Applied sciences

Archives of Acoustics

Content

Archives of Acoustics | 2022 | vol. 47 | No 2 |

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Abstract

Most of the Indian cities and towns have been facing serious traffic noise pollution due to urbanization, substantial growth of new vehicles, inadequate road network, etc. Automotive traffic, railroads, and air traffic are the most common sources of noise pollution in cities, with vehicular traffic accounting for around 55% of overall metropolitan noise. Prolonged exposure to such loud noise causes anger, stress, mental diseases, discomfort, hypertension, concentration problems, and sleeplessness. This study aims to investigate the effects of COVID-19 societal lockdown on changes in the noise pollution levels before, during, and after the lockdown period in various industrial, commercial, residential, and silence zones in Bengaluru, India, in light of the recent imposition of COVID-19 societal lockdown. According to data acquired from the KSPCB (Karnataka State Pollution Control Board) online portal, the average noise levels before and during lockdown were determined to be in the range of 59.4 dB to 70.9 dB and 58.2 dB to 62.7 dB for different zones. During the lockdown, all commercial, industrial and educational activities were closed to limit the spread of infection, resulting in usage of private and commercial transportation declining dramatically. Reduction in the noise level was observed during the lockdown in all monitoring stations of Bengaluru, except for Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Health, where the noise level didn’t decline because of a COVID emergency. Maximum reduction was observed in the commercial area (11.56%) followed by industrial areas (8.34%). The result further indicated that only the industrial area experienced an increase of 8.41% in noise level, while other areas experienced a reduction in a noise level during the early post-lockdown. During the mid and late post-lockdown periods, most locations experienced a rapid spike in the noise intensity.
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Authors and Affiliations

Saima Anjum
1
Anupma Kumari
1

  1. Environmental Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Patna University, Patna, India
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Abstract

The aim of this acoustic study is to analyse the phoneme [t] produced by school children surgically operated on for the cleft palate or cleft lip, in order to examine their vocal characteristics, to provide speech therapists with numerous concrete analyses of voice and speech, to effectively support them and to prevent some serious outcomes on their psychological and academic development. The motivation for this study was mainly stemming from the difficulties that Algerian schoolchildren with clefts encounter in the pronunciation of this phoneme. To carry out the study, several acoustic parameters were investigated in terms of the fundamental frequency F0, the first three formants F 1, F 2, and F 3, the energy E 0, the Voice Onset Time (VOT), the durations [CV] and [V] of the subsequent vowel [a]. For the analysis, further important parameters in the field of pathological speech were deployed, namely the degree of disturbance of F 0 (jitter), the degree of disturbance of intensity (shimmer) and the HNR (Harmonics to Noise Ratio). Results revealed disturbance in the values of F 1, F 2, and F 3 and stability in the values of F 0. Another important reported aspect is the increase in the value of the VOT due to the difficulties in controlling the plosives’ successive closure and release.
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Authors and Affiliations

Khaled Baazi
1 2
Mhania Guerti
1

  1. Signal and Communications Laboratory, National Polytechnic School (ENP), 1El-Harrach Algiers, 16200 Algeria
  2. Scientific and Technical Research Centre for the Development of the Arabic Language (STRCDAL), BP 225 Rostomia Algiers, 16011 Algeria
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Abstract

The acoustic vector sensor (AVS) is used to measure the acoustic intensity, which gives the direction-ofarrival (DOA) of an acoustic source. However, while estimating the DOA from the measured acoustic intensity the finite microphone separation (d) in a practical AVS causes angular bias. Also, in the presence of noise there exists a trade off between the bias (strictly increasing function of d) and variance (strictly decreasing function of d) of the DOA estimate. In this paper, we propose a novel method for mitigating the angular bias caused due to finite microphone separation in an AVS. We have reduced the variance by increasing the microphone separation and then removed the bias with the proposed bias model. Our approach employs the finite element method (FEM) and curves fitting to model the angular bias in terms of microphone separations and frequency of a narrowband signal. Further, the bias correction algorithm based on the intensity spectrum has been proposed to improve the DOA estimation accuracy of a broadband signal. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed bias correction scheme significantly reduces the angular bias and improves the root mean square angular error (RMSAE) in the presence of noise. Experiments have been performed in an acoustic full anechoic room to corroborate the effect of microphone separation on DOA estimation and the efficacy of the bias correction method.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mohd Wajid
1 2
Arun Kumar
2
Rajendar Bahl
2

  1. Department of Electronics Engineering, Z.H.C.E.T., Aligarh Muslim Univesity, Aligarh, India
  2. Centre for Applied Research in Electronics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India
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Abstract

