms to RDWSNs is a promising solution due to its several pros, such as online learning and self-decision making. This paper addresses novel and efficient ML-based RDWSNs that utilize millimeter waves (mmWaves) to meet future network requirements. Specifically, we leverage an online learning multi-armed bandit (MAB) algorithm called Thomson sampling (TS) to a 5G enabled RDWSN to efficiently forward the measured radiation levels of the distributed radiation sensors within the monitoring area. The utilized sensor nodes are lightweight smart radiation sensors that are mounted on mobile devices and measure radiation levels using software applications installed in these mobiles. Moreover, a battery aware TS (BATS) algorithm is proposed to efficiently forward the sensed radiation levels to the fusion decision center. BA-TS reflects the remaining battery of each mobile device to prolong the network lifetime. Simulation results ensure the proposed BA-TS algorithm’s efficiency regards throughput and network lifetime over TS and exhaustive search method.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sherief Hashima
1
Imbaby Mahmoud
2

  1. Engineering Dept., Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759, Egypt
  2. Radiation Engineering Dept., National Center of Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt
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Abstract

The article is devoted to some critical problems of using Bayesian networks for solving practical problems, in which graph models contain directed cycles. The strict requirement of the acyclicity of the directed graph representing the Bayesian network does not allow to efficiently solve most of the problems that contain directed cycles. The modern theory of Bayesian networks prohibits the use of directed cycles. The requirement of acyclicity of the graph can significantly simplify the general theory of Bayesian networks, significantly simplify the development of algorithms and their implementation in program code for calculations in Bayesian networks..
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Authors and Affiliations

Assem Shayakhmetova
1 2
Natalya Litvinenko
3
Orken Mamyrbayev
1
Waldemar Wójcik
4 5
Dusmat Zhamangarin
6

  1. Institute of Information and Computational Technology, 050010 Almaty, Kazakhstan
  2. Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
  3. Information and Computational Technology, 050010 Almaty, Kazakhstan
  4. Institute of Information and Computational Technologies CS MES RK, Almaty
  5. Lublin Technical University, Poland
  6. Kazakh University Ways of Communications, Kazakhstan
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Abstract

This paper presents the design of a wearable electroencephalography device and signal processing algorithm for early detection and forecasting of the epileptiform activity. The availability of the examination of functional brain activity for a prolonged period, outside of the hospital facilities, can provide new advantages in early diagnosis and intervention systems. In this study, the low-cost five-channel device is presented. The system consists of two main parts: the data acquisition and transmission units and processing algorithms. In order to create the robust epileptiform pattern recognition approach the application of statistical sampling and signal processing techniques are performed. The discrete wavelet and Hilbert- Huang transforms with principal component analysis are used in order to extract and select a low-dimension feature vector.
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Authors and Affiliations

Viktoriia Gaidar
1
Oleksandr Sudakov
1

  1. Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine
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Authors and Affiliations

Robert Dryło
1
Tomasz Kijko
1
Michał Wroński
1

  1. Institute of Mathematics and Cryptology, Faculty of Cybernetics, Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

We propose the proxy threshold signature scheme with the application of elegant construction of verifiable delegating key in the ID-based infrastructure, and also with the bilinear pairings. The protocol satisfies the classical security requirements used in the proxy delegation of signing rights. The description of the system architecture and the possible application of the protocol in edge computing designs is enclosed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jacek Pomykała
1
Henryk Kułakowski
1
Piotr Sapiecha
2
Błażej Grela
1

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
  2. National Institute of Telecommunications in Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to generate cryptographically strong elliptic curves over prime fields Fp, where p is a Mersenne prime, one of the special primes or a random prime. We search for elliptic curves which orders are also prime numbers. The cryptographically strong elliptic curves are those for which the discrete logarithm problem is computationally hard. The required mathematical conditions are formulated in terms of parameters characterizing the elliptic curves.We present an algorithm to generate such curves. Examples of elliptic curves of prime order are generated with Magma.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marcin Barański
1
Rafał Gliwa
1
Janusz Szmidt
1

