Applied sciences

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials

Content

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials | 2021 | vol. 66 | No 4 |

Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have attracted substantial interest as an alternative to lithium-ion batteries because of the low cost. There have been many studies on the development of new anode materials that could react with sodium by conversion mechanism. SnO2 is a promising candidate due to its low cost and high theoretical capacity. However, SnO2 has the same problem as other anodes during the conversion reaction, i.e., the volume of the anode repeatedly expands and contracts by cycling. Herein, anode is composed of carbon nanofiber embedded with SnO2 nanopowder. The resultant electrode showed improvement of cyclability. The optimized SnO2 electrode showed high capacity of 1275 mAh g–1 at a current density of 50 mA g–1. The high conductivity of the optimized electrode resulted in superior electrochemical performance.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] L. Yue, H. Zhao, Z. Wu, J. Liang, S. Lu, G. Chen, S. Gao, B. Zhong, X. Guo, X. Sun, J. Mater. Chem. A. 8 (23), 11493-11510 (2020).
[2] K. Mishra, N. Yadav, S. Hashmi, J. Mater. Chem. A. 8 (43), 22507- 22543 (2020).
[3] M .K. Sadan, A.K. Haridas, H. Kim, C. Kim, G.-B. Cho, K.-K. Cho, J.-H. Ahn, H.-J. Ahn, Nanoscale Advances. 2 (11), 5166-5170 (2020).
[4] M .K. Sadan, H. Kim, C. Kim, S. Cha, K.-K. Cho, K.-W. Kim, J .-H. Ahn, H.-J. Ahn, J. Mater. Chem. A. 8 (19), 9843-9849 (2020).
[5] Z. Zhu, F. Cheng, Z. Hu, Z. Niu, J. Chen, J. Power Sources. 293, 626-634 (2015).
[6] H. Kim, M.K. Sadan, C. Kim, S.-H. Choe, K.-K. Cho, K.-W. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, H.-J. Ahn, J. Mater. Chem. A. 7 (27), 16239-16248 (2019).
[7] H. Kim, S.-W. Lee, K.-Y. Lee, J.-W. Park, H.-S. Ryu, K.-K. Cho, G.-B. Cho, K.-W. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, H.-J. Ahn, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 18 (9), 6422-6426 (2018).
[8] H. Ye, L. Wang, S. Deng, X. Zeng, K. Nie, P.N. Duchesne, B. Wang, S. Liu, J. Zhou, F. Zhao, N. Han, P. Zhang, J. Zhong, X. Sun, Y. Li, Y. Li, J. Lu, Adv. Energy Mater. 7 (5), 1601602 (2016).
[9] C. Kim, I. Kim, H. Kim, M.K. Sadan, H. Yeo, G. Cho, J. Ahn, J. Ahn, H. Ahn, J. Mater. Chem. A. 6 (45), 22809-22818 (2018).
[10] M .K. Sadan, S.-H. Choi, H. Kim, C. Kim, G.-B. Cho, K.-W. Kim, N.S, Reddy, J.-H. Ahn, H.-J. Ahn, Ionics. 24, 753-761 (2018).
[11] D . Su, S. Dou, G. Wang, Nano Energy. 12, 88-95 (2015).
[12] D . Narsimulu, G. Nagaraju, S.C. Sekhar, B. Ramulu, J.S. Yu, Appl. Surf. Sci. 538, 148033 (2021).
[13] L. Wang, J. Wang, F. Guo, L. Ma, Y. Ren, T. Wu, P. Zuo, G. Yin, J. Wang, Nano Energy. 43, 184-191 (2018).
[14] S. Zhang, L. Yue, M. Wang, Y. Feng, Z. Li, J. Mi, Solid State Ion. 323, 105-111 (2018).
[15] X. Lu, F. Luo, Q. Xiong, H. Chi, H. Qin, Z. Ji, L. Tong, H. Pan, Mater. Res. Bull. 99, 45-51 (2018).
[16] Y.-N. Sun, M. Goktas, L. Zhao, P. Adelhelm, B.-H. Han, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 572, 122-132 (2020).
[17] A.K. Haridas, J. Heo, X. Li, H.-J. Ahn, X. Zhao, Z. Deng, M. Agostini, A. Matic, J.-H. Ahn, Chem. Eng. J. 385, 123453 (2020).
[18] M . K.Sadan, H. Kim, C. Kim, G.-B. Cho, N.S. Reddy, K.-K. Cho, T.-H. Nam, K.-W. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, H.-J. Ahn, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 20 (11), 7119-7123 (2020).
[19] S. Men, H. Zheng, D. Ma, X. Huang, X. Kang, J. Energy Chem. 54, 124-130 (2021).
[20] H. Xie, Z. Wu, Z. Wang, N. Qin, Y. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Lu, J. Mater. Chem. A. 8 (7), 3606-3612 (2020).
[21] G . Cha, S. Mohajernia, N.T. Nguyen, A. Mazare, N. Denisov, I. Hwang, P. Schmuki, Adv. Energy Mater. 10 (6), 1903448 (2020).
[22] Y.C. Lu, C. Ma, J. Alvarado, T. Kidera, N. Dimov, Y.S. Meng, S. Okada, J. Power Sources. 204, 287-295 (2015).
[23] A.-T. Chien, S. Cho, Y. Joshi, S. Kumar, Polymer. 55 (26), 6896- 6905 (2014).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Huihun Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Milan K. Sadan
1
ORCID: ORCID
Changhyeon Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ga-In Choi
2
ORCID: ORCID
Minjun Seong
2
ORCID: ORCID
Kwon-Koo Cho
2
ORCID: ORCID
Ki-Won Kim
2
ORCID: ORCID
Jou-Hyeon Ahn
2
ORCID: ORCID
Hyo-Jun Ahn
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Gyeongsang National University, Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Jinju, 52828, Republic of Korea
  2. Gyeongsang National University, Department of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology, RIGET, Jinju, 52828, Republic of Korea
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In this study, high-purity tantalum metal powder was manufactured via self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. During the process, Ta2O5 and Mg were used as the raw material powder and the reducing agent, respectively, and given that combustion rate and reaction temperature are important factors that influence the success of this process, these factors were controlled by adding an excessive mass of the reducing agent (Mg) i.e., above the chemical equivalent, rather than by using a separate diluent. It was confirmed that Ta metal powder manufactured after the process was ultimately manufactured 99.98% high purity Ta metal powder with 0.5 µm particle size. Thus, it was observed that adding the reducing reagent in excess favored the manufacture of high-purity Ta powder that can be applied in capacitors.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] S.M. Hwang, J.P. Wang, D.W. Lee, J. Met. 9, 205 (2019).
[2] H .I. Won, H.H. Nersisyan, C.W. Won, J. Alloys Compd. 478, 716-720 (2009)
[3] H .H. Nersisyan, H.S. Ryu, J.H. Lee, H.Y. Suh, H.I. Won, Combust. Flame 219, 136-146 (2020).
[4] T. Iuchi, K.S. Ono, Repts Res-Instt. Toboko Uni., Ser. A13, 456 (1961).
[5] B. Yuan, H. Okabe, J. Alloys Compd. 443, 71-82 (2007).
[6] H . Okabe, N. Sato, Y. Mitsuda, S. Ono, Mater. Trans. 44, 2646- 2653 (2003).
[7] H . Okabe, S. Iwata, M. Imagunbai, Y. Mitsuda, M. Maeda, ISIJ Int. 44, 285-293 (2004).
[8] S.Y. Lee, S.I. Lee, C.W. Won, J. Kor. Inst. Met. & Mater. 47, 338- 343 (2009).
[9] J.J. Sim, S.H. Choi, J.H. Park, I.K. Park, J.H. Lim, K.T. Park, J. Powder Metall. Inst. 25, 251-256 (2018).
[10] A.P. Hardt, P.V. Phung, Combustion. Flame 21, 77 (1973).
[11] A.P. Hardt, R.W. Holsinger, Combustion. Flame 21, 91 (1973).
[12] A.G. Merzhanov, I.P. Borovinskaya, Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR (Chem.) 204, 429 (1972).
[13] V .M. Orlov, M.V. Kryzhanov, Metally, 2010, 384-388, (2009).
[14] H SC Chemistry Software ver. 8.0, Outotec. 2014. Available online: https://www.outotec.com (accessed on 20 November 2018).
[15] S.H. Choi, J.J. Sim, J.H. Lim, S.J. Seo, D.W. Kim, S.K. Hyun, K.T. Park, J. Met. 9, 169 (2019).
[16] H .H. Nersisyan, J.H. Lee, S.I. Lee, C.W. Won, Combustion. Flame 135, 539-545 (2003).
[17] J.S. Yoon, S.H. Hwang, B.I. Kim, J. Kor. Inst. Surf. Eng. 42, 227- 231 (2009).
[18] S. Luidold, R. Ressel, Proceedings of EMC 1, 1-15 (2009).
[19] T. Hawa, M.R. Zachaeiah, J. Aerosol Sci. 37, 1-15 (2006).
[20] Y. Tian, W. Jiao, P. Liu, S. Song, Z. Lu, A. Hirata, M. Chen, Nat. Commun. 10, 5249 (2019).
[21] V .B. Storozhev, J. Aerosol Sci. 34, 179-185 (2001).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Yong-Kwan Lee
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Jae-Jin Sim
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Jong-Soo Byeon
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Yong-Tak Lee
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Yeong-Woo Cho
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Hyun-Chul Kim
1 3
Sung-Gue Heo
1 3
ORCID: ORCID
Kee-Ahn Lee
2
ORCID: ORCID
Seok-Jun Seo
1
ORCID: ORCID
Kyoung-Tae Park
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Korea Institute for Rare Metals, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, 7-50 Songdo-dong Yeonsoo-gu, Incheon 21999, Korea
  2. Inha University, Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Incheon 22212, Korea
  3. Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

