Applied sciences

Archives of Mining Sciences


Archives of Mining Sciences | 2021 | vol. 66 | No 1

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The authors of the paper describe the way in which the longitudinal working Gussmann was mined in level V and the longitudinal working Kosocice in level VI, which in both cases resulted in a water flux from behind the northern boundary of the salt deposit. Only after concrete dams were seated on both levels, the brine flux was stopped leaving a direct contact of the dams with the pressurized water around the mine. For the sake of controlling water beyond the dams, steel pipelines were conducted through both dams and equipped with gauges before the dams. Their use in a saline environment, the developing corrosion increased the possibility that the tightness of the pipelines would be damaged. For this reason a decision was made to protect the mine by making a tight reconstruction of the safety pillar in both levels along the longitudinal working for about 600 m from the dams eastwards. For this purpose the pipeline injection method was applied. As the volume of voids to be tightly filled equaled to about 3800 m3, the task had to be divided into stages. Because of considerable distances of the liquidated workings from the closest shaft, the sealing slurries were prepared in a special injection center on the surface from where they were transported to the destination with a pumping pipeline through the Kościuszko shaft. The most important aspect of liquidating the end parts of the longitudinal working was to properly select the sealing slurries in view of their best cooperation with the rock mass, and such parameters as tightness, durability and cost. At the end stage of works, both longitudinal workings were equipped with dams, which were sealed up with the hole injection method. The innovative technology was implemented in the Wieliczka Salt Mine to reconstruct the safety pillar in levels VI and V in the most westward workings, the mine was shortened by about 600 m, the length of the ventilation system was reduced, systematic observations and pressure read-outs in dams 3 and 4 were systematically eliminated in dams 3 and 4. In this way the costs were lowered and safety of the mine improved.
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Gonet
Stanisław Antoni Stryczek

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Drilling, Oil and Gas, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
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This paper provides an analysis of the evacuation process in a road tunnel in the event of a fire, using the example of the tunnel under the Luboń Mały mountain currently being constructed on Expressway S7’s Lubień – Rabka-Zdrój section. As fires are the largest and most dangerous events occurring in road tunnels, it is important to predict the evacuation process as early as at the design stage. The study described here used numerical modelling to simulate evacuation, which made it possible to determine the required safe evacuation time of all tunnel users in a fire. On the basis of the parameters of the tunnel under Luboń Mały, numerical studies were performed for four different fire scenarios, three of which assumed various fire locations with the currently designed two traffic lanes. The fourth variant accounted for the planned extension of the roadway to include three traffic lanes. Eventually, four numerical models were developed involving various fire ignition locations and numbers of potential tunnel users. The values of initial-boundary conditions used in the simulation, such as movement speed during evacuation, shoulder breadth and pre-movement time, were specified on the basis of experimental data for an evacuation performed in smoke conditions in the Emilia tunnel in Laliki. The results lead to the conclusion that if the time of reaching critical conditions in the tunnel is not shorter than 5 minutes 40 seconds for the current design state and 5 minutes 47 seconds for three lanes, the distribution of evacuation exits in the tunnel under Luboń Mały will ensure safe evacuation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Natalia Schmidt-Polończyk
Zbigniew Burtan
Piotr Liszka

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
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The mutual influence of fatigue processes, abrasive wear and corrosion of chain links on the functional properties of mining round link chains has been presented in this paper. Selected results of experimental investigations in the field of synergic impact of these destructive processes on the operational durability of mining chains have also been presented. The emphasis was given to the necessity of a comprehensive consideration of destructive processes that occur in various conditions of use of round link chains applied in mining machines.
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Authors and Affiliations

Eryk Remiorz
Stanisław Mikuła

  1. Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Mining, Safety Engineering and Industrial Automation, Department of Mining Mechanization and Robotisation, 2 Akademicka Str., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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As the duration of a rock burst is very short and the roadway is seriously damaged after the disaster, it is difficult to observe its characteristics. In order to obtain the dynamic characteristics of a rock burst, a modified uniaxial compression experiment, combined with a high-speed camera system is carried out and the process of a rock burst caused by a static load is simulated. Some significant results are obtained: 1) The velocity of ejected particles is between 2 m/s and 4 m/s. 2) The ratio of elastic energy to plastic energy is about five. 3) The duration from integrity to failure is between 20 ms and 40 ms. Furthermore, by analyzing the stress field in the sample with a numerical method and crack propagation model, the following conclusions can be made: 1) The kinetic energy of the ejected particles comes from the elastic energy released by itself. 2) The ratio of kinetic energy to elastic energy is between 6% and 15%. This can help understand the source and transfer of energy in a rock burst quantitatively.
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Authors and Affiliations