Study of musical-acoustic influences, which are used to improve the functional state of a person, as well as her/his neurophysiological or psychological rehabilitation, is very relevant nowadays. It is related with a large number of conflict situations, significant psychological and informational overloads of modern human, permanent stress due to the pandemic, economic crisis, natural and man-made disasters. This work examines the effect of listening to low-frequency music on the percentage of alpha, beta, delta, and theta waves in the total spectral power of the electroencephalogram in the frequency band 0.5–30 Hz. To obtain rhythms of the brain the spectral analysis of filtered native electroencephalogram was used. For statistical analysis of neural oscillations the Student’s t-test and the sign test were implemented with usage of the Lilliefors normality criterion and the Shapiro-Wilk test. Statistically significant differences were identified in alpha, theta and delta oscillations. For the beta rhythm presented music did not play any significant role. An increase in the activity of the alpha rhythm in the temporal (for 2.20 percentage point), central (for 1.51 percentage point), parietal (for 2.70 percentage point), occipital (for 2.22 percentage point) leads of the right hemisphere and the parietal (for 1.74 percentage point) and occipital (for 2.46 percentage point) leads of the left hemisphere and also of the theta rhythm in the temporal leads of the left hemisphere (for 1.13 percentage point) were observed. The downfall of delta rhythm in the frontal lead of the left hemisphere (for 1.51 percentage point) and occipital in both hemispheres (for 1.64 and 1.33 percentage points respectively in the left and right hemispheres) was detected. These may indicate that listening to low-frequency compositions helps to restore the brain in physiological conditions at different functional overload levels, decrease the level of emotional tone, and promote relaxation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Kateryna Drozdenko
1
Sergey Naida
1
Oleksandr Drozdenko
1
Anastasiia Damarad
1
Dmytro Pareniuk
1
Liudmyla Vakulenko
2
Zhanna Adaricheva
2

  1. National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”, Faculty of Electronics, Department of Acoustic and Multimedia Electronic Systems, Kyiv, Ukraine
  2. State Institution National Scientific Center “The M.D. Strazhesko Institute of Cardiology”, National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
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Abstract

Detection of audio spoofing attacks has become vital for automatic speaker verification systems. Spoofing attacks can be obtained with several ways, such as speech synthesis, voice conversion, replay, and mimicry. Extracting discriminative features from speech data can improve the accuracy of detecting these attacks. In fact, a frame-wise weighted magnitude spectrum is found to be effective to detect replay attacks recently. In this work, discriminative features are obtained in a similar fashion (frame-wise weighting), however, a cosine normalized phase spectrum is used since phase-based features have shown decent performance for the given task. The extracted features are then fed to a convolutional neural network as input. In the experiments ASVspoof 2015 and 2017 databases are used to investigate the proposed system’s spoof detection performance for both synthetic and replay attacks, respectively. The results showed that the proposed approach achieved 34.5% relative decrease in the average EER for ASVspoof 2015 evaluation set, compared to the ordinary cosine normalized phase features. Furthermore, the proposed system outperformed the others at detecting S10 attack type of ASVspoof 2015 database.
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Authors and Affiliations

Gökay Dişken
1

  1. Department of Electrical-Electronics Engineering, Adana Alparslan Türkes Science and Technology University, Adana, Turkey
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Abstract

The effect of the power amplifier on speech intelligibility in public address systems is often marginalised – i.e. it is assumed that it does not introduce significant signal distortion. This approach is justified when the linear range of the amplifier is used. The large crest factor of the speech signal and economic considerations mean that the amplifier also works in the non-linear range. In this paper, the effect of power amplifier distortion on the speech transmission index for public address systems (STIPA) is presented. In the first step, this influence was evaluated by measurements for Class AB and D amplifiers. Then, a computer model of the public address system based on the direct STIPA method, taking into account the non-linear properties of the amplifier, was proposed. Using the computer model, the optimum amplifier driving values were determined taking into account the reverberation time and interfering noise.
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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Dziechciński
1

  1. Department of Acoustics, Multimedia and Signal Processing, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wrocław, Poland
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Abstract

Background: Hearing loss caused by excessive exposure to noise is one of the most common health risks for employees. One solution for noise reduction is the use of hearing protectors, which is a very effective method for protecting hearing from the workplace noise. In order to obtain better attenuation efficiency, custom moulded earplugs can be equipped with a suitable acoustic filter. The effectiveness of the hearing protectors’ attenuation is based on real measurement of hearing thresholds for normal hearing people with and without hearing protectors. However, this is a time consuming process, and the obtained values are characterised by quite large inter-individual variability. The optimal solution is to measure the attenuation characteristics based on the objective method (without the presence of the subject), the results of which will be in accordance with the results of subjective tests. Therefore, the main purpose of the research in this work was to measure the attenuation characteristics of the self-designed custom moulded earplugs with and without acoustic filters through the use of subjective and objective methods, and to compare the results in terms of the research methods.

