Applied sciences

Archives of Mining Sciences


Archives of Mining Sciences | 2021 | vol. 66 | No 4 |

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The article presents a numerical model of a U-ventilated longwall, taking into account detailed elements such as arch yielding support, roof supports and shearer. What distinguishes it from previous models is the mapping of adjacent goafs. This model considers the current state of knowledge regarding spatial height distribution, porosity and permeability of goafs. Airflow calculations were carried out using the selected turbulence models to select appropriate numerical methods for the model. Obtained results show possibilities of conducting extensive numerical calculations for the flow problems in the mine environment, taking into account more complex descriptions and the interpretation of the calculation results carried out with simpler models.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jakub Janus

  1. Strata Mechanics Research Institute, 27 Reymonta Str., 30-059 Kraków, Poland
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Recent works aimed to investigate geotechnical properties of Transitional Group A-2-7 (TGA-2-7) soil affected by the use of hydrated lime and fly ash class F, by-products from quarries and a cement factory in Jordan, to compensate for the gap in the granular distribution. Host soil was exposed to various proportions of fly ash and lime powder. The blended specimens were subjected to different tests related to index properties, including Atterberg limits, compaction properties and California bearing ratio. The results demonstrate that 2% fly ash led to a reduction in the plasticity index from 19% to 10%, while lime powder reduced it from 19% to 13%. A sufficient improvement of maximum dry density was observed at 20% lime addition and increased from 15.11 kN/m3 to 16.29 kN/m3. California bearing ratio that measures the strength soil linearly increased up to 10% induced by 20% lime addition.
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Authors and Affiliations

Omar Asad Ahmad

  1. Amman Arab University, Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, P.O Box. 2234, Amman 11953, Jordan
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The deformation properties of rocks play a crucial role in handling most geomechanical problems. However, the determination of these properties in laboratory is costly and necessitates special equipment. Therefore, many attempts were made to estimate these properties using different techniques. In this study, various statistical and soft computing methods were employed to predict the tangential Young Modulus (Eti, GPa) and tangential Poisson’s Ratio (vti) of coal measure sandstones located in Zonguldak Hardcoal Basin (ZHB), NW Turkey. Predictive models were established based on various regression and artificial neural network (ANN) analyses, including physicomechanical, mineralogical, and textural properties of rocks. The analysis results showed that the mineralogical features such as the contents of quartz (Q, %) and lithic fragment (LF, %) and the textural features (i.e., average grain size, d50, and sorting coefficient, Sc) have remarkable impacts on deformation properties of the investigated sandstones. By comparison with these features, the mineralogical effects seem to be more effective in predicting the Eti and vti. The performance of the established models was assessed using several statistical indicators. The predicted results from the proposed models were compared to one another. It was concluded that the empirical models based on the ANN were found to be the most convenient tools for evaluating the deformational properties of the investigated sandstones.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ekin Köken

  1. Abdullah Gul University, Nanotechnology Engineering Department, 38170, Kayseri, Turkey
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One of the ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere is to minimise the production of fossil fuels energy, which, among others, can be achieved through gradual closure of hard and brown coal mines. However, such transformation comes with economic and social problems as well as structural changes. This article is a case study based on the objectives of the Spatial Development Plan for the Central Coal Region (CRW) – Lublin Coal Basin (LZW), developed as a consequence of the discovery of significant hard coal deposits in the north-eastern part of the Lublin voivodeship in the 1960’s. In retrospect, it can be observed that the overly ambitious objectives of the CRW-LZW urban plan were implemented only to a limited extent.
This article aims to compare the original urban planning objectives with the current development of the industrial district and to indicate the cause for such a significant limitation of the realisation of the originally planned investment. Also, the article endeavours to simultaneously emphasize which factors should be specially considered, when planning such large-scope investments, that also broadly influence demographic and urban structure of the region and the way it is functioning.
The analysis was carried out in the context of economic difficulties and the political crisis at the turn of the 1970s and 1980s, the changes in the country’s political and economic system, as well as the principles of the socio-economic concept of sustainable development implemented at the end of the 20th century, and the currently prevailing circular economy. The characteristics and analysis of the adopted design solutions were carried out, the assessment of the extent to which the planned investment was completed and what factors influenced its current condition. The collected data is summarized and compared in a table. The conclusions may prove helpful in establishing the direction of Lublin Coal Basin the development in the coming years. The described solutions and experiences may constitute the theoretical basis for accurate forecasting of the scope of similar investments in the future.
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Authors and Affiliations