Weiyu Zheng
1 2

  1. China University of Mining & Technology (Beijing), School of Energy and Mining Engineering, China
  2. State Key Laboratory of Coal Mining and Clean Utilization, China
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In order for the ultimate state methods to be applied in dimensioning of the load-bearing elements in a conveyance, it is required that their design loads during their normal duty cycle and under the emergency braking conditions should be first established. Recently, efforts have been made to determine the interaction forces between the shaft steelwork and the conveyance under the normal operating condition [1,2]. Thus far, this aspect has been mostly neglected in design engineering. Measurement results summarised in this paper and confronted with the theoretical data [3] indicate that the major determinant of fatigue endurance of conveyances is the force acting horizontally and associated with the conveyance being hoisted in relation to the vertical force due to the weight of the conveyance and payload.
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Authors and Affiliations

Stanisław Wolny

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
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It is commonly known that the cause of serious accidents in underground coal mining is methane. Thus, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) becomes a useful tool to simulate methane dispersion and to evaluate the performance of the ventilation system in order to prevent mine accidents related to methane. In this study, numerical and experimental studies of the methane concentration and air velocity behaviour were carried out. The experiment was conducted in an auxiliary ventilated coal heading in Turkish Hard Coal Enterprises (TTK), which is the most predominant coal producer in Turkey. The simulations were modeled using Fluent-Ansys v.12. Significant correlations were found when experimental values and modeling results were compared with statistical analysis. The CFD modeling of the methane and air velocity in the headings especially uses in auxiliary ventilation systems of places where it is hard to measure or when the measurements made are inadequate.
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Authors and Affiliations

Gülnaz Daloğlu
Mustafa Önder
Teresa Parra

  1. Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi Müh. Mim. Fak. Maden Mühendi sliği Bölümü, 26480 Eskişehir, Turkey
  2. University of Valladolid, Department of Energy and Fluid Mechanics, Valladolid, Spain
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The impact of caulking of goafs after mining exploitation of a hard coal seam with caving is expressed as the change in value of a a exploitation coefficient which, as defined, is the quotient of the maximum reduction in the surface height of a complete or incomplete trough to the thickness of the exploited seam. The basis for determining the value of the exploitation coefficient was geological and mining data combined with the results of the measurement of subsidence on the surface – measuring line 1222-1301 – of the Ruda mine. There, mining was carried out between 2005 and 2019, with a transverse longwall system and the caulking of goafs. The research team used two methods to determine the impact of the caulking applied in the goafs on the value of the exploitation coefficient. In the first method the goafs are filled evenly along the whole longwall, and in the second method unevenly and on a quarterly basis. The determination of the values of the exploitation coefficients for selected measuring points was preceded by the determination of the parameters of the Knothe-Budryk theory, which was further developed by J. Białek. The obtained dependencies are linear and the values of the correlation coefficients fall between –0.684 and –0.702, which should be considered satisfactory in terms of experimental data. It is possible to reduce the value of the exploitation coefficient by caulking the goafs by about 18%, when filling the goafs to 0.26% of the height of the active longwall.
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Kowalski
Jan Białek
Tadeusz Rutkowski

  1. Central Mining Institute, 1 Gwarków Sq., 40-166 Katowice, Poland
  2. Silesian University of Technology, 2A Akademicka Str., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
  3. PGG S.A. KWK Ruda, Ruda Śląska, Poland
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Stability control of the roof is the key to safe and efficient mining of the longwall working face for a steeply dipping coal seam. In this study, a comprehensive analysis was performed on the roof destruction, migration, and filling characteristics of a steeply dipping longwall working face in an actual coalmine. Elastic foundation theory was used to construct a roof mechanics model; the effect of the coal seam inclination angle on the asymmetric deformation and failure of the roof under the constraint of an unbalanced gangue filling was considered. According to the model, increasing the coal seam angle, thickness of the immediate roof, and length of the working face as well as decreasing the thickness of the coal seam can increase the length of the contact area formed by the caving gangue in the lower area of the slope. Changes to the length of the contact area affect the forces and boundary conditions of the main roof. Increasing the coal seam angle reduces the deformation of the main roof, and the position of peak deflection migrates from the middle of the working face to the upper middle. Meanwhile, the position of the peak rotation angle migrates from the lower area of the working face to the upper area. The peak bending moment decreases continuously, and its position migrates from the headgate T-junction to the tailgate T-junction and then the middle of the working face. Field test results verified the rationality of the mechanics model. These findings reveal the effect of the inclination coal seam angle on roof deformation and failure and provide theoretical guidance for engineering practice.
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Authors and Affiliations