Methods: Measurements of the acoustic attenuation obtained by custom moulded earplugs with designed F1, F2, and F3 acoustic filters (internal diameters dF1 = 1:25 mm, dF2 = 0:85 mm, and dF3 = 0:45 mm), as well as full insert earplugs (without any acoustic filters) were carried out using two methods: objective and subjective. The objective measurements were carried out in an anechoic chamber. The artificial head (High-frequency Head and Torso Simulator Brüel & Kjær Type 5128) was located at a distance of 3 m, directly opposite the loudspeaker. The test signal in the measurements was pink noise – in the frequency range up to 12.5 kHz and the level 85, 90, and 95 dB. The hearing protectors with and without acoustic filters were mounted in the Head and Torso Simulator which was connected with Pulse System Brüel & Kjær. Five normal hearing subjects participated in the subjective measurements. A pink noise signal was used for one-third octave bands: 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000 Hz. The attenuation value was defined as the difference (in dB) between the hearing threshold of the test signal with a hearing protector and the hearing threshold determined without a hearing protector.

Results: The results of the objective method proved that in addition to the significant impact of frequency on the attenuation values, the type of filter used in custom moulded earplugs also had a significant effect. In addition, the results of the objective method showed that in the whole frequency range the highest attenuation values are shown by the full earplugs, achieving slightly above 45 dB for frequency of 8 kHz. The attenuation values obtained from subjective measurements also confirmed that both the frequency and type of filter significantly affect the attenuation values of the tested hearing protectors.

Conclusions: The results of this study did not confirm the hypothesis that the measurement method had no significant effect on the attenuation characteristics of self-designed custom moulded earplugs with different types of acoustic filters. The largest differences in attenuation values between the type of measurement methods occur for the low frequency band (250 Hz) and for higher frequencies (4000 Hz mainly). The change of the internal diameter of the F1 filter from 1.25 mm to 0.85 mm (F2 filter) did not significantly affect the attenuation characteristics.
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Authors and Affiliations

Roman Gołębiewski
1
Andrzej Wicher
1
Artur Duraj
1
Milena Kaczmarek-Klinowska
1
Karina Mrugalska-Handke
1

  1. Department of Acoustics, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland
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Abstract

A challenge for developing acoustic metamaterials (AMMs) is considering the application of broadband muffling and load bearing capacity simultaneously. In this paper, a honeycomb based graded AMM muffler is proposed, which can widen the attenuation band and improve the structural stiffness without any external device by means of integrated design. Firstly, the acoustic and mechanical characteristics of the muffler unit cell are theoretically and numerically studied, and the graded muffler is designed based on these characteristics. The numerical results show that the graded muffler widens the attenuation bandwidth of the unit cell, and the simulation also shows that the graded muffler has greater stiffness than the uniform one. The stiffness driven muffler provides new possibilities for the design of advanced metamaterial with simultaneous sound insulation and load bearing performances.
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Authors and Affiliations

Gen Li
1 2
Yan Chen
1 2
Huan He
1 3 4

  1. State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China
  2. Institute of Vibration Engineering Research, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China
  3. MIIT Key Laboratory of Multi-Functional Lightweight Materials and Structures, Nanjing 210016, China
  4. Laboratory of Aerospace Entry, Descent and Landing Technology, Beijing 100094, China
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Abstract

Duct silencers provide effective noise reduction for heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. These silencers can achieve an excellent sound attenuation through the attributes of their design. The reactive silencer works on the principle of high reflection of sound waves at low frequencies. On the other hand, the dissipative silencer works on the principle of sound absorption, which is very effective at high-frequencies. Combining these two kinds of silencers allowed covering the whole frequency range. In this paper, the effect of liner characteristics composed of a perforated plate backed by a porous material and geometry discontinuities on the acoustic power attenuation of lined ducts is evaluated. This objective is achieved by using a numerical model to compute the multimodal scattering matrix, thus allowing deducing the acoustic power attenuation. The numerical results are obtained for six configurations, including cases of narrowing and widening of a radius duct with sudden or progressive discontinuities. Numerical acoustic power attenuation shows the relative influence of the variation in the values of each parameter of the liner, and of each type of radius discontinuities of ducts.
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Authors and Affiliations