Michał Tomasz Dmitruk

  1. Lublin University of Technology, 38D Nadbystrzycka Str., 20-618 Lublin, Poland
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Desired rock fragmentation is the need of the hour, which influences the entire mining cycle. Thus, most engineering segments pay attention to rock fragmentation and neglect by-products like ground vibration and fly rock. Structural and mechanical properties of rock mass like joint spacing, joint angle, and compressive strength of rock pose a puzzling impact on both fragmentation and ground vibration. About 80% of explosive energy that gets wasted in producing ill effects can be positively optimised, with a new set of blast design parameters upon identifying the behaviour of rock mass properties. In this connection, this research aims to investigate the influence of joint spacing, joint angle, and compressive strength of rock on fragmentation and induced ground vibration. To accomplish this task, research was carried out at an opencast coal mine. It was discovered from this research that compressive strength, joint spacing, and joint angle have a significant effect on the mean fragmentation size (MFS) and peak particle velocity (PPV). With the increase in compressive strength, MFS explicit both increase and decrease trends whilst PPV increased with a specific increase in compressive strength of the rock. An increase in joint spacing triggers both increase and decrease trends in both MFS and PPV. While there is an increase in joint angle, MFS and PPV decrease.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sri Chandrahas
1 2
Bhanwar Singh Choudhary
N.S.R. Krishna Prasad
Venkataramayya Musunuri
K.K. Rao

  1. Department of Mining Engineering, IIT(ISM) Dhanbad, India
  2. Department of Mining Engineering, Malla Reddy Engineering College, Hyderabad, India
  3. Manager, UCIL Mine, Kadapa , India
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To improve the durability of the rollers of supporting and guiding devices as well as traction ropes of ropeway facilities based upon the analysis of their contact interaction. Theoretical studies of a mathematical model of contact interaction of mine ropeway components to determine regularities of the formation of dynamic efforts within the contact area and experimental studies of the plant under mine conditions. Based upon a mathematical model, contact stresses within the zone of contact of traction rope with guiding rollers and drive sheaves of mine ropeways under real operating conditions have been determined. The obtained results are validated experimentally under mine conditions. Innovative patent-protected design solutions have been proposed; the solutions make it possible to considerably increase the durability of the ropeway components.
It has been determined that methods of surface increase in the strengthening of a roller working surface do not have proper effect as the strengthened layer on a soft base cracks and delaminates due to high contact loads; maximum angle of rope bending on rollers of supporting devices (6º – in operation manual; 15º – in safety rules) recommended for GRW is overstated. It shouldn’t be more than 1.5º in terms of values of contact stresses for standard plants; development of prestressed compression state in the material of elastic lining of a drive friction sheave allows increasing considerably (by two times and more) its service life. Ropes with reduced diameters of external layer wires (Ukraine’s regulatory document – DST 2688) being used currently on mine ropeways do not meet the operating conditions and have a short period of service life due to their corrosive and fatigue breaking. To lengthen the service life of GRW traction ropes, it is required to change for the ropes with increased diameters of the external layer wires with preliminarily clamped strands.
(Ukraines regulatory documents: DST 3077, DST 3081, DST 7668, DST 7669 and TU 14-4-1070).
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Authors and Affiliations

Jamil Sami Haddad
Oleksandr Denyshchenko
Dmytro Kolosov
Stanislav Bartashevskyi
Valerii Rastsvietaiev
Oleksii Cherniaiev

  1. Al-Balqa Applied University, 1 Al-Balqa Applied University, Jordan
  2. Dnipro University of Technology, Ukraine
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Strip backfilling mining technology is of great significance for eliminating coal gangue, improving coal recovery rate, harmonizing the development between resources and environment in diggings. This paper firstly analyzed the roof control mechanism, the deformation and failure mechanism and characteristics of the filling body through theoretical analysis. Then, through numerical simulation combined with the geological conditions on site, a gangue strip filling scheme was designed for the 61303 working face of the 13th layer of the rear group coal of the Wennan Coal Mine in Shandong Province, and the filling scheme of filling 50 m and leaving 25 m was determined. Finally, an on-site engineering test was carried out on the 61303 working face. Through the analysis of the measured data of “three quantities” after the filling test, it can be seen that the test has achieved a good engineering application effect and verified the rationality of the filling scheme design. It solves the coal gangue problem, improves the resource recovery rate, and provides a reference for other similar mines.
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Authors and Affiliations