Shenghu Luo
Tong Wang
Yongping Wu
Jingyu Huangfu
Huatao Zhao

  1. Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Department of Mechanics, China
  2. Xi’an University of Science and Technology, School of Energy Engineering, China
  3. Shandong Mining Machinery Group Co., Ltd. China
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Underground mining development is directly related to face drilling rig performance. Reducing operating costs and improving productivity are current and crucial topics for mining projects around the world within the development phase. Unlike past approaches, this article is based on variations of equipment availability and utilisation, and their impact on development plans success and costs decrease. To assess the influence of these parameters, daily field data were collected to identify major downtimes in normal cycles and apply adequate corrective measures to mitigate them. Additionally, this article presents the reader with a graphic illustration of the correlation between utilisation and development, including historical data. This paper was developed from October 2017 to March 2018. The result of this study seeks to identify when projects generate profits by comparing four situations with constant productivity, but variables such as the possession rate, maintenance fee, production and utilisation. Finally, it is demonstrated that success in mining projects, related to equipment, is proportional to the utilisation of the fleet, with the correct management of productivities.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sebastian Arenas Bermúdez
Cristian Gerardo Zapata Otalora
Jorge Martin Molina Escobar

  1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Mines Faculty, Colombia
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Use of the poroelasticity theory by Biot in the description of rock behaviour requires the value of the e.g. Biot coefficient α to be determined. The α coefficient is a function of two moduli of compressibility: the modulus of compressibility of the rock skeleton Ks and the effective modulus of compressibility K. These moduli are determined directly on the basis of rock compressibility curves obtained during compression of a rock sample using hydrostatic pressure. There is also a concept suggesting that these compressibility moduli might be determined on the basis of results of the uniaxial compression test using the fact that, in the case of an elastic, homogeneous and isotropic material, the modulus of compressibility of a material is a function of its Young modulus and its Poisson ratio. This work compares the results obtained from determination of the Biot coefficient by means of results of compressibility test and uniaxial compression test. It was shown that the uniaxial compression test results are generally unsuitable to determine the value of the coefficient α. An analysis of values of the determined moduli of compressibility shows that whereas the values of effective moduli of compressibility obtained using both ways may be considered as satisfactorily comparable, values of the relevant rock skeleton moduli of compressibility differ significantly.
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Nowakowski
Janusz Nurkowski

  1. Strata Mechanics Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Science, 27 Reymonta Str., 30-059 Kraków, Poland

Instructions for authors

General information

It is essential for us that authors write and prepare their manuscripts according to the instructions and specifications listed below. Therefore, authors are strongly encouraged to read these instructions carefully before preparing a manuscript for submission.

Archives of Mining Sciences (AMS) is concerned with original research, new developments and case studies in all fields of mining sciences which include:

- mining technologies,

- stability of mine workings,

- rock mechanics,

- geotechnical engineering and tunnelling,

- mineral processing,

- mining and engineering geology,

- mining geophysics,

- mining geodesy

- ventilation systems,

- environmental protection in mining,

- economical aspects in mining,

- mining machine science.

Papers are welcomed on all relevant topics and especially on theoretical developments, analytical methods, numerical methods, rock testing, site investigation, and case studies.

AMS publishes research and review articles, technical notes.

Papers suitable for publication in AMS are those which:

- contain original work - the main result is not published elsewhere neither by the authors nor somebody else, and is not currently under consideration for publication in any other journal,

- are focused on the core aims and scope of the journal,

- are clearly and correctly written in English.

Authors are required to contribute to the cost of publication – publication charge 1000 PLN or 250 Euro. There is no submission charge.

Electronic submission:

All submissions must be made electronically via Editorial System


The papers should be written in English.

Length of paper

The research and review articles may not exceed 16 typewritten pages, technical notes -10 pages, format A4 including figures and tables.