  1. Military Communication Institute, National Research Institute, Warszawska 22A, 05-130 Zegrze
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Abstract

The article presents the results of the questionnaire research carried out after the first and repeated after the second semester of crisis distance education, conducted at the Academy of Special Education. Academic lecturers participating in the study indicate a significant decrease in the level of commitment, activity, the regularity of work and the quality of performing tasks presented by students. Lecturers benefit from training and technical support organized by the university. They feel an acute inability to contact students personally, but appreciate the time savings and no need to travel to work. The respondents point to the problem of controlling student integrity during remote examinations. Growing experience in remote education results in higher IT competences and conviction to this type of teaching.
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Authors and Affiliations

Miłosz Wawrzyniec Romaniuk
1
Joanna Łukasiewicz-Wieleba
1

  1. The Maria Grzegorzewska University, Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The article presents the results of the questionnaire research carried out after the first and repeated after the second semester of crisis remote education, conducted at The Maria Grzegorzewska University. Students participating in the study indicate a significant increase in their IT competences and the level of remote education. They declare a similar, high level of commitment and independence during classes. They indicate that commitment, activity, contact with the lecturers, regularity and quality of work, as well as the adequacy of the grades given are better during traditional education, although their timeliness is higher during distance education. The computer equipment of students and the way of accessing the Internet have not changed significantly. 20% of respondents admitted to using unauthorized assistance during exams. In the statements of students, on the one hand, there is a desire to return to social contacts and traditional classes, and on the other hand, a desire to maintain remote education, associated with the comfort of home-based learning and independence.
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Authors and Affiliations

Miłosz Wawrzyniec Romaniuk
1
Joanna Łukasiewicz-Wieleba
1

  1. The Maria Grzegorzewska University, Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoT) and the wide area of application rise the IoT concept to be the future of the internet. Indeed, IoT environment has a special nature with a lot of constraints in term of resource consumption. Moreover, the data exchanged between things and the internet is big data. In order to achieve efficiency in IoT communication, many technologies and new protocols based on these technologies have been developed. This paper aims to study the performance of Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) by implementing this protocol on test-bed network infrastructure and analyzing the performance properties such as delay, jitter, packet loss and throughput for real time and non-real time scenarios. Finally, future research issues in MQTT protocol are suggested.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ghofran Hijazi
1
Mohamed Hadi Habaebi
1
Ahmed Al-Haddad
1
Alhareth Mohammed Zyoud
2

  1. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  2. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Birzeit University, Birzeit, Ramallah, Palestine
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Abstract

The article describes methods of user identification using authentication based on the second factor. Known algorithms and protocols for two-factor authentication are considered. An algorithm is proposed using mobile devices as identifiers and generating a temporary password based on the hash function of encryption standards. For an automated control system, a two-factor authentication model and a sequential algorithm for generating a temporary password using functions have been developed. The implementation of the system is based on the Node.js software platform using the JavaScript programming language, as well as frameworks and connected system libraries. MongoDB, an open source database management system for information storage and processing was used.
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Authors and Affiliations

Olga Ussatova
1 2
Saule Nyssanbayeva
2
Waldemar Wójcik
3

  1. Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
  2. Institute of Information and Computational Technologies, Almaty, Kazakhstan
  3. Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 38a, 20-618 Lublin
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Abstract

The article presents the possibilities of using popular MEMS inertial sensors in the object tilt angle estimation system and in the system for stabilizing the vertical position of the balancing robot. Two research models were built to conduct the experiment. The models use microcontroller development board of the STM32F3 series with the Cortex-M4 core, equipped with a three-axis accelerometer, magnetometer and gyroscope. To determine the accuracy of the angle estimation, comparative tests with a pulse encoder were performed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Stanisław Chudzik
1

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, Czestochowa, Poland
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Authors and Affiliations