A356 Al composites reinforced by short carbon fiber were prepared through the 2-step process: fabrication of a composite precursor and ultrasonication of the precursor melt. The short carbon fibers were coated with 0.15~1.5 μm thick SiC layer by a carbothermal reaction, and an amount of the carbon fiber reinforcement was determined to be 1.5 vol.% and 4.0 vol.%, respectively. The addition of the carbon fiber increased the hardness of A356 alloy. However, tensile strength did not increase in the as-cast composites regardless of the SiC coating and volume fraction of the carbon fiber, due to the debonding which reduced load transfer efficiency from matrix to fiber at the interface. After T6-treatment of the composites, a significant increase in strength occurred only in the composite reinforced by the SiC-coated short carbon fiber, which was considered to result from the formation of a precipitate improving the Al/SiC interfacial strength
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] X. Huang, Materials 2, 2369 (2009).
[2] J.W. Kaczmar, K. Pietrzak, W. Wlosinski, J. Mat. Proc. Tech. 106, 58 (2000).
[3] H. Naji, S.M. Zebarjad, S.A. Sajjadi, Mater. Sci. and Eng. A 486, 413 (2008).
[4] C.P. Ju, K.I. Chen, J.H. Chern, J. of Mat. Sci. 29, 5127 (1994).
[5] S. Ciby, B.C. Pai, K.G. Satyanarayana, V.K. Vaidyan, P.K. Rohatgi, J. of Mat. Eng. and Perf. 2 (3), 353 (1993).
[6] W.G. Wang, B.L. Xiao, Z.Y. Ma, Comp. Sci. Tech. 72 (2), 152 (2012).
[7] A. Daoud, Mater. Sci. and Eng. A, 391, 114 (2005).
[8] C.-W. Lee, I.-H. Kim, W. Lee, S.-H. Ko, J.-M. Jang, T.-W. Lee, S.-H. Lim, J.P. Park, J.D. Kim, Surf. Interface Anal. 42, 1231 (2010).
[9] S.-H. Li, C.-G. Chao, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 35 (7), 2153 (2004).
[10] E . Hajjari, M. Divandari, A. Mirhabibi, Mater. Des. 31 (5), 2381 (2010).
[11] L. Aggour, E. Fitzer, M. Heym, E. Ignatowitz, Thin Solid Films 40, 97 (1977).
[12] S. Bao, K. Tang, A. Kvithyld, T. Engh, M.Tangstard, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 22, 1930 (2012).
[13] T. Iseki, T. Kameda, T. Maruyama, J. Mater. Sci. 19 (5), 1692 (1984).
[14] A. C. Ferro, B. Debby, Acta Metal. Mater. 43 (8), 3061 (1995) .
[15] I .-H. Kim, W. Lee, C.-W. Lee, S.-H. Ko, J.-M. Jang, Surf. Interface Anal. 42 (6‐7), 743 (2010).
[16] Y. Liu, B Kindl, Scr. Metall. Mater. 27 (10), 1367 (1992).
[17] H. Abderrazak, E.S.B.H. Hmida, R. Gerhardt (Ed.), Silicon carbide, InTech, Rijeka 316, Croatia (2011).
[18] D.L. Chung, Butterworth-Heinemann, Carbon Fiber Composites, Boston 1994.
[19] J.G. Morley, Academic Press, High-Performance Fiber Composites, Orlando 1987.
[20] W.Q. Song, P. Krauklis, A.P. Mouritz, S. Bandyopadhyay, Wear 185, 125 (1995).
[21] H. Ribes, R.D. Silva, M. Suéry, T. Bretheau, Mater. Sci. and Tech. 6, 621 (1990).
[22] P. Liu, A.-Q. Wang, J.-P. Xie, S.-M. Hao, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 25, 1410 (2015).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Jin Man Jang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Se-Hyun Ko
1
ORCID: ORCID
Wonsik Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Advanced Materials and Process R&D Department, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon 21999, Republic of Korea
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Dissolution of Si in Al-5 mass%Mg alloy melt by the reduction of SiO2 and its effect on microstructure formation of the alloy after solidification were investigated. Al-5 mass%Mg alloy without silica powder had approximately 0.05 mass%Si as an impurity. No significant difference in Si content was observed after the reaction with silica for 10 min, while the Si content increased up to about 0.12 mass% after 30 min. From the microstructure analysis and calculation of Scheil-Gulliver cooling, it was considered that as-cast microstructures of Al-5 mass%Mg-1 mass% SiO2 alloys had the distribution of eutectic phase particles, which are comprised of β-Al3Mg2 and Mg2Si phases. Based on the phase diagrams, only limited amount of Mg can be selectively removed by silica depending on the ratio of Si and Mg. Addition of silica of more than approximately 1.5 mass% in Al-5 mass%Mg alloy led to the formation of spinel and removal of both Mg and Al from the melt.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] J.R. Davis, ASM International, Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys, Materials Park 1993.
[2] T. Hashiguchi, H. Sueyosh, Mater. Trans. 51, 838 (2010).
[3] B.H. Kim, S.H. Ha, Y.O. Yoon, H.K. Lim, S.K. Kim, D.H. Kim, Mater. Lett. 228, 108 (2018).
[4] S.H. Ha, B.H. Kim, Y.O. Yoon, H.K. Lim, S.K. Kim, Sci. Adv. Mater. 10, 694 (2018).
[5] R. Muñoz-Arroyo, H.M. Hdz-García, J.C. Escobedo-Bocardo, E.E. Granda-Gutierrez, J.L. Acevedo-Dávila, J.A. Aguilar-Martínez, A. Garza-Gomez, Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2014, 1 (2014).
[6] S.H. Ha, B.H. Kim, Y.O. Yoon, H.K. Lim, S.K. Kim, Sci. Adv. Mater. 10, 694 (2018).
[7] C.W. Bale, E. Bélisle, P. Chartrand, S.A. Decterov, G. Eriksson, A.E. Gheribi, K. Hack, I.H. Jung, Y.B. Kang, J. Melançon, A.D. Pelton, S. Petersen, C. Robelin, J. Sangster, P. Spencer, M.A. Van Ende, Calphad 54, 35 (2016).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Sun-Ki Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Seong-Ho Ha
2
ORCID: ORCID
Bong-Hwan Kim
2
ORCID: ORCID
Young-Ok Yoon
2
ORCID: ORCID
Hyun-Kyu Lim
2
ORCID: ORCID
Shae K. Kim
2
ORCID: ORCID
Young-Jig Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Sungkyunkwan University, School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Suwon 16419, Republic of Korea
  2. Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Advanced Materials and Process R&D Department, Incheon 21999, Republic of Korea
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Intermetallic γ-TiAl alloy has excellent properties at high temperatures and is thus attracting attention as a substitute for nickel-based superalloy parts for turbine engines. However, γ-TiAl alloy is reported to be a difficult material to be machined due to its low ductility at room temperature, tensile strength, and thermal conductivity. In this study, a system capable of measuring thrust force (Tf) and torque (Tc) during the drilling process was constructed, and drilling processability according to the heat treated microstructure of γ-TiAl alloy was compared. As a result, it was confirmed that the thrust and torque of the γ-TiAl alloy having a microstructure in which the grains were refined by the heat treatment process was relatively low and rapidly stabilized, which is advantageous for drilling.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] M. Rahman, Y.S. Wong, A.R. Zareena, Machinability of titanium alloys, JSME Series C 46 (1), 107-115 (2003).
[2] A. Beranoagirre, G. Urbikain, A. Calleja, L. Lacalle, Drilling Process in γ-TiAl Intermetallic Alloys, Materials (Basel) 2018 Dec; 11 (12): 2379. Published online 2018 Nov 26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122379
[3] S . Castellanos, A. Cavaleiro, Machinability of titanium aluminides: a review, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers 233, 3, 426-451. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1464420718809386
[4] M. Thomas, M.P. Bacos. Processing and Characterization of TiAlbased Alloys: Towards an Industrial Scale. AerospaceLab 3, 1-11 (2011). hal-01183638
[5] J.H. Kim, J.K. Kim, S.W. Kim, Y.H Park, S.E. Kim, Effect of Microstructure Control on the Mechanical Properties of Hot Worked TiAl Alloy, Korean J. Met. Mater. 58, 7, 459-465 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.3365/KJMM.2020.58.7.459
[6] S . Bhowmick, A. Alpas, Minimum quantity lubrication drilling of aluminium – silicon alloys in water using diamond-like carbon coated drills, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 48, 1429-1443 (2008).
[7] J.N. Wang, J. Yang, Q. Xia, Y. Wang, On the grain size refinement of TiAl alloys by cyclic heat treatment, Materials Science and Engineering A 329-331, 118-123. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-5093(01)01543-X
[8] P.C. Priarone, S. Rizzuti, G. Rotella, Tool wear and surface quality in milling of a gamma-TiAl intermetallic. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 61, 25-33 (2012). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-011-3691-x
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Hyunseok Yang
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Woo-Chul Jung
1
ORCID: ORCID
Man-Sik Kong
1
Changhee Lee
2

  1. Advanced Materials & Processing Center, Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin, South Korea
  2. Hanyang University, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul, South Korea
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