The initial submission should be sent as Microsoft World (Arial, 12 points, line spacing - 1,5) or pdf file with all drawings, pictures and tables placed in the text.

After acceptance the text (in Microsoft Word), figures and tables should be sent as separate files.

Layout of the manuscript

First and last name(s) of the author(s), title of the article, abstract, keywords, methodology and introduction to the topics, results, conclusions, acknowledgements and references. The subtitles should conform to the decimal system of numbering.


The abstract should briefly summarize the most important results reported in the paper (up to 200 words).

Keywords: 4-6 keywords


Formulae should be prepared with Microsoft Equation, written clearly with distinct notation of upper and lower indices and parentheses, maintaining an uniform numbering.


Tables should be prepared as separate file in Microsoft World format.


If possible, the figures should be prepared with a vector graphics software (.cdr, .wmf, .al or .dxf formats) or as .eps, .jpg, .bmp (figures width no greater than 13.5 cm). Use Arial font for the comments on drawings in size 6-10 points. The photographs should be converted to high resolution scans in *.jpg or *.tiff format. Figures should be submitted as separate files.


A new type of literature provision has been in force since 2020 – modified vancouver style.

Please follow the instructions below.

References should be typed on separate pages and numbered consecutively applying the system accepted by the Quarterly (initials and names all authors, title of the article (obligatory), journal title [abbreviated according to the Journal Title Abbreviations of Web of Science: everyone abbreviation should be end with a dot - example. Arch. Metall. Mater.] or book title; journal volume or book publisher; page spread; publication year in bracket, full DOI number).

Please note the correct layout punctation (commas and periods), and spaces.

Please note the arrangement of dots, commas and spaces.

First we write the initial of the name, dot, space, surname, volume must be written BOLD, at the name of the authors, do not write a word “and” write only a comma. We give the year of publication at the end of the sentence in brackets and DOI number (full notation and linked).

The use of DOI numbers (full notation and linked) is mandatory for each paper and should be formatted as shown in the examples below:



[1] L.B. Magalas, Development of High-Resolution Mechanical Spectroscopy, HRMS: Status and Perspectives. HRMS Coupled with a Laser Dilatometer . Arch. Metall. Mater. 60 (3), 2069-2076 (2015). DOI:

[2] E. Pagounis, M.J. Szczerba, R. Chulist, M. Laufenberg, Large Magnetic Field-Induced Work output in a NiMgGa Seven-Lavered Modulated Martensite. Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 152407 (2015). DOI:

[3] H. Etschmaier, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, Suppression of Interdiffusion in Copper/Tin thin Films. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012). DOI:


[4] K.U. Kainer (Ed.), Metal Matrix Composites, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2006).

[5] K. Szacilowski, Infochemistry: Information Processing at the Nanoscale, Wiley (2012).

[6] L. Reimer, H. Kohl, Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation, Springer, New York (2008).

Proceedings or chapter in books with editor(s):

[7] R. Major, P. Lacki, R. Kustosz, J. M. Lackner, Modelling of nanoindentation to simulate thin layer behavior, in: K. J. Kurzydłowski, B. Major, P. Zięba (Eds.), Foundation of Materials Design 2006, Research Signpost (2006).

Internet resource:

[8], accessed: 17.04.2017

Academic thesis (PhD, MSc):

[9] T. Mitra, PhD thesis, Modeling of Burden Distribution in the Blast Furnace, Abo Akademi University, Turku/Abo, Finland (2016).

Prevent cases of plagiarism

Readers should be sure that the authors present the results of their work transparently, fair and honest, regardless of whether they are the direct authors, or used the help of a specialized entity (natural or legal person). To prevent cases of plagiarism, "Copyright agreement", the Editorial Office will require that the Authors disclosed the contribution of individual Authors in the creation of manuscript (with their affiliations and contributions, i.e. the information who is responsible for: research concept and design, collection and/or assembly of data, data analysis and interpretation, writing the manuscript). Funding sources (together with grant number) must also be revealed. The corresponding Author will bear the main responsibility for the manuscript. Detected cases will be exposed, including notifying the appropriate entities (institutions employing the Authors, scientific societies, associations of editors of scientific journals, etc.).

License type

Articles are printed in an open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0,

This license allows authors to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, remix, transform, and build upon the material. Authors may not use the material for commercial purposes. However, this condition does not include dependent works (they may be covered by another license).

Submission of an article to the journal is unequivocal to expressing consent to the publication in both paper and electronic form.

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