Mahesh V. Sonth
1
G. Srikanth
1
Pankaj Agrawal
1
B. Premalatha
2

  1. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, CMR Technical Campus, Hyderabad-501401, Telangana, India
  2. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, CMR College of Engineering & Technology, Hyderabad-501401,Telangana, India
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Abstract

More and more street lighting deployments use LED technology as a light source. Unfortunately, the new technology also brings some challenges with it that remain unnoticed until installed at scale. This article presents issues related to capacitive reactive power consumed by LED luminaires. The problem is even more profound if the luminaire is dimmed, because it consumes capacitive reactive power, which is very undesirable in the power system. Countermeasures in terms of reactive power compensation for a luminaire working with variable power and their effects are also presented. The article also contains the results of the harmonic analysis of the LED luminaires current for full power and dimmed operation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Lerch
1
Michał Rad
1
Igor Wojnicki
1

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland
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Abstract

Assessment of seismic vulnerability of urban infrastructure is an actual problem, since the damage caused by earthquakes is quite significant. Despite the complexity of such tasks, today’s machine learning methods allow the use of “fast” methods for assessing seismic vulnerability. The article proposes a methodology for assessing the characteristics of typical urban objects that affect their seismic resistance; using classification and clustering methods. For the analysis, we use kmeans and hkmeans clustering methods, where the Euclidean distance is used as a measure of proximity. The optimal number of clusters is determined using the Elbow method. A decision-making model on the seismic resistance of an urban object is presented, also the most important variables that have the greatest impact on the seismic resistance of an urban object are identified. The study shows that the results of clustering coincide with expert estimates, and the characteristic of typical urban objects can be determined as a result of data modeling using clustering algorithms.
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Authors and Affiliations

Waldemar Wójcik
1
Markhaba Karmenova
2
Saule Smailova
2
Aizhan Tlebaldinova
3
Alisher Belbeubaev
4

  1. Lublin Technical University, Poland
  2. D. Serikbayev East Kazakhstan State Technical University, Kazakhstan
  3. S. Amanzholov East Kazakhstan State University, Kazakhstan
  4. Cukurova University, Turkey
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Abstract

Cyber-attacks are increasing day by day. The generation of data by the population of the world is immensely escalated. The advancements in technology, are intern leading to more chances of vulnerabilities to individual’s personal data. Across the world it became a very big challenge to bring down the threats to data security. These threats are not only targeting the user data and also destroying the whole network infrastructure in the local or global level, the attacks could be hardware or software. Central objective of this paper is to design an intrusion detection system using ensemble learning specifically Decision Trees with distinctive feature selection univariate ANOVA-F test. Decision Trees has been the most popular among ensemble learning methods and it also outperforms among the other classification algorithm in various aspects. With the essence of different feature selection techniques, the performance found to be increased more, and the detection outcome will be less prone to false classification. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with F-statistics computations could be a reasonable criterion to choose distinctives features in the given network traffic data. The mentioned technique is applied and tested on NSL KDD network dataset. Various performance measures like accuracy, precision, F-score and Cross Validation curve have drawn to justify the ability of the method.
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Authors and Affiliations

Shaikh Shakeela
1
N. Sai Shankar
1
P Mohan Reddy
1
T. Kavya Tulasi
1
M. Mahesh Koneru
1

  1. ECM, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Vaddeswaram, AP, India
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Abstract

In the article, three types of proximity sensors that might be used in bicycle rangefinder to measure the distance between the bicycle and an overtaking car are compared. The influence of various factors on the accuracy of the distance measurements obtained using ultrasonic, infrared and laser sensors is tested, among others, light conditions, car surface type and colour, rain, pollination and vibrations.
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[21] HC-SR04 (ultrasound) vs Sharp GP2Y0A02YK0F (IR) vs VL53L0X (Laser), which solution to choose for distance measurement with Arduino or Raspberry Pi. https://diyprojects.io/hc-sr04-ultrasound-vs-sharp-gp2y0a02yk0f-ir-vl53l0x-laser-solutions-choose-distance-measurement-arduino-raspberrypi/#.XSWSkBLTAsc (accessed on 8 July 2020).
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[24] A. Szydło, A device that measures the distance between a bicycle and a car. Master thesis written under supervision of Bartłomiej Zieliński, Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Computer Science, Gliwice 2017 [in Polish].
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Authors and Affiliations