To form the fine micro-structures, the Pr17Fe78B5 magnet powders were produced in the optimized gas atomization conditions and it was investigated that the formation of the textures, microstructures, and the changes in the magnetic properties with increasing the deformation temperatures and rolling directions. Due to the rapid cooling system than the casting process, the homogenous microstructures were composed of the Pr-rich and Pr2Fe14B without any oxides and α-Fe and enables grain refinement. The pore ratios were 2.87, 1.42, and 0.22% at the deformation temperatures of 600, 700, 800°C, respectively in the rolled samples to align the c-axis which is the magnetic easy axis. Because Pr-rich phase cannot flow into the pore with a liquid state at low temperature, the improvement of pore densification was gradually observed with increasing deformation temperature. To confirm the magnetic decoupling effects of Pr2Fe14B phases by Pr-rich phases, the magnetic properties were investigated in rolled samples produced at the deformation temperature of 800°C. Although the remanent field is slightly decreased by 30%, the coercivity fields increased by about 2 times than that previous casted ingot. It is suggested that the gas atomization method can be suitable for fabricating grain refined and pure PrFeB magnets, and the plastic deformation conditions and rolling directions are a critical role to manipulate microstructure and magnetic properties.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] S.G. Yoon, Transfer, Super Strong Permanent Magnets, 1, UUP, Ulsan (1999).
[2] J.G. Lee, J.H. Yu, Ceramist 17 (3), 50-60 (2014).
[3] H .Y. Yasuda, M. Kumano, T. Nagase, R. Kato, H. Shimizu, Scripta Mater. 65 (8), 743-746 (2011).
[4] J.Y. Cho, S.F. Abbas, Y.H. Choa, T.S. Kim, Arch. Metall. Mater. 64 (2), 623-626 (2019).
[5] J.Y. Cho, Y.H. Choa, S. W. Nam, R. M. Zarar ,T. S. Kim, Arch. Metall. Mater. 65 (4), 1293-1296 (2020).
[6] J.H. Lee, J.Y. Cho, S.W. Nam, S.F. Abbas, K.M. Lim, T.S. Kim, Sci. Adv. Mater. 9 (10), 1859-1862 (2017).
[7] K . Akioka, O. Kobayashi, T. Yamagami, A. Arai, T. Shimoda, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 5829-5831 (1991).
[8] A.G. Popov, D.V. Gunderov, T.Z. Puzanova, G.I. Raab, Phys. Met. Metall. 103 (1), 51-57 (2007).
[9] M. Ferrante, E. Freitas, V. Sinka, Mater. Sci. Technol. 15, 501-509 (1999).
[10] H .W. Kwon, P. Bowen, I.R. Harris, J. Alloys Compd. 189, 131-137 (1992).
[11] N. Cifitci, N. Ellendt, G. Coulthard, E.S. Barreto, L. Madler, V. Uhlenwinkel, Metall. Mater. Trans. B 50, 666-677 (2019).
[12] N. Takahashi, H. Nakamura, C.R. Paik, S. Sugimoto, M. Okada, M. Homma, Mater. Trans. 32 (1), 90-92 (1991).
[13] Y. Luo, N. Zhang, proc. 10th Int. Workshop on Rare Earth Magnets and Their Application, Kyoto, 275 (1989).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Ju-Young Cho
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Myung-Suk Song
1
ORCID: ORCID
Yong-Ho Choa
2
ORCID: ORCID
Taek-Soo Kim
1 3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Research Institute of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, 156 Gaetbeol-ro (Songdo-dong), Yeonsu-Gu, Incheon 21999, Korea
  2. Hanyang University, Department of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Ansan 15588, Korea
  3. University of Science and Technology, Critical Materials and Semi-Conductor Packaging Engineering, Daejeon 3413, Republic of Korea
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In this study, precipitation of Ca in Al-Mg alloys containing a trace of Ca during homogenization was investigated using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and calculated phase diagrams. TEM result indicated that the Ca-based particles found in the examined sample are Ca7Mg7.5Si14. From the calculation of Scheil-Gulliver cooling, it was found that the Ca was formed as Al4Ca and C36 laves phases with Mg2Si and Al13Fe4 from other impurities phase during solidification. No Ca-Mg-Si ternary phase existed at the homogenization temperature in the calculated phase diagram. From the phase diagram of Al-Al4Ca-Mg2Si three-phase isothermal at 490℃, it was shown that Ca7Mg6Si14 phase co-exists with Al, Mg2Si and Al4Ca in the largest region and with only Al and Mg2Si in Al4Ca-poor regions. It was thought that the Ca7Mg6Si14 ternary phase was formed by the interaction between Mg2Si and Al4Ca considering that the segregation can occur throughout the entire microstructures.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] J.R. Davis, ASM International, Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys, Materials Park 1993.
[2] G . Wu, K. Dash, M.L. Galano, K.A.Q. O’Reilly, Corros. Sci. 155, 97 (2019).
[3] B.H. Kim, S.H. Ha, Y.O. Yoon, H.K. Lim, S.K. Kim, D.H. Kim, Mater. Lett. 228, 108 (2018).
[4] S.H. Ha, B.H. Kim, Y.O. Yoon, H.K. Lim, T.W. Lee, S.H. Lim, S.K. Kim, Sci. Adv. Mater. 10, 697 (2018).
[5] D. Ajmera, E. Panda, Corros. Sci. 102, 425 (2016).
[6] S.H. Ha, J.K. Lee, S.K. Kim, Mater. Trans. 49, 1081 (2008).
[7] S.H. Ha, B.H. Kim, Y.O. Yoon, H.K. Lim, T.W. Lee, S.H. Lim, S.K. Kim, Int. J. Metalcast. 13, 121 (2019).
[8] J.W. Jeong, J.S. Im, K. Song, M.H. Kwon, S.K. Kim, Y.B. Kang, S.H. Oh, Acta Mater. 61, 3267 (2013).
[9] K. Ozturk, L.Q. Chen, Z.K. Liu, J. Alloys Compd. 340, 199 (2002).
[10] C.W. Bale, E. Bélisle, P. Chartrand, S.A. Decterov, G. Eriksson, A.E. Gheribi, K. Hack, I.H. Jung, Y.B. Kang, J. Melançon, A.D. Pelton, S. Petersen, C. Robelin, J. Sangster, P. Spencer, M.A. Van Ende, Calphad 54, 35 (2016).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Seong-Ho Ha
1
ORCID: ORCID
Young-Chul Shin
1
ORCID: ORCID
Bong-Hwan Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Young-Ok Yoon
1
ORCID: ORCID
Hyun-Kyu Lim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sung-Hwan Lim
2
ORCID: ORCID
Shae K. Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Incheon 21999, Republic of Korea
  2. Kangwon National University, Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Chuncheon 24341, Republic of Korea
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

The Sn-Ag-Cu-based solder paste screen-printing method has primarily been used to fabricate Bi2Te3-based thermoelectric (TE) modules, as Sn-based solder alloys have a low melting temperature (approximately 220℃) and good wettability with Cu electrodes. However, this process may result in uneven solder thickness when the printing pressure is not constant. Therefore, we suggested a novel direct-bonding method between the Bi2Te3-based TE elements and the Cu electrode by electroplating a 100 µm Sn/ 1.3 µm Pd/ 3.5 µm Ni bonding layer onto the Bi2Te3-based TE elements. It was determined that there is a problem with the amount of precipitation and composition depending on the pH change, and that the results may vary depending on the composition of Pd. Thus, double plating layers were formed, Ni/Pd, which were widely commercialized. The Sn/Pd/Ni electroplating was highly reliable, resulting in a bonding strength of 8 MPa between the thermoelectric and Cu electrode components, while the Pd and Ni electroplated layer acted as a diffusion barrier between the Sn layer and the Bi2Te3 TE. This process of electroplating Sn/Pd/Ni onto the Bi2Te3 TE elements presents a novel method for the fabrication of TE modules without using the conventional Sn-alloy-paste screen-printing method.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] L.D. Hicks, Effect of quantum-well structures on the thermoelectric figure of merit, Phys. Rev. B 47, 12727-12731 (1993).
[2] R .J. Mehta, Y. Zhang, C. Karthik, B. Singh, R.W. Siegel, T. Borca- Tascuic, G. Ramanath, Nature Mater. 11, 233 (2012).
[3] K .T. Kim, I.J. Son, G.H. Ha, Synthesis and thermoelectric properties of carbon nanotube-dispersed Bi2Te3 matrix composite powders by chemical routes, J. Korean Powder Metall. Inst. 20, 345-349 (2013).
[4] Y. Gelbstein, Z. Dashevsky, M.P. Dariel, High performance n-type PbTe-based materials for thermoelectric applications, Physica B 363, 196-205 (2005).
[5] D.Y. Chung, T. Hogan, P. Brazis, M. Rocci-Lane, C. Kannewurf, M. Bastea, C. Uher, M.G. Kanatzidis, CsBi4Te6: A high-performance thermoelectric material for low-temperature applications, Science 287, 1024-1027 (2000).
[6] B. Poudel, Q. Hao, Y. Ma, Y. Lan, A. Minnich, B. Yu, X. Yan, D. Wang, A. Muto, D. Vashaee, High-thermoelectric performance of nanostructured bismuth antimony telluride bulk alloys, Sci. Express 320, 634-638 (2008).
[7] C. Wood, Materials for thermoelectric energy conversion, Rep. Prog. Phys. 51, 459-539 (1988).
[8] G .J. Snyder, E.S. Toberer, Complex thermoelectric materials, Nat. Mater. 7, 105-114 (2008).
[9] H. Wada, K. Takahashi, T. Nishizaka, Electroless nickel plating to Bi-Te sintered alloy and its properties, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 9, 810-812 (1990).
[10] S.H. Bae, H.J., Jo, I. Son, H.S. Sohn, K.T. Kim, Wet Etching Method for Electroless Ni-P Plating of Bi-Te Thermoelectric Element, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 19, 1749-1754 (2019).
[11] S. Han, I. Son, K.T. Kim, Effect of pd-p layer on the bonding strength of bi-te thermoelectric elements, Arch. Metall. Mater. 64, 963-968 (2019).
[12] J. Yoon, S.H. Bae, H.S. Sohn, I. Son, K.T. Kim, Y.W. Ju, A Novel Fabrication Method of Bi2Te3-Based Thermoelectric Modules by Indium Electroplating and Thermocompression Bonding, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 18, 6515-6519 (2018).
[13] J. Yoon, S.H. Bae, H.S. Sohn, I. Son, K. Park, S. Cho, K.T. Kim, Fabrication of a Bi2Te3-Based Thermoelectric Module Using Tin Electroplating and Thermocompression Bonding. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 19, 1738-1742 (2019).
[14] S. Chen, C. Chiu, Unusual cruciform pattern interfacial reactions in Sn/Te couples, Scr. Mater. 56, 97-99 (2007).
[15] P.A. Villars, three-dimensional structural stability diagram for 998 binary AB intermetallic compounds, J. Less-Common Met. 92, 215-238 (1983).
[16] Y. Lan, D. Wang, G. Chen, Z. Ren, Diffusion of nickel and tin in p-type (Bi,Sb)2Te3 and n-type Bi2(Te,Se)3 thermoelectric materials, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101910 (2008).
[17] W .P. Lin, D.E. Wesolowski, C.C. Lee, Barrier/bonding layers on bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) for high temperature thermoelectric modules, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 22, 1313-1320 (2011).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Seok Jun Kang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sung Hwa Bae
2
ORCID: ORCID
Injoon Son
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Kyungpook National University, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Daegu, Republic of Korea
  2. Kyushu University, Graduate School of Engineering, Department of Materials Process Engineering, Fukuoka, Japan
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