Dhouha Tounsi
1
Wafa Taktak
2
Raja Dhief
1 3
Mohamed Taktak
1 3
Mabrouk Chaabane
3
Mohamed Haddar
1

  1. Mechanics, Modelling and Production Laboratory (LA2MP), Mechanical Department, National School of Engineers of Sfax, University of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia
  2. National School of Engineers of Sfax, University of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia
  3. Faculty of Sciences of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia
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Abstract

The microphone data collected in aeroacoustic wind tunnel test contains not only desired aeroacoustic signal but also background noise generated by the jet or the valve of the wind tunnel, so the desired aeroacoustic characteristics is difficult to be highlighted due to the low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). Classical cross spectral matrix removal can only reduce the microphone self-noise, but its effect is limited for jet noise. Therefore, an Airflow Background Noise Suppression method based on the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (ABNSEEMD) is proposed to eliminate the influence of background noise on aeroacoustic field reconstruction. The new method uses EEMD to adaptively separate the background noise in microphone data, which has good practicability for increasing SNR of aeroacoustic signal. A localization experiment was conducted by using two loudspeakers in wind tunnel with 80 m/s velocity. Results show that proposed method can filter out the background noise more effectively and improve the SNR of the loudspeakers signal compared with spectral subtraction and cepstrum methods. Moreover, the aeroacoustic field produced by a NACA EPPLER 862 STRUT airfoil model was also measured and reconstructed. Delay-and-sum beamforming maps of aeroacoustic source were displayed after the background noise was suppressed, which further demonstrates the proposed method’s advantage.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yuanwen Li
1
Min Li
2 3
Daofang Feng
2
Debin Yang
1
Long Wei
4

  1. School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
  2. Collaborative Innovation Center of Steel Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
  3. Key Laboratory of Fluid Interaction with Material, Ministry of Education, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
  4. Science and Technology on Reliability and Environment Engineering Laboratory, Beijing Institute of Structure and Environment Engineering, Beijing 100076, China
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Abstract

The article presents the application of Acoustic Emission (AE) method for detection and registration of partial discharges (PD) generated in medium voltage (MV) cable isolation and MV cable head. The insulation of the high voltage cable is made of a flexible material whose properties are characterised by a high coefficient of attenuation of the acoustic signals. For this reason, the AE method has not been used so far to detect PD in energetic cables. The subjects of the research were the MV cable and the standard T-type cable head. The cable contained defects which were the source of partial discharges. In case of cable head the PD were provoked by thin grounded electrode which was introduced into connector opening. The results of AE measurements are presented in the form of spectrograms. Acoustic Emission was evoked when the applied voltage level reached the value of 7.5 kV for the cable and 4 kV for the cable head. The authors used the acoustic instrumentation of their own design intended for future field use. Obtaining successful results of partial discharges measurements using the acoustic method in the cable insulation makes an original contribution of the presented work.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zbigniew Ranachowski
1
Krzysztof Wieczorek
2
Przemysław Ranachowski
1
Tomasz Dębowski
1

  1. Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
  2. Department of Electrical Engineering Fundamentals, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wrocław, Poland
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Abstract

Underwater acoustic images are acquired using sonar instrument that uses sound propagation to navigate and map the sea floor. The sonar devices are effectively used to create images of large area of the seabed. However, the visual perception of the object in the acoustic image depends on refraction, which is a function of changes in the speed of sound in successive layers of water. And refraction depends mainly on temperature, slightly on salinity and hydrostatic pressure. The quality and resolution of sonar imaging of the bottom depends on many other factors such as pitch, yaw and heave of the side scan sonar, the presence of volume scatterers in the water body, the distance of the sonar from the bottom and orientation of the object. Generally, the objects in an acoustic image would be of small size compared to their normal size as the distance between the sonar and object is larger. To detect and recognize the objects in the images, the resolution should be enhanced. In this paper, we propose an efficient edge preserving interpolation method for underwater acoustic image resolution enhancement which preserves the edge sharpness. The method handles the diagonal pixels in the first pass, in turn fills the horizontal and vertical pixels in the second pass. The results obtained are compared with the state-of-the-art interpolation techniques and the performance measures such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Structural Similarity Index Measurement (SSIM) shows an improved result.
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Authors and Affiliations

R. Priyadharsini
1
T. Sree Sharmila
2

  1. Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Sri Sivasubramaniya Nadar College of Engineering, Kalavakkam, Tamil Nadu, India
  2. Department of Information Technology, Sri Sivasubramaniya Nadar College of Engineering, Kalavakkam, Tamil Nadu, India
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Abstract