Bartłomiej Zieliński
1

  1. Silesian University of Technology, Poland
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Abstract

The wide variety of electrode shapes and their arrangement relative to each other, as well as the possibility of corona discharge in the ambient air, have created prerequisites for the development of a number of new methods and corona discharge transducers designed to measure microwire parameters and linear dimensions of various objects. The principally new noncontact control method is based on the dependence of the corona discharge current value on the diameter of the corona wire placed inside the discharge chamber. This paper provides an overview of this method.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Aliya S. Tergeussizova
1
Shabden A. Bakhtaev
2
Waldemar Wójcik
3
Bekmurza H. Aitchanov
4
Gulzada D. Mussapirova
2
Aynur Zh. Toygozhinova
5

  1. Kazakh National University named after al-Farabi, Almaty, Kazakhstan
  2. Almaty University of Power Engineering and Telecommunications, Almaty, Kazakhstan
  3. Lublin University of Technology, Lublin
  4. Suleyman Demirel University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
  5. Kazakh Academy of Transport and Communications named after M.Tynyshpayev, Almaty, Kazakhstan
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Abstract

The clock synchronization is considered as a key technology in the time-sensitive networking (TSN) of 5G fronthaul. This paper proposes a clock synchronization enhancement method to optimize the link delays, in order to improve synchronization accuracy. First, all the synchronization dates are filtered twice to get the good calculation results in the processor, and then FPGA adjust the timer on the slave side to complete clock synchronization. This method is implemented by Xilinx Zynq UltraScale+ MPSoC (multiprocessor system-on-chip), using FPGA+ARM software and hardware co-design platform. The master and slave output Pulse Per-Second signals (PPS). The synchronization accuracy was evaluated by measuring the time offset between PPS signals. Contraposing the TSN, this paper compares the performance of the proposed scheme with some previous methods to show the efficacy of the proposed work. The results show that the slave clock of proposed method is synchronized with the master clock, leading to better robustness and significant improvement in accuracy, with time offset within the range of 40 nanoseconds. This method can be applied to the time synchronization of the 5G open fronthaul network and meets some special service needs in 5G communication.
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Bibliography

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[15] S. Lee and C. Hong, "An Accuracy Enhanced IEEE 1588 Synchronization Protocol for Dynamically Changing and Asymmetric Wireless Links," IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 190-192, February 2012.
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Authors and Affiliations

Xiaohan Wei
1
Xingzhong Wei
1
Zhongqiang Luo
1
Jianwu Wang
1
Kaixing Cheng
1

  1. School of Automation and Information Engineering and Artificial Intelligence Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Yibin, China
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Abstract

In the paper, an overview of the methods and algorithms of synthesis, realization and implementation used by the author to obtain orthogonal 3-D filters with a structure made of Givens rotations has been presented. The main advantage of orthogonal filters, which may have a lower sensitivity to quantization of the coefficients, was indicated. The author proposed a number of possible changes and modifications of individual stages, which may result in obtaining filters with even better parameters. The work will be the basis for the direction of further research.
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Bibliography