To improve the mechanical performance of BiTe-based thermoelectric modules, this study applies anti-diffusion layers that inhibit the generation of metal intercompounds and an electroless nickel/electrode palladium/mission gold (ENEPIG) plating layers to ensure a stable bonding interface. If a plated layer is formed only on BiTe-based thermoelectric, the diffusion of Cu in electrode substrates produces an intermetallic compound. Therefore, the ENEPIG process was applied on the Cu electrode substrate. The bonding strength highly increased from approximately 10.4 to 16.4 MPa when ENEPIG plating was conducted to the BiTe-based thermoelectric element. When ENEPIG plating was performed to both the BiTe-based thermoelectric element and the Cu electrode substrate, the bonding strength showed the highest value of approximately 17.6 MPa, suggesting that the ENEPIG process is effective in ensuring a highly reliable bonding interface of the BiTe-based thermoelectric module.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] L.D. Hicks, Effect of quantum-well structures on the thermoelectric figure of merit, Phys. Rev. B 47, 12727-12731 (1993).
[2] H.J. Goldsmid, R.W. Douglas, The use of semiconductors in thermoelectric refrigeration, J. Appl. Phys. 5, 386 (1954).
[3] F.J. Isalro, Thermoelectric cooling and power generation, Science 285, 703-706 (1999).
[4] K.T. Kim, S.Y. Choi, E.H. Shin, K.S. Moon, H.Y. Koo, G.G. Lee, G.H. Ha, The influence of CNTs on the thermoelectric properties of a CNT/Bi2Te3 composite, Carbon 52, 541-549 (2013).
[5] F.D. Rosi, Thermoelectricity and thermoelectric power generation, Solid State Electron. 11, 833-868 (1968).
[6] R. Venkatasubramanian, E. Siivola, T. Colpitts, B. O’Quinn, Thinfilm thermoelectric devices with high room-temperature figures of merit, Nature 413, 597-602 (2001).
[7] R.C. Sharma, Y.A. Chang, The Se-Sn (selenium-tin) system, Bull. Alloy Phase Diagr. 7, 68-72 (1986).
[8] C. Chiu, C. Wang, S. Chen, Interfacial reactions in the Sn-Bi/Te couples. J. Electron. Mater. 37, 40-44 (2008).
[9] L. Lo, A. Wu, Interfacial reactions between diffusion barriers and thermoelectric materials under current stressing, J. Electron. Mater. 41, 3325-3330 (2012).
[10] I . Kato, T. Kato, H. Terashima, H. Watanabe, H. Honma, Influences of electroless nickel film conditions on electroless Au/ Pd/Ni wire bondability, Trans. JIEP. 3, 78-85 (2010).
[11] S.H. Bae, J.Y. Choi, I. Son, Effect of electroless Ni-P plating on the bonding strength of PbTe thermoelectric module using silver alloy-based brazing, Mater. Sci. Forum 985, 16-22 (2020).
[12] S. Bae, S. Kim, S. Yi, I. Son, K. Kim, H. Chung, Effect of surface roughness and electroless Ni-P plating on the bonding strength of Bi-Te-based thermoelectric modules, Coatings 9, 213-221 (2019).
[13] Y.T. Choi, S.H. Bae, I. Son, H.S. Sohn, K.T. Kim, Y.W. Ju, fabrication of aluminum-based thermal radiation plate for thermoelectric module using aluminum anodic oxidization and copper electroplating, J Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 18, 6404-6409 (2018).
[14] J . Yoon, S.H. Bae, H.S. Sohn, I. Son, K. Park, S. Cho, K.T. Kim, Fabrication of a Bi2Te3-based thermoelectric module using tin electroplating and thermocompression bonding, J Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 19, 1738-1742 (2019).
[15] K.H. Kim, I. Seo, S,H. W. Kwon, J. K. Kim, J.W. Yoon, S. Yoo, Effects of Ni-P bath on the brittle fracture of Sn-Ag-Cu solder/ ENEPIG solder joint, J. Welding and Joining. 35, 97-202 (2017).
[16] J .H. Back, S. Yoo, D.G. Han, S.B. Jung, J.W. Yoon, Effect of thin ENEPIG plating thickness on interfacial reaction and brittle fracture rate of Sn-0.3Ag-0.5Cu solder joints, Weld. Join. 36, 52-60 (2018).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Subin Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sung Hwa Bae
2
ORCID: ORCID
Injoon Son
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Kyungpook National University, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Daegu, Republic of Korea
  2. Kyushu University Graduate School of Engineering, Department of Materials Process Engineering, Fukuoka, Japan
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

This study investigates the effects of grain boundary structures on mechanical properties of nanocrystalline Al-0.7Mg-1.0Cu alloy using nanoindentation system. Grain boundary structure transforms to high angle grain boundaries from low angle ones with increase of heat treatment temperature and the transformation temperature is about 400℃. Young’s modulus and hardness are higher in sample with low angle grain boundaries, while creep length is larger in sample with high angle ones. These results indicate that progress of plastic deformation at room temperature is more difficult in sample with low angle ones. During compression test at 200℃, strain softening occurs in all samples. However, yield strength in sample with low angle grain boundaries is higher twice than that with high angle ones due to higher activation energy for grain boundary sliding.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] J. Cintas, E.S. Caballero, J.M. Montes, F.G. Cuevas, C. Arevalo, Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2014, 1 (2014).
[2] Y. Liu, Z. Han, H. Cong, Wear 268, 976 (2010).
[3] G . Jeong, J. Park, S. Nam, S.E. Shin, J. Shin, D. Bae, H. Choi, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 60 (2), 1287 (2015).
[4] M. Yu. Gutkin, I.A. Ovid’ko, N.V. Skiba, Phys. Solid State 47, 1662 (2005).
[5] H. Van Swygenhoven, M. Spaczer, A. Caro, Acta Mater. 47, 3117 (1999).
[6] Y. Xun, M.J. Tan, K.M. Liew, Scripta Mater. 61 (1), 76 (2009).
[7] Y. Xun, M.J. Tan, K.M. Liew, J. Mater. Processing Tech. 162-163, 429 (2005).
[8] T.J. Rupert, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 033527 (2013).
[9] T.R. McNelly, D.L. Swisher, M.T. Perez-Prado, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 33, 279 (2002).
[10] Y. Rao, A.J. Waddon, R.J. Farris, Polymer 42 (13), 5925 (2001).
[11] A.C. Fisher-Crips, Nanoindentation, Springer-Verlag, New York 2002.
[12] M.S. Asl, B. Nayebi, A. Motallebzadeh, M. Shokouhimehr, Compos. B Eng. 175, 107153 (2019).
[13] S . Sinha, R. Mirshams, T. Wang, S. Nene, M. Frank, K. Liu, R. Mishra, Sci. Rep. 9, 6639 (2019).
[14] L. Melk, J.J.R. Rovira, F. García-Marro, M.-L. Antti, B. Milsom, M.J. Reece, M. Anglada Ceram. Int. 41, 2453 (2015).
[15] G . He, C. Xu, C. Liu, H. Liu, Mater. Des. 202, 109459 (2021).
[16] Q. Duan, H. Pan, B. Fu, J. Yan, Steel Res. Int. 2019, 1900317 (2019).
[17] C.S. Pande, K.P. Cooper, Prog. Mater. Sci. 54 (6), 689 (2009).
[18] C. Zheng, Y.W. Zhang, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 423 (1-2), 97 (2006).
[19] C.-W. Nan, X. Li, K. Cai, J. Tong, J. Mater. Sci. Letters 17 (22), 1917 (1998).
[20] M. Becton, X. Wang, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 21894 (2015).
[21] H. Hasegawa, S. Komura, A. Utsunomiya, Z. Horita, M. Furukawa, M. Nemoto, T.G. Langdon, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 265, 188 (1999).
[22] P .R. Rios, F.S. Jr, H.R.Z. Sandim, R.L. Plaut, A.F. Padiha, Mater. Research 8 (3), 225 (2005).
[23] AH. Cottrell In: Chalmers B, editor. Theory of dislocations, Progress in Metal Physics. 4, 251 (1953) London, Pergamon Press.
[24] R .W. Cahn, Proceedings of the Physical Society, Ser. AI. 63 (364), 323 (1950).
[25] W.C. Oliver, G.M. Pharr, J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564 (1992).
[26] D. Jang, M. Atzmon, J. App. Phy. 93 (11), 9282 (2003).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Jin Man Jang
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Wonsik Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID
Se-Hyun Ko
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon, 21999, Republic of Korea
  2. Inha University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Incheon, 22212, Republic of Korea
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

As a wafer cleaning process, RCA (Radio Corporation of America) cleaning is mainly used. However, RCA cleaning has problems such as instability of bath life, re-adsorption of impurities and high-temperature cleaning. Herein, we tried to improve the purity of silicon wafers by using a chelating agent (oxalic acid) to solve these problems. Compounds produced by the reaction between the cleaning solution and each metal powder were identified by referring to the pourbaix diagram. All metals exhibited a particle size distribution of 10 μm or more before reaction, but a particle size distribution of 500 nm or less after reaction. In addition, it was confirmed that the metals before and after the reaction showed different absorbances. As a result of elemental analysis on the surface of the reclaimed silicon wafer cleaned through such a cleaning solution, it was confirmed that no secondary phase was detected other than Si.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] K. Liu, D. Zuo, X.P. Li, M. Rahman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures 27 (3), 1361-1366 (2009).
[2] M. Kim, K. Ryu, K.J. Lee, J. Korean Powder Metall. Inst. 28 (1), 25-30 (2021)
[3] W. Kern, J. Electrochem. Soc. 137 (6), 1887-1892 (1990).
[4] O .J. Anttila, J. Electrochem. Soc. 139 (4), 1180-1185 (1992).
[5] K. Saga, J. Electrochem. Soc. 143 (10), 3279-3284 (1996).
[6] M. Itano, F.W. Kern, M. Miyashita, T. Ohmi, IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 6 (3), 258-267 (1993).
[7] W. Kern, Handbook of silicon wafer cleaning technology, United States 2018.
[8] M. Matsuo, T. Takahashi, H. Habuka, A. Goto, Mat. Sci. Semicon. Proc. 110, 104970 (2020).
[9] G .W. Gale, D.L. Rath, E.I. Cooper, S. Estes, H.F. Okorn-Schmidt, J. Brigante, R. Jagannathan, G. Settembre, E. Adams, J. Electrochem. Soc. 148 (9), G513-G516 (2001).
[10] D. Liu, Z. Li, Y. Zhu, Z. Li, R. Kumar, Carbohydr. Polym. 111, 469-476 (2014).
[11] J.B. Fein, Geology 19 (10), 1037-1040 (1991).
[12] N. Zubair, K. Akhtar, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 29 (1), 143-156 (2019).
[13] D. Nansheng, W. Feng, L. Fan, L. Zan, Chemosphere 35 (11), 2697-2706 (1997).
[14] A.K. Sharma, A. Singh, R.K. Mehta, S. Sharma, S.P. Bansal, K.S. Gupta, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 43 (7), 379-392 (2011).
[15] M.Z. Mubarok, J. Lieberto, Procedia Earth Planet. Sci. 6, 457-464 (2013).
[16] D. Rai, B.M. Sass, D.A. Moore, Inorg. Chem. 26 (3), 345-349 (1987).
[17] C.H. Bamford, R.G. Compton, C.F.H. Tipper, Reactions of metallic salts and complexes, and organometallic compounds, Elsevier 1972.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Keunhyuk Ryu
1
Myungsuk Kim
1
Jaeseok Roh
1
ORCID: ORCID
Kun-Jae Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Dankook University, Department of Energy Engineering, Cheonan 31116, Republic of Korea
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

This study investigated the recovery behavior of valuable metals (Co, Ni, Cu and Mn) in spent lithium ion-batteries based on Al2O3-SiO2-CaO-Fe2O3 slag system via DC submerged arc smelting process. The valuable metals were recovered by 93.9% at the 1250℃ for 30 min on the 20Al2O3-40SiO2-20CaO-20Fe2O3 (mass%) slag system. From the analysis of the slag by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, it was considered that Fe2O3 and Al2O3 acted as basic oxides to depolymerize SiO4 and AlO4 under the addition of critical 20 mass% Fe2O3 in 20Al2O3-40SiO2-CaO-Fe2O3 (CaO + Fe2O3 = 40 mass%). In addition, it was observed that the addition of Fe2O3 ranging between 20 and 30 mass% lowers the melting point of the slag system.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] S. Al-Thyabat, T. Nakamura, E. Shibata, A. Iizuka, Minerals Engineering 45, 4-17 (2013).
[2] L. Lu, X. Han, J. Li, J. Hua, M. Ouyang, Journal of Power Sources 226, 272-288 (2013).
[3] X. Wang, G. Gaustad, C.-W. Babbitt, C. Bailey, Journal of Environmental Management 135, 126-134 (2014).
[4] A. Boyden, V.-K. Soo, M. Doolan, Procedia CIRP 48, 188-193 (2016).
[5] X. Zheng, Z. Zhu, X. Lin, Y. Zhang, Y. He, H. Cao, Z. Sun, Engineering 4, 361-370 (2018).
[6] T.-G. Maschler, B. Friedrich, R. Weyhe, H. Heegn, M. Rutz, Journal of Power Sources 207, 173-182 (2012).
[7] G . Wu, S. Seebold, E. Yazhenskikh, K. Hack, M. Müller, Fuel Processing Technology 171, 339-349 (2018).
[8] M.-L. Pearce, J.-F. Beisler, Journal of The American Ceramic Society 49, 547-551 (1966).
[9] N. Saito, N. Hori, K. Nakashima, K. Mori, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B 34B, 509-516 (2003).
[10] M. Nakamoto, Y. Miyanayashi, L, Holappa, T. Tanaka, ISIJ International 47, 1409-1415 (2007).
[11] H . Park, J.-Y. Park, G.-H. Kim, I. Sohn, Steel Research Int. 83, 150-156 (2012).
[12] H . Kim, W.-H. Kim, I. Sohn, D.-J. Min, Steel Research Int. 81, 261-264 (2010).
[13] J.-H. Park, D.-J. Min, H.-S. Song, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B 35B, 269-275 (2004).
[14] G .-H. Cartledge, The Journal of the American Chemical Society 50, 2855-2863(1928).
[15] D. Wang, L. Jin, Y. Li, B. Wei, D. Yao, T. Wang, H. Hu, Fuel Processing Technology 191, 20-28 (2019).
[16] J. Pesl, R.-H. Eric, Minerals Engineering 15, 971-984 (2002).
[17] S. Wu, J. Xu, S. Yang, Q. Zhou, L. Zhang, ISIJ international 50, 1032-1039 (2010).
[18] X.-J. Zhai, N.-J. Li, X. Zhang, F.-U. Yan, L. Jiang, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 21, 2117-2121 (2011).
[19] G . Ren, S. Xiao, M. Xie, PAN. Bing, C. Jian, F. Wang, X. Xia, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 27, 450-456 (2017).
[20] V . Rayapudi, S. Agrawal, N. Dhawan, Minerals Engineering 138, 204-214 (2019).
[21] K. Prabriputaloong, M.-R. Piggott, Journal of the American Ceramic Society 56, 177-180 (1973).
[22] C. Hamann, D. Stoffler, W.-U. Reimold, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 192, 295-317 (2016).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Tae Boong Moon
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Chulwoong Han
2
ORCID: ORCID
Soong Keun Hyun
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sung Cheol Park
2
ORCID: ORCID
Seong Ho Son
2
ORCID: ORCID
Man Seung Lee
3
ORCID: ORCID
Yong Hwan Kim
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Inha University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Incheon, Korea
  2. Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Research Institute of Advanced Manufacturing and Materials Technology Incheon, 156, Gaetbeol Rd., Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, 406-840, Korea
  3. Mokpo National University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering Mokpo, Korea
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

As the amount of high-capacity secondary battery waste gradually increased, waste secondary batteries for industry (high-speed train & HEV) were recycled and materialization studies were carried out. The precipitation experiment was carried out with various conditions in the synthesis of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 material using a Taylor reactor. The raw material used in this study was a leaching solution generated from waste nickel-based batteries. The nickel-cobalt-manganese (NCM) precursor was prepared by the Taylor reaction process. Material analysis indicated that spherical powder was formed, and the particle size of the precursor was decreased as the reaction speed was increased during the preparation of the NCM. The spherical NCM powder having a particle size of 10 µm was synthesized using reaction conditions, stirring speed of 1000 rpm for 24 hours. The NCM precursor prepared by the Taylor reaction was synthesized as a cathode material for the LIB, and then a coin-cell was manufactured to perform the capacity evaluation.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] A.M. Bernardes, D.C.R. Espinosa, J.A.S. Tenorio, J. Power Sour. 130, 291 (2004).
[2] D.W. Kim, I. J. Park, N.K. Ahn, H.C. Jung, S.H. Jung, J.Y. Choi, D.H. Yang, J. of Kor. Inst. of Res. Rec. 27 (4), 36 (2018).
[3] D.H. Han, I.J. Park, M.J. Kim, D.W. Kim, H.C. Jung, Kor. J. Met. Mater. 57 (6), 360 (2019).
[4] W.S. Kim, J. Chem. Eng. Jpn. 47, 115 (2014).
[5] R. Schmuch, V. Siozios, M. Winter, T. Placke, Mat. Matters 15, 2 (2020).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Hang-Chul Jung
1
ORCID: ORCID
Deokhyun Han
1
ORCID: ORCID
Dae-Weon Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Byungmin Ahn
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Yongin, Korea
  2. Ajou University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Energy Systems Research, 206 Worldcup-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi, 16499, Korea
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In this paper, synthesize MoO3 particles with various particle properties by control growth influence factors was mainly studied. The experimental conditions were established in molar ratio of Mo:urea and pH levels. The plate-type of MoO3 particles were formed without proceeding any established conditions, but the rod-shape particles were formed by adjusting molar ratio of Mo:urea. Also, different ranges of the particle size were formed by adjusting experimental conditions. Through the results, it was confirmed that particles with a size in the range of 300 ~ 400 nm were obtained by adjusting precursor concentration and the micrometer size of particles were formed by increase pH levels. The properties of the particles formed accordingly by setting various factors that can affect the growth process of MoO3 particle was analyzed as variables and the particle growth behavior was also observed.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] N.Z. Wooster, Kristallogr. Cryst. Mater. 80 (1-6), 504-512 (1932).
[2] P. Martín-Ramos, A.Fernández-Coppel I, M. Avella, J. Martin-Gil, Nanomaterials 8 (7), 559 (2018).
[3] Y. Zhao, J. Liu, Y. Zhou, Z. Zhang, Y. Xu. H. Naramoto, S. Yamamoto, J. Condens, Matter Phys. 15 (35), L547 (2013).
[4] J. Haber, E. Lalik, Catal. Today. 33 (1-3), 119-137 (1997).
[5] Y. Song, Y. Zhao, Z. Huang, J. Zhao, J. Alloys Compd. 693, 1290- 1296 (2017).
[6] F.P. Daly, H. Ando, J.L. Schmitt, E.A Sturm, J. Catal. 108 (2), 401-408 (1987).
[7] J. Wang, S. Dong, C. Yu, X. Han, J. Guo, J. Sun, Catal. Commun. 92, 100-104 (2017).
[8] M . Chen, X. Ma, R. Ma, Z. Wen, F. Yan, K. Cui, Y. Li, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 56 (47), 14025-14033 (2017).
[9] K. Chen, S. Xie, A.T. Bell, E. Iglesia, J. Catal. 198 (2), 232-242 (2001).
[10] M . Saghafi, S. Heshmati-Manesh, A. Ataie, A.A. Khodadadi, Int. J. Refract. Hard Met. 30 (1), 128-132 (2012).
[11] A. Borgschulte, O. Sambalova, R. Delmelle, S. Jenatsch, R. Hany, F. Nüesch, Sci. Rep. 7, 40761 (2017).
[12] J. Orehotsky, M. Kaczenski, Mater. Sci. Eng. C. 40 (2), 245-250 (1979).
[13] Y. Zhang, S. Jiao, C.K. Chou, G.H. Zhang, Int. J. Hydrog. Energy. 45 (3), 1435-1443 (2020).
[14] L. Wang, G.H. Zhang, J.S. Wang, K.C. Chou, J. Phys. Chem. C. 120 (7), 4097-4103 (2016).
[15] D.P. Khomoksonova, A.D. Budaeva, I.G. Antropova, IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 320, No. 1, 012033 (2019).
[16] B.S Kim, H.I Lee, Y.Y. Choi, S. Kim, Mater. Trans. 50 (11), 2669- 2674 (2009).
[17] Z. Li, J. Ma, B. Zhang, C. Song, D. Wang, CrystEngComm. 19 (11), 1479-1485 (2017).
[18] B. Li, X. Wang, X. Wu, G. He, R. Xu, X. Lu, I.P. Parkin, Nanoscale. 9 (31), 11012-11016 (2017).
[19] T. Xia, Q. Li, X. Liu, J. Meng, X. Cao, J. Phys. Chem. B. 110 (5), 2006-2012 (2006).
[20] C.V. Ramana, V.V. Atuchin, I.B. Troitskaia, S.A. Gromilov, V.G. Kostrovsky, G.B. Saupe, Solid State Commun. 149 (1-2), 6-9 (2009).
[21] S. Sen, T. Dzwiniel, K. Pupek, G. Krumdick, P. Tkac, G.F. Vandegrift, Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). ANL/NE-16/47 (2016).
[22] D. Parviz, M. Kazemeini, A.M. Rashidi, K.J. Jozani, J. Nanopart. Res. 12 (4), 1509-1521 (2010).
[23] M .D. Ward, J.F. Brazdil, R.K. Grasselli, J. Phys. Chem. C. 88 (19), 4210-4213 (1984). [24] X.W. Lou, H.C. Zeng, Chem. Mater. 14 (11), 4781-4789 (2002).
[25] H . Tyagi, A. Kushwaha, A. Kumar, M. Aslam, Int. J. Nanosci. 10 (04n05), 857-860 (2011).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Namhun Kwon
1
ORCID: ORCID
Seyoung Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jaeseok Roh
1
ORCID: ORCID
Kun-Jae Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Dankook University, Department of Energy Engineering, Cheonan 31116, Republic of Korea
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In this study, a novel composite was fabricated by adding the Hafnium diboride (HfB2) to conventional WC-Co cemented carbides to enhance the high-temperature properties while retaining the intrinsic high hardness. Using spark plasma sintering, high density (up to 99.4%) WC-6Co-(1, 2.5, 4, and 5.5 wt. %) HfB2 composites were consolidated at 1300℃ (100℃/min) under 60 MPa pressure. The microstructural evolution, oxidation layer, and phase constitution of WC-Co-HfB2 were investigated in the distribution of WC grain and solid solution phases by X-ray diffraction and FE-SEM. The WC-Co-HfB2 composite exhibited improved mechanical properties (approximately 2,180.7 kg/mm2) than those of conventional WC-Co cemented carbides. The high strength of the fabricated composites was caused by the fine-grade HfB2 precipitate and the solid solution, which enabled the tailoring of mechanical properties.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] J.H. Lee, I.H. Oh, J.H. Jang, S.K. Hong, H.K. Park, J. Alloys Compd. 786, 1-10 (2019).
[2] J. Garcia, V.C. Cipres, A. Blomqvist, B. Kaplan, Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater. 80, 40-68 (2019).
[3] S.A. Shalmani, M. Sobhani, O. Mirzaee, M. Zakeri, Ceram. Int. 46 (16), 25106-25112 (2020).
[4] M .D. Brut, D. Tetard, C. Tixier, C. Faure, E. Chabas, 10th International Conference of the European Ceramic Society, Berlin, 1315-1320 (2007).
[5] A.K. Kumar, K. Kurokawa, Books: Tungsten carbide – Processing and applications, chapter 2: Spark plasma sintering of ultrafine WC powders: A combined kinetic and microstructural study (2012).
[6] R .G. Crookes, B. Marz, H. Wu, Mater. Des. 187, 108360 (2020).
[7] C. Bargeron, R. Benson, R. Newman, A.N. Jette, T.E. Phillips, Mater. Sci. (1993).
[8] C. Bagnall, J. Capo, W.J. Moorhead, Metallography Microstructure Analysis 7, 661-679 (2018).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Hyun-Kuk Park
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ik-Hyun Oh
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ju-Hun Kim
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Sung-Kil Hong
2
ORCID: ORCID
Jeong-Han Lee
1 2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Smart Mobility Materials and Components R&D Group, 6, Cheomdan-gwa giro 208-gil, Buk-gu, Gwan g-Ju, 61012, Korea
  2. Chonnam National University, Materials Science & Engineering, 77, Yong-bongro, Buk-gu, Gwan g-ju, 61186, Korea
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Liquid Metal Extraction process using molten Mg was carried out to obtain Nd-Mg alloys from Nd based permanent magnets at 900oC for 24 h. with a magnet to magnesium mass ratio of 1:10. Nd was successfully extracted from magnet into Mg resulting in ~4 wt.% Nd-Mg alloy. Nd was recovered from the obtained Nd-Mg alloys based on the difference in their vapor pressures using vacuum distillation. Vacuum distillation experiments were carried out at 800oC under vacuum of 2.67 Pa at various times for the recovery of high purity Nd. Nd having a purity of more than 99% was recovered at distillation time of 120 min and above. The phase transformations of the Nd-Mg alloy during the process, from Mg12Nd to α-Nd, were confirmed as per the phase diagram at different distillation times. Pure Nd was recovered as a result of two step recycling process; Liquid Metal Extraction followed by Vacuum Distillation.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] J.D. Widmer, R. Martin, M. Kimiabeigi, SM&T. 3, 7-13 (2015).
[2] S . Kruse, K. Raulf, T. Pretz, B. Friedrich, J. Sustain. Metall. 3, 168-178 (2017).
[3] N. Haque, A. Hughes, S. Lim, C. Vernon, Resources. 3 (4), 614- 635 (2014).
[4] D . Schüler, M. Buchert, R. Liu, S. Dittrich, C. Merz, Study on Rare Earths and Their Recycling Final Report for the Greens/European Free Alliance Group in the European Parliament, Germany 2011.
[5] Saleem H. Ali, Resources 3, 123-134 (2014).
[6] T.H. Okabe, Trans. Inst. Min. Metall. 126 (1-2), 22-32 (2016).
[7] K . Halada, J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. 20 (2), 49-58 (2009).
[8] T.H. Okabe, O. Takeda, K. Fukuda, Y. Umetsu, Mater. Trans. 44 (4), 798-801 (2003).
[9] Y. Xu, L.S. Chumbley, F.C. Laabs, J. Mater. Res. 15 (11), 2296- 2304 (2000).
[10] H .J. Chae, Y.D. Kim, B.S. Kim, J.G. Kim, T.S. Kim, J. Alloys Compd. 586 (s1), 143-149 (2014).
[11] T. Akahori, Y. Miyamoto, T. Saeki, M. Okamoto, T.H. Okabe, J. Alloys Compd. 703, 337-343 (2017).
[12] S . Delfino, A. Saccone, R. Ferro, Metall. Trans. A. 21A, 2109-2114 (1990).
[13] A.A. Nayeb-Hashemi, J.B. Clark, Phase Diagrams of Binary Manganese Alloys, ASM International, Ohio (1988).
[14] [H. Okamoto, J. Phase Equilib. 12, 249 (1991).
[15] S . Gorssea, C.R. Hutchinsonb, B. Chevaliera, J.F. Nieb, J. Alloys Compd. 392, 253-262 (2005).
[16] I . Barin, Thermochemical Data of Pure Substances, Germany (1989).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Mohammad Zarar Rasheed
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Sun-Woo Nam
2
ORCID: ORCID
Sang-Hoon Lee
2
ORCID: ORCID
Sang-Min Park
2
ORCID: ORCID
Ju-Young Cho
2
ORCID: ORCID
Taek-Soo Kim
1 2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Science and Technology, Industrial Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
  2. Korea Institute for Rare Metals, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon, Republic of Korea
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