Using intelligent materials and sensors to monitor the safety of concrete structures is a hot topic in the field of civil engineering. In order to realize the omni-directional monitoring of concrete structural damage, the authors of this paper designed and fabricated an embedded annular piezoelectric ultrasonic sensor using the annular piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic as a sensing element and epoxy resin as the matching and the backing layers. The influence of different matching and backing layers thickness on the acoustic characteristic parameters of the sensor were studied. The results show that the resonant frequency corresponding to the axial mode of annular piezoelectric ceramics moves toward the high frequency direction with the decrease of the height of piezoelectric ceramics, and the radial vibration mode increases as well as the impedance peak. With the thickness of the backing layer increases from 1 mm to 2 mm, the radial resolution of the annular piezoelectric ultrasonic sensor is enhanced, the pulse width is reduced by 39% comparing with the sensors which backing layer is 1 mm, and the head wave amplitude and −3 dB bandwidth are increased by 61% and 66%, respectively. When the matching layer thickness is 3 mm, the sensor has the highest amplitude response of 269 mV and higher sensitivity.
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Authors and Affiliations

Haoran Li
1
Yan Hu
2
Laibo Li
1
Dongyu Xu
2 3

  1. Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, PR China
  2. School of Civil Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410075, PR China
  3. School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Linyi University, Linyi 276000, PR China
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Abstract

At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic the government of Spain decreed the State of Alarm to confine the entire population at their homes, except for essential services. Therefore, the central objective of this study is to evaluate the implication of this situation for the environmental noise existing in the city of Huelva (Spain). This study demonstrates that during the state of alarm an average daily reduction of 3.4 dBA was noted, and in the central moments of the day these reductions reached up to 4.4 dBA, while from 10:00 to 12:00 pm the reduction was around 6.5 dBA. Nevertheless, there were two moments of day: 3:00 am (garbage collection, street cleaning and container disinfection), and 8:00 pm (daily applause for health professionals), when the noise during the pandemic was higher than before it. It is further shown that globally, the loudest events only decreased by about 3 dBA, while the global background noise decreased by 10 dBA during the alarm state. Regarding road traffic noise, it is verified that in addition to being reduced by about 4 dBA, traffic represents 6.7% of noisy events during the alarm state, while before it represented 13%.
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Authors and Affiliations

Juan Carlos Fortes
1
Rafael Sánchez-Sánchez
1
Juan Pedro Bolívar
2

  1. School of Engineering, University of Huelva, Huelva, Spain
  2. Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Huelva, Huelva, Spain

Abstract

On behalf of Upper Silesian Division of the Polish Acoustical Society (main organizer) and Committee of Acoustics of the Polish Academy of Sciences (coorganizers) we are pleased to announce that according to many years of tradition the above-mentioned Conferences known as “Winter Schools” have been organized and carried out.
50th Jubilee Winter School on Wave and Quantum Acoustics constituted platforms for sharing the results and achievements obtained in different branches of physical acoustics (e.g. molecular acoustics, relaxation processes, quantum acoustics, acousto-optics, magnetoacoustics, photoacoustics, acoustics of solid state, acoustic emission etc.). Conference consisted of 17th Workshop on Acoustoelectronics and 17th Workshop on Molecular Acoustics, Relaxation and Calorimetric Methods.
XLVIXth Winter School on Environmental Acoustics and Vibroacoustics was the forum for all environmental and vibroacoustics fields. Particularly it concerned traffic noise, vibroacoustics of machines, room acoustics, building acoustics, noise protection and similar problems.
Celebrations of the “Golden Jubilee included:
• Jubilee Session with plenary lecture “The Golden Jubilee of the 50th Winter School on Wave and Quantum Acoustics – historical reminiscences” presented by prof. Tadeusz Pustelny and numerous touching addresses,
• Special Session “50 years have gone by ... – an evening of remembrance” conducted by prof. Marzena Dzida; it was a very nice session, without time restrictions as to presentations and discussions and the real duration of this session was twice as large as planned. Finally, 52 people participated within Conferences presenting 44 lectures, reports and posters. In this issue one can find abstracts of some lectures and posters, which were presented during the Conferences.
We are pleased to announce that on 27 February – 2/3 March, 2023, we will organize the next “Winter Schools” containing the Lth Jubilee Winter School on Environmental Acoustics and Vibroacoustics and 51st Winter School onWave and Quantum Acoustics. Thus, just now we invite you to participate in this “Golden Jubilee” Conference.
We would like to invite scientific centres and groups to cooperate in organizing workshops on the subjects of their interests related to the theme of the Conference. Further information about Conferences is available on our website https://ogpta.pl/index.php/en/
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