[1] P.P. Vaidyanathan, „Multirate Systems And Filter Banks”, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1993. ISBN: 81-7758-942-3
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[12] K.Wawryn, R.Wirski, B. Strzeszewski, „Implementation of finite impulse response systems using rotation structures”, International Symposium on Information Theory and Its Applications (ISITA), Taichung Taiwan 2010, pp. 606-610. DOI: 10.1109/ISITA.2010.5649712
[13] R. T. Wirski, B. Strzeszewski, K. Wawryn, „Orthogonal implementation of two-dimensional separable denominator systems”, International Conference on Signals and Electronic Circuits (ICSES), Gliwice 2010, pp. 371-374.
[14] P. Poczekajło, R. Wirski, „Synteza separowalnych trójwymiarowych filtrów ortogonalnych o strukturze potokowej”, Przegląd Elektrotechniczny, vol. 89(10), 2013, str. 150-152. DOI: 10.15199/48.2016.09.02
[15] P. Poczekajło, R. Wirski, „Synthesis and Realization of 3-D Orthogonal FIR Filters Using Pipeline Structures”, Circuits Systems and Signal Processing, vol. 37, no. 4, 2018 (online 2017), pp. 1669-1691. DOI: 10.1007/s00034-017-06
[16] P. Poczekajło, K. Wawryn, „Algorithm for Realisation, Parameter Analysis, and Measurement of Pipelined Separable 3D Finite Impulse Response Filters Composed of Givens Rotation Structures”, IET Signal Processing, vol. 12, iss. 7, 2018, pp. 857-867. DOI: 10.1049/iet spr.2017.0450
[17] K. Wawryn, P. Poczekajlo, R. Wirski, „FPGA implementation of 3-D separable Gauss filter using pipeline rotation structures”, 22nd International Conference on Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits Systems (MIXDES), Torun 2015, pp. 589-594. DOI: 10.1109/MIXDES.2015.7208592
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[19] P. Poczekajło, „Analiza wybranych metod realizacji sprzętowej rotatorów Givensa w układzie FPGA”, Przegląd Elektrotechniczny, vol. 94(9), 2018, str. 26-28. DOI: 10.15199/48.2018.09.06
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[21] R. Suszyński, K. Wawryn, R. Wirski, „2D signal processing for identification and tracking moving object”, Przegląd Elektrotechniczny, vol. 87(10), 2011, str. 126-129. ISSN 0033-2097
[22] K. Gałkowski, „State-space realisations of linear 2-D systems with extensions to the general nD (n>2) case”, Springer, London, 2001. ISBN: 978-1-84628-573-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BFb0110347
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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Poczekajło
1

  1. Faculty of Electronics and Computer Science, Koszalin University of Technology, Koszalin, Poland
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Abstract

The objective of this paper is to estimate performance of a new approach for spectrum sharing and coordination between terrestrial base stations (BS) and On-board radio access nodes (UxNB) carried by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). This approach employs an artificial intelligence (AI) based algorithm implemented in a centralized controller. According to the assessment based on the latest specifications of 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) the newly defined Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM) is feasible to implement and utilize an algorithm for dynamic and efficient distribution of available radio resources between all radio nodes involved in process of optimization. An example of proprietary algorithm has been described, which is based on the principles of Kohonen neural networks. The algorithm has been used in simulation scenario to illustrate the performance of the novel approach of centralized radio channels allocation between terrestrial BSs and UxNBs deployed in 3GPP-defined rural macro (RMa) environment. Simulation results indicate that at least 85% of simulated downlink (DL) transmissions are gaining additional channel bandwidth if presented algorithm is used for spectrum distribution between terrestrial BSs and UxNBs instead of baseline soft frequency re-use (SFR) approach.
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Bibliography