The microstructure and mechanical properties of hot-rolled Fe-9Mn-0.2C medium-manganese steels with different Al, Cu, and Ni contents were investigated in this study. Based on the SEM, XRD, and EBSD analysis results, the microstructure was composed of martensite, band-type delta ferrite, and retained austenite phases depending on the Al, Cu, and Ni additions. The tensile and Charpy impact test results showed that the sole addition of Al reduced significantly impact toughness by the presence of delta-ferrite and the decrease of austenite stability although it increased yield strength. However, the combined addition of Al and Cu or Ni provided the best combination of high yield strength and good impact toughness because of solid solution strengthening and increased austenite stability.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] S.I. Lee, S.Y. Lee, J. Han, B. Hwang, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 742, 334-343 (2019).
[2] S.I. Lee, S.Y. Lee, S.G. Lee, H.G. Jung, B. Hwang, Met. Mater. Int. 24, 1221-1231 (2018).
[3] S.Y. Lee, S.I. Lee, B. Hwang, Mater. Sci. Eng. A. 711, 22- 28 (2018).
[4] S.I. Lee, J. Lee, B. Hwang, Mater. Sci. Eng. A. 758, 56-59 (2019). 1011
[5] H . Gwon, S. Shin, J. Jeon, T. Song, S. Kim, B.C.D. Cooman, Met. Mater. Int. 25, 594-605 (2019).
[6] Y. Kwon, J.H. Hwang, H.C. Choi, T.T.T. Trang, B. Kim, A. Zargaran, N.J. Kim, Met. Mater. Int. 26, 75-82 (2020).
[7] M . Kuzmina, D. Ponge, D. Raabe, Acta Mater. 86, 182-192 (2015).
[8] H . Choi, S. Lee, J. Lee, F. Barlat, B.C.D. Cooman, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 687, 200-210 (2017).
[9] Z.H. Cai, H. Ding, R.D.K. Misra, H. Kong, H.Y. Wu, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 595, 86-91 (2014).
[10] Z.C. Li, H. Ding, Z.H. Cai, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 639, 559-566 (2015).
[11] T.W. Hong, S.I. Lee, J.H. Shim, J. Lee, M.G. Lee, B. Hwang, Korean J. Mater. Res. 28, 570-577 (2018).
[12] M .T. Kim, T.M. Park, K.H. Baik, W.S. Choi, P.P. Choi, J. Han, Acta. Mater. 164, 122-134 (2019).
[13] M . Soleimani, H. Mirzadeh, C. Dehghanian, Met. Mater. Int. 26, 882-890 (2020).
[14] S. H. Kim, H. Kim, N. J. Kim, Nature 518, 77-19 (2015).
[15] J.H. Hollomon, Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME, 162, 268-290 (1945).
[16] G E. Dieter, McGraw-Hill, Mechanical Metallurgy, London 1988.
[17] J. Chen, M. Lv, S. Tang, Z. Liu, G. Wang, Mater. Charact. 106, 108-111 (2015).
[18] Y.K. Lee, J. Han, Mater. Sci, Technol. 31, 843-856 (2015).
[19] J. Han, A.K. Silva, D. Ponge, D. Raabe, S.M. Lee, Y.K. Lee, S.I. Lee, B. Hwang, Acta Mater. 122, 199-206 (2017).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Young-Chul Yoon
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sang-Gyu Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sang-Hyeok Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID
Byoungchul Hwang
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 232, Gongneung-Ro., Nowon-gu, Seoul 01811, Korea
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In this paper, as a purpose to apply the supersaturated solid-solutionized Al-9Mg alloy to the structural sheet parts of automotive, tensile tests were conducted under the various conditions and a constitutive equation was derived from the tensile test results. Al-9Mg alloy was produced using a special Mg master alloy containing Al2Ca during the casting process and extruded into the sheet. In order to study the deformation behavior of Al-9Mg alloy in warm temperature forming environments, tensile tests were conducted under the temperature of 373 K-573 K and the strain rate of 0.001/s~0.1/s. In addition, by using the raw data obtained from tensile tests, a constitutive equation of the Al-9Mg alloy was derived for predicting the optimized condition of the hot stamping process. Al-9Mg alloy showed uncommon deformation behavior at the 373 K and 473 K temperature conditions. The calculated curves from the constitutive equation well-matched with the measured curves from the experiments particularly under the low temperature and high strain rate conditions.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] P.F. Bariani, S. Bruschi, A, Ghiotti, F. Michieletto, CIRP Annals 62, 251-254 (2013). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2013.03.050
[2] B.-H. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J.-H. Park, H.-W. Kim, J.-C. Lee, Materials Science and Engineering: A 657, 115-122 (2016). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2016.01.089
[3] D. Li, A. Ghosh, Materials Science and Engineering: A 352, 279- 286 (2003). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-5093(02)00915-2
[4] N.-S. Kim, K.-H. Choi, S.-Y. Yang, S.-H. Ha, Y.-O. Yoon, B.-H. Kim, H.-K. Lim, S.K. Kim, S.-K. Hyun, Metals 11, 288 (2021). DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/met11020288
[5] H. Wang, Y. Luo, P. Friedman, M. Chen, L. Gao, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China 22, 1-7 (2012). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1003-6326(11)61131-X
[6] D. Li, A.K. Ghosh, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 145, 281-293 (2004). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2003.07.003
[7] R .C. Picu, Acta Materialia 52, 3447-3458 (2004). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2004.03.042
[8] C.-H. Cho, H.-W. Son, J.-C. Lee, K.-T. Son, J.-W. Lee, S.-K. Hyun, Materials Science and Engineering: A 779, 139151 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2020.139151
[9] S.-Y. Yang, D.-B. Lee, K.-H. Choi, N.-S. Kim, S.-H. Ha, B.- H. Kim, Y.-O. Yoon, H.-K. Lim, S.K. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, Metals 11, 410 (2021). DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/met11030410
[10] Q. Dai, Y. Deng, H. Jiang, J. Tang, J. Chen, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 766, 138325 (2019). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2019.138325
[11] L. Hua, F. Meng, Y. Song, J. Liu, X. Qin, L. Suo, J. of Materi Eng and Perform 23, 1107-1113 (2014). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-013-0834-2
[12] Y.Q. Cheng, H. Zhang, Z.H. Chen, K.F. Xian, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 208, 29-34 (2008). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2007.12.095
[13] L.C. Tsao, H.Y. Wu, J.C. Leong, C.J. Fang, Materials & Design 34, 179-184 (2012). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2011.07.060
[14] K.C. Chan, G.Q. Tong, Materials Letters 51, 389-395 (2001).
[15] https://www.sentesoftware.co.uk/site-media/flow-stress-curve
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Seung Y. Yang
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Bong H. Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Da B. Lee
1
Kweon H. Choi
1
ORCID: ORCID
Nam S. Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Seong H. Ha
1
Young O. Yoon
1
Hyun K. Lim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Shae Kim
1
Young J. Kim
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Advanced Process and Materials R&D Group, KITECH, 156 Gaetbeol Rd., Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, 21999, Korea
  2. Sungkyunkwan University, Advanced Materials Science & Engineering, SKKU, Suwon, Korea
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In-situ study on the high-temperature fracture behaviour of 347 stainless steel was carried out by using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The welding microstructures of the 347 stainless steel were simulated by subjecting the steel specimen to solution and aging treatments. Undissolved NbC carbides were present within grains after solution treatment, and M23C6 carbides were preferentially formed at grain boundaries after subsequent aging treatment. The M23C6 carbides formed at grain boundaries worked as stress concentration sites and thus generated larger cracks during high-temperature tensile testing. In addition, grain boundary embrittlement was found to be a dominant mechanism for the high-temperature fracture of the 347 stainless steel because vacancy diffusion in the Cr-depleted zones enhances intergranular fracture due to the precipitation of M23C6 carbides at grain boundaries.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] N . Kim, W. Gil, H. Lim, C. Choi, H. Lee, Met. Mater. Int. 25, 193-206 (2019).
[2] B. Jian, X. Hu, Y. Liu, Mat. Mater. Int. 26, 1295-1305 (2020).
[3] H.P. Kim, D.J. Kim, Corros. Sci. Tech. 17, 183-192 (2018).
[4] Y . Zhou, Y. Li, Y. Liu, Q. Guo, C. Liu, L. Yu, C. Li, H. Li, J. Mater. Res. 30, 3642-3652 (2015).
[5] B. Sasmal, J. Mater. Sci. 32, 5439-5444 (1997).
[6] K . Kaneko, T. Fukunage, K. Yamada, N. Nakada, M. Kikuchi, Z. Saghi, J.S. Barnard, P. A. Midgley, Scr. Mater. 65, 509-512 (2011).
[7] J. Vivas, C. Capdevila, E. Altstadt, M. Houska, I. Sabirov, D.S. Mart, Met. Mater. Int. 25, 343-352 (2019).
[8] H.U. Hong, B.S. Rho, S.W. Nam, J. Mater. Sci. Eng. A. 318, 285- 292 (2001).
[9] S.G. Kim, J.N. Kim, J.P. Wang, C.Y. Kang, Met. Mater. Int. 25, 127-134 (2019).
[10] J.P. Adamson, J.W. Martin, Acta Mater. 19, 1015-1018 (1971)
[11] S.H. Lee, H.S. Na, K.W. Lee, Y. Choe, C.Y. Kang, Metals. 8, 1-14 (2018).
[12] Y .M. He, Y.H. Wang, K. Guo, T.S. Wang, J. Mater. Sci. Eng. A. 708, 248-253 (2017).
[13] S.I. Lee, S.Y. Lee, J. Han, B. Hwang, Mater. Sci. Eng. A. 742, 334-343 (2019).
[14] R . Raj, M.F. Ashby, Metall. Mater. Trans. 2, 1113-1127 (1971).
[15] T.G. Langdon, Acta Metal. Mater. 42, 2437-2443 (1994).
[16] Q. Wu, T. Han, Y. Wang, H. Wang, H. Zhang, S. Gu, Eng. Fail. Anal. 109, 104236 (2020).
[17] E . Merson, V. Danilov, D. Merson, A. Vinogradov, Eng. Fract. Mech. 183, 147-158 (2017).
[18] J. Tian, G. Xu, X. Wan, Mat. Mater. Int. 26, 961-972 (2020).
[19] S.I. Lee, S.Y. Lee, S.G. Lee, H.G. Jung, B. Hwang, Met. Mater. Int. 24, 1221-1231 (2018).
[20] S.Y. Lee, S.I. Lee, B. Hwang, Mater. Sci. Eng. A. 711, 22-28 (2018).
[21] S.I. Lee, J. Lee, B. Hwang, Mater. Sci. Eng. A. 758, 56-59 (2019).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Seok-Woo Ko
1
ORCID: ORCID
Hyeonwoo Park
2
ORCID: ORCID
Il Yoo
3
ORCID: ORCID
Hansoo Kim
2
ORCID: ORCID
Joonho Lee
2
ORCID: ORCID
Byoungchul Hwang
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 232 Gongneung-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 01811, Republic of Korea
  2. Korea University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea
  3. ADNOC LNG, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

This study investigated the effect of flux type and amounts on recovery behavior of aluminum alloy during the melting process of Al can scrap. The heat treatment was conducted to remove the coating layer on the surface of can scrap at 500°C for 30 min. The molten metal treatment of the scrap was performed at 750°C in a high-frequency induction furnace with different flux types and amounts. It was observed that the optimum condition for recovery of Al alloy was to add about 3 wt.% flux with a salt and MgCl2 mixing ratio of 70:30 during melting process. The mechanical properties of recovered Al alloy were about 254.8 MPa, which is similar to that of the virgin Al5083 alloy.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] Y. Nam, J. Choi, Y.-C. Jang, J.-H. Lee, J. of Korea Society of Waste Management 33 (1), 29 (2016).
[2] E .-K. Jeon, J.-Y. Park, I.-M. Park, J. Korea Foundry Society 27 (1), 20 (2007).
[3] V . Güley, N. Ben Khalifa, A.E. Tekkaya, Int. J. Mater. Form. 3, 853 (2010).
[4] J. Cui, H.J. Roven, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 20, 2057 (2010).
[5] M .A. Rabah, Waste Manage. 23, 173 (2003).
[6] S .N. Ab Rahim, M.A. Lajis, S. Ariffin, Procedia CIRP 26, 761 (2015).
[7] S . Capuzzi, G. Timelli, Metals 8, 249 (2018).
[8] A. Abdulkadir, A. Ajayi, M.I. Hassan, Energy Procedia 75, 2009 (2015).
[9] C. Han, S.H. Son, B.-D. Ahn, D.-G. Kim, M.S. Lee, Y.H. Kim, J. of Korean Inst. of Resources Recycling 26 (4), 71 (2017).
[10] M .A Bae, H.D. Kim, M.S. Lee, J. Korea Acad. Industr. Coop. Soc. 14 (10), 4672 (2013).
[11] S .O. Adeosun, M.A. Usman, W.A. Ayoola, I.O. Sekunowo, ISRN Polymer Sci. 2012, 1 (2012).
[12] T.A. Utigard, K. Friesen, R.R. Roy, J. Lim, A. Silny, C. Dupuis, JOM 50, 38 (1998).
[13] D. Bajarea, A. Korjakinsa, J. Kazjonovsa, I. Rozenstrauhab, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 32 (1), 141 (2012).
[14] O . Majidi, S.G. Shabestari, M.R. Aboutalebi, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 182, 450 (2007).
[15] S . Begum, J. Chem. Soc. Pak. 35 (6), 1490 (2013).
[16] B. Wan, W. Li, F. Liu, T. Lu, S. Jin, K. Wang, A. Yi, J. Tian, W. Chen, J. Mater. Res. Technol. 9 (3), 3447 (2020).
[17] J.H. L. V. Linden, D.L. Stewart Jr., Essential Readings in Light Metals 3, 173 (2013).
[18] T.A. Utigard, R.R. Roy, K. Friesen, High Temp. Mater. Process. 20, 303 (2001).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Chulwoong Han
1
ORCID: ORCID
Yong Hwan Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Dae Geun Kim
2
ORCID: ORCID
Man Seung Lee
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Research Institute of Advanced Manufacturing & Mat erials, 156 Gaetbeol Rd., Yeonsu-gu, Incheon,406-840, Korea
  2. Institute for Advanced Engineering Materials Science and Chemical Engineering Center , Korea
  3. Mokpo National University, Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Korea
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

WC-Co cemented carbides were consolidated using spark plasma sintering in the temperature 1400°C with transition metal carbides addition. The densification depended on exponentially as a function of sintering exponent. Moreover, the secondary (M, W)Cx phases were formed at the grain boundaries of WC basal facet. Corresponded, to increase the basal facets lead to the plastic deformation and oriented grain growth. A higher hardness was correlated with their grain size and lattice strain. We suggest that this is due to the formation energy of (M, W)Cx attributed to inhibit the grain growth and separates the WC/Co interface.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] A.I. Gusev, A.A. Remple, A.J. Magerl, Disorder and order in strongly non-stoichiometric compounds: transition metal carbides, nitrides and oxide. Berlin: Springer; 607 (2001).
[2] T.A. Fabijanic, M. Kurtela, I. Skrinjaric, J. Potschke, M. Mayer, Metals 10, 224 (2020).
[3] X. Liu, X. Song, H. Wang, X. Liu, F. Tang, H. Lu, Acta Materialia 149, 164-178 (2018).
[4] H.O. Andren, Microstructures of cemented carbides, Mater. Des. 22, 491-498 (2001).
[5] C. Barbatti, J. Garcia, P. Brito, A.R. Pyzalla, Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater. 27, 768-776 (2009).
[6] G .R. Antis, P. Chantikul, B.R. Lawn, D.B. Marshall, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 64 (9), 533-538 (1981).
[7] Y.V. Milman, J. Superhard Mater. 36, 65-81 (2014).
[8] M . Christensen, G. Wahnstrom, Acta Materialia 52 (8), 2199-2207 (2004).
[9] Y . Peng, H. Miao, Z. Peng, Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater. 39, 78-89 (2013).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Jeong-Han Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ik-Hyun Oh
1
ORCID: ORCID
Hyun-Kuk Park
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Smart Mobility Materials and Components R&D Group, 6, Cheomdan-gwa giro 208-gil , Buk-gu, Gwang-Ju,61012, Korea
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Laser cladding is a method that can be applied to repair the crack and break on the mold and die surfaces, as well as generate new attributes on the surface to improve toughness, hardness, and corrosion resistance. It is used to extend the life of the mold. It also has the advantages of superior bonding strength and precision coating on a local area compared with the conventional thermal spraying technology. In this study, we investigated the effect of cladding on low carbon alloy steel using 18%Cr-2.5%Ni-Fe powder (Rockit404), which showed high hardness on the die surface. The process conditions were performed in an argon atmosphere using a diode laser source specialized for 900-1070 nm, and the output conditions were 5, 6, and 10 kW, respectively. After the cladding was completed, the surface coating layer’s shape, the hardness according to the cross-section’s thickness, and the microstructure were analyzed.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] M . U. Saleem, Sustainability 10, 1761 (2018).
[2] J. Tang, J. Egypro 5, 708 (2011).
[3] N. Ali, J. Heliyon 6, e05050 (2020).
[4] Y. Li, J. Jmrt 9, 3856 (2020).
[5] P. Kattire, J. Jmapro. 20, 492 (2015).
[6] Z. Zhang, J. Jallcom. 790, 703 (2019).
[7] X. Xu, J. Jallcom. 715, 362 (2017).
[8] G . Telasang, J. Surfcoat. 258, 1108 (2014).
[9] J.H. Lee, J. KWJS 18, 27 (2000).
[10] Z. Liu, J. Surfcoat. 384, 125325 (2020).
[11] E .R. Mahmoud, J. Matpr. 39, 1029 (2020).
[12] Y.T. Yoo, J. Korean Society 22, 17 (2005).

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Cheol-Woo Kim
1
Hyo-Sang Yoo
1
Jae-Yeol Jeon
1
Kyun-Taek Cho
1
Se-Weon Choi
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Smart Mobility Materials and Components R&D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, 1110-9 Ory ong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwan gju, Republic of Korea
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Deposition defects like porosity, crack and lack of fusion in additive manufacturing process is a major obstacle to commercialization of the process. Thus, metallurgical microscopy analysis has been mainly conducted to optimize process conditions by detecting and investigating the defects. However, these defect detection methods indicate a deviation from the operator’s experience. In this study, artificial intelligence based YOLOv3 of object detection algorithm was applied to avoid the human dependency. The algorithm aims to automatically find and label the defects. To enable the aim, 80 training images and 20 verification images were prepared, and they were amplified into 640 training images and 160 verification images using augmentation algorithm of rotation, movement and scale down, randomly. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, total loss was derived as the sum of localization loss, confidence loss, and classification loss. In the training process, the total loss was 8.672 for the initial 100 sample images. However, the total loss was reduced to 5.841 after training with additional 800 images. For the verification of the proposed method, new defect images were input and then the mean Average Precision (mAP) in terms of precision and recall was 0.3795. Therefore, the detection performance with high accuracy can be applied to industry for avoiding human errors.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] O .H. Kwon, H.G. Kim, M.J. Ham, W.R. Kim, G.H. Kim, J.H. Cho, N.I. Kim, K.I. Kim, J. Intel. Manuf. 31, 375-386 (2020).
[2] L. Scime, J. Beuth, Addit. Manuf. 24, 273-286 (2018).
[3] L. Scime, J. Beuth, Addit. Manuf. 19, 114-126 (2018).
[4] L. Scime, J. Beuth, Addit. Manuf. 25, 151-165 (2019).
[5] L. Scime, J. Beuth, Addit. Manuf. 29, 100830, 1-9 (2019).
[6] M. Khanzadeh, W. Tian, A. Yadollahi, H.R. Doude, M.A. Tschopp, Addit. Manuf. 23, 443-456 (2018).
[7] M. Khanzadeh, S. Chowdhury, M. Marufuzzaman, M.A. Tschopp, L. Bian, J. Manuf. Syst. 47, 69-82 (2018).
[8] M. Khanzadeh, S. Chowdhury, M.A. Tschopp, H.R. Doude, M. Marufuzzaman, L. Bian, IISE Trans. 51, 5, 437-455 (2019)
[9] J . Redmon, A. Farhadi, arXiv preprint, 1804.02767 (2018).
[10] https://imageai.readthedocs.io/en/latest/
[11] https://github.com/tzutalin/labelImg
[12] http://www.image-net.org/
[13] https://imgaug.readthedocs.io/en/latest/index.html
[14] J .S. Kim, B.J. Kang, S.W. Lee, J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 33, 12, 1-7 (2019).
[15] A. Torralba, A.A. Efros, Proc. CVPR IEEE 12218709, 1521-1528 (2011).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Byungjoo Choi
1
ORCID: ORCID
Yongjun Choi
1
ORCID: ORCID
Moon Gu Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jung Sub Kim
2
ORCID: ORCID
Sang Won Lee
2
ORCID: ORCID
Yongho Jeon
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Ajou University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 206, World cup-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi 16499, Republic of Korea
  2. Sungkyunkwan University School of Mechanical Engineering, Suwon, Republic of Korea
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

An alternative fabrication method for metallic fuel in Gen-IV reactor was introduced with vibration packing of nuclear fuel particles to facilitate remote fabrication in a hot cell and reduce the generation of long-lived radioactive wastes. Vibration packing experiments on metallic particulate fuel using a surrogate 316L stainless steel powder were done to investigate the packing density and the uniformity of the simulated fuel according to the filling method and the vibration condition. Metallic particulate fuel filled with a pre-mixed power over all particles had the highest packing fraction and the most uniform distribution among the filling methods. The vibration packing method showed that it could fabricate the metallic particulate fuel having uniform distribution of spherical fuel particles through the adjustment of the filling method of the metallic powder and the vibration condition of the metallic particulate fuel.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] T. Abram, S. Ion, Energy Policy 36, 4323-4330 (2008).
[2] G eneration IV International Forum, A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems, 2002.
[3] H.S. Lee, G.I. Park, I.J. Cho, Sci. Technol. Nucl. Install. 2013, 1-11 (2013).
[4] H. Lee, G.I. Park, E.H. Kim, Nucl. Eng. Technol. 43, (317-328) 2011.
[5] J.I. Jang, Nucl. Eng. Technol. 43, 161-170 (2007).
[6] J.H. Jang, H.S. Kang, Y.S. Lee, H.S. Lee, J.D. Kim, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 295, 1743-1751 (2013).
[7] C.E. Stevenson, The EBR-II Fuel Cycle Story, American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, Ill, USA, 1987.
[8] H. Lee, G.I. Park, I.J. Cho, Sci. & Technol. Nucl. Install. 2013, 1-11 (2013).
[9] J.H. Kim, H. Song, H.T. Kim, K.H. Kim, C.B. Lee, R.S. Fielding, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 299, 103-109 (2014).
[10] M .A. Pouchon, G. Ledergerber, F. Ingold, K. Bakker, J. Nucl. Mater. 3, 275-312 (2012).
[11] G . Ledergerber, F. Ingold, R.W. Stratton et al., Nucl. Tech. 114, 194-203 (1996).
[12] G . Bart, F.B. Botta, C.W. Hoth, G. Ledergerber, R.E. Mason, R.W. Stratton, J. Nucl. Mater. 376, 47-59 (2008).
[13] K.H. Kim, D.B. Lee, C.K. Kim, I.H. Kuk, K.W. Paik, J. Nucl. Sci. & Tech. 34, 1127-1132 (1997).
[14] J.H. Kim, J.W. Lee, K.H. Kim, C.B. Lee, Sci. and Tech. Nucl. Istall. 2016, 1-7 (2016).
[15] K.H. Kim, S.J. Oh, S.K. Kim, C.T. Lee, C.B. Lee, Surf. Interface Anal. 44, 1515-1518 (2012).
[16] R . Herbig, K. Rudoph, B. Lindau, J. Nucl. Mater. 204, 93-101 (1993).
[17] K.L. Peddicord, R.W. Stratton, J.K. Thomas, Prog. Nucl. Energy 18, 265-299 (1986).
[18] G . Ledergerber, F. Ingold, R.W. Stratton, H.P. Alder, Nucl. Technol. 114, 194-204 (1996).
[19] A.S. Icenhour, D.F. Williams, Sphere-Pac Evaluation for Transmutation, ORNL/TM-2005/41, 2005.
[20] G .D. Del Cul, C.H. Mattus, A.S. Icenhour, L.K. Felker, Fuel Fabrication Development for the Surrogate Sphere-Pac Rodlet, ORNL/TM-2005/108, 2005.
[21] A.L. Lotts et al., Fast Breeder Reactor Oxide Fuels Development, ORNL-4901, 1973.
[22] Ch. Hellwig, K. Bakker, M. Nakamura, F. Ingold, L.A. Nordstro, Y. Kihara, Nucl. Sci. Eng. 153, 233-244 (2006).
[23] H.A.C.K. Hettiarachchi, W.K. Mampearachchi, Powder Technology 336, 150-160 (2018).
[24] J.G. Jeon et al., Korean J. Met. Mater. 54, 322-331 (2016).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Ki-Hwan Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Seong-Jun Ha
1
Sang-Gyu Park
1
Seoung-Woo Kuk
1
Jeong-Yong Park
1

  1. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Next-Generation Fuel Technology Development Division, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34057, Republic of Korea
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In this study, stainless steel 316L and Inconel 625 alloy powders were additively manufactured by using directed energy deposition process. And heat treatment effect on hardness and microstructures of the bonded stainless steel 316L/Inconel 625 sample was investigated. The microstructures shows there are no secondary phases and big inclusions near interfacial region between stainless steel 316L and Inconel 625 except several small cracks. The results of TEM and Vickers Hardness show the interfacial area have a few tens of micrometers in thickness. Interestingly, as the heat treatment temperature increases, the cracks in the stainless steel region does not change in morphology while both hardness values of stainless steel 316L and Inconel 625 decrease. These results