Wenbin Xing
Wanpeng Huang
Fan Feng

  1. Shandong University of Science and Technology, China
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According to the requirements of green mine construction and the coordinated development of environmental protection regulations, the existing filling technologies in China are compared and analysed. Several types of technologies are discussed, including the dry filling technology for gangue, grouting and filling for separated strata zones in overburden, grouting and filling technology for caving gangue fissures, paste and paste-like filling, high-water and ultra-high-water filling, and continuous mining and continuous filling. Then, the characteristics of these individual technologies are analysed. Through the analysis and comparison of these technologies, considering the requirements of green mine construction and coordinated development of environmental protection regulations, it was found that continuous mining and continuous filling technology is a feasible mean for constructing green mines and protecting the environment. In this study, the application of continuous mining and continuous filling technology in the Yuxing coal mine is introduced. Results show that surface subsidence was less than 80 mm, and the recovery rate of the working face reached 95%. This indicates that continuous mining and continuous filling technology can solve the problems of surface subsidence, environmental damage, and coal resource waste. Finally, the development prospects of continuous mining and continuous filling technology are proposed, providing theoretical and technical support for similar mining.
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Authors and Affiliations

Dongmei Huang
1 2
Daqian Xing
1 2
Xikun Chang
1 3
Yingying Zhu
1 2
Chunjing Gao
1 2

  1. Shandong University of Science and Technology, State Key Laborat ory of Mining Disaster Prevention and Control Co-Founded by Shandong Province and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China
  2. Shandong University of Science and Technology, College of Safety and Environmental Engineering, Qingdao 266590, China
  3. Shandong University of Science and Technology, College of Energy and Mining Engineering, Qingdao 266590, China
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Glass and ceramic industries are the main consumption areas of quartz sand, which is a formed as a result of the weathering of igneous metamorphic rocks. In such industries, it is very important to select the correct ball size in order to grind the raw material to the desired particle size in optimum time. In this study, the changes in the specific rate of breakage of the quartz sand sample were investigated by using cylpebs of three different sizes. For this purpose, three different mono-size samples were prepared according to 4√2 series in the range of 0.090-0.053 mm. The quartz sand prepared in these three intervals were ground with 10×10, 20×20 and 30×30 mm cylpebs for different durations. Specific rate of breakage values were obtained from the particle size distributions acquired after various grinding periods. As a result of grinding tests, an increase in rate of breakage is observed due to the increase in cylpebs diameter.
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Authors and Affiliations

Serhan Haner

  1. Afyon Kocatepe University, Department of Industrial Product Design, Dinar Yerleşkesi, Cumhuriyet Mh. Kooperat if Cd . No: 1, Dinar, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey
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In this study, a series of destructive and non-destructive tests were performed on sandstone samples subjected to wetting-drying cycles. A total of 25 Wet-Dry cycles were provided to investigate any significant change in the engineering properties of sandstones in terms of their porosity, permeability, water absorption, density, Q-factor, elastic modulus (E), and unconfined compressive strength (UCS). The overall reduction in the values of density, E, Q-factor, and UCS was noted as 3-4%, 42-71%, 34-62%, and 26-70% respectively. Whereas, the overall appreciation in the values of porosity, permeability, and water absorption was recorded as 24-50%, 31-64%, and 25-50% respectively. The bivariate analysis showed that the physical parameters had a strong relationship with one another and their Pearson’s correlation value (R) ranged from 0.87-0.99. In prediction modeling, Q-factor and E were regressed with the contemplated physical properties. The linear regression models did not provide satisfactory results due to their multicollinearity problem. Their VIF (variance inflation factor) value was found much greater than the threshold limit of 10. To overcome this problem, the cascade-forward neural network technique was used to develop significant prediction models. In the case of a neural network modeling, the goodness of fit between estimated and predicted values of the Q-factor (R2 = 0.86) and E (R2 = 0.91) was found much better than those calculated for the Q-factor (R2 = 0.30) and E (R2 = 0.36) in the regression analysis.
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Authors and Affiliations

Hafiz Muhammad Awais Rashid
Muhammad Ghazzali
Umer Waqas
Adnan Anwar Malik
Muhammad Zubair Abubakar

  1. University of Engineering and Technology, Department of Geological Engineering, Lahore, Pakistan
  2. Saitama University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Japan
  3. University of Engineering and Technology, Dean Faculty of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Lahore, Pakistan

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[2] E. Pagounis, M.J. Szczerba, R. Chulist, M. Laufenberg, Large Magnetic Field-Induced Work output in a NiMgGa Seven-Lavered Modulated Martensite. Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 152407 (2015). DOI:

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[4] K.U. Kainer (Ed.), Metal Matrix Composites, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2006).

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