[1] 3GPP, “UAS-UAV”, https://www.3gpp.org/uas-uav, accessed 18 November 2019.
[2] 3GPP TR 36.777, “Release 15. Enhanced LTE support for aerial vehicles”, January 2018.
[3] 3GPP TS 22.125, “Release 16. Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) support in 3GPP. Stage 1”, September 2019.
[4] 3GPP TS 22.125, “Release 17. Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) support in 3GPP. Stage 1”, December 2019.
[5] S. Zhang, Y. Zeng, R. Zhang, “Cellular-Enabled UAV Communication: A Connectivity-Constrained Trajectory Optimization Perspective”, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 67, No. 3, March 2019. DOI: 10.1109/TCOMM.2018.2880468.
[6] B. Li, Z. Fei, Y. Zhang, “UAV Communications for 5G and Beyond: Recent Advances and Future Trends”, IEEE Internet of Things Journal, Vol. 6, No. 2, April 2019. DOI: 10.1109/JIOT.2018.2887086.
[7] L. Sboui, H. Ghazzai, Z. Rezki, M.-S. Alouini, “Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for UAV Cognitive Radio Systems”, 2017 IEEE 86th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC-Fall). DOI: 10.1109/VTCFall.2017.8287971.
[8] J. Huang, W. Mei, J. Xu, Q. Ling, Z. Rui, “Cognitive UAV Communication via Joint Maneuver and Power Control”, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 67, No. 11, November 2019. DOI: 10.1109/TCOMM.2019.2931322.
[9] G. Hattab, D. Cabric, “Energy-Efficient Massive IoT Shared Spectrum Access over UAV-enabled Cellular Networks”, Accepted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2020. DOI: 10.1109/TCOMM.2020.2998547.
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[14] Y. Yu, E. Dutkiewicz, X. Huang, M. Mueck, G. Fang, “Performance Analysis of Soft Frequency Reuse for Inter-cell Interference Coordination in LTE Networks”, 2010 10th International Symposium on Communications and Information Technologies. DOI: 10.1109/ISCIT.2010.5665044.
[15] 3GPP TS 38.901, “Release 16. Study on channel model for frequencies from 0.5 to 100 GHz”, January 2020.

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Authors and Affiliations

Kamil Bechta
1

  1. Mobile Networks Business Division of Nokia
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Abstract

High definition video transmission is one of the prime demands of modern day communication. Changing needs demand diverse features to be offered by the video codec standards, H.264 fits to these requirements for video compression. In this work, an attempt has been made to optimize the inter prediction along with improved intra prediction to ensure the minimal bit rates thereby reduction in the channel bandwidth, which is required in most of the wireless applications. In intraprediction, only DC prediction mode is chosen out of 9 modes with 4*4 luma blocks that reduces the coding complexity towards optimal logic utilization in order to support typical FPGA board for hardware implementation. Most significantly, Inter prediction is carried out utilizing the M9K blocks efficiently with proper timing synchronization to reduce the latency in the encoding operation. Experimental set up comprising of two Altera DE2-115 boards connected through Ethernet cable demonstrated the video transmission. These optimized intra prediction and inter prediction stages resulted in significant improvement in the video compression possessing good subjective quality and increased video compression.
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Bibliography

[1] Bernatin.T ,Sundari.G, “ Video compression based on Hybrid transform and quantization with Huffman coding for video codec”, International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT), pp 476-480,IEEE.
[2] The Evolution of H.264 From Codec to System Architecture, White Paper , VBrick Systems, December, 2010
[3] Arun Kumar Pradhan, Lalit Kumar Kanoje and BiswaRanjan Swain, 2013 “FPGA based High Performance CAVLC Implementation for H.264 Video Coding” International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 69– No.10.
[4] Teng Wang, Chih-Kuang Chen, Qi-Hua Yang and Xin-An Wang (2012), “FPGA Implementation and Verification System of H.264/AVC Encoder for HDTV Applications”, Advances in CSIE, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Vol. 2, AISC 169, pp. 345-352
[5] Gwo-Long Li et al. (2013), “135-MHz258-K gates VLSI design for all-intra H.264/AVC scalable video encoder”, IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr.(VLSI) Syst., Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 636-647
[6] Kuo, H.-C., Wu, L.-C., Huang, H.-T., Hsu, S.-T. and Lin, Y.-L. (2013), “A low power high-performance H.264/AVC intra-frame encoder for 1080pHD video”, IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst., Vol. 19, No. 6, pp. 925-938

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Authors and Affiliations

T. Bernatin
1
G. Sundari
1
Sahaya Anselin Nisha
1
M.S. Godwin Premi
1

  1. Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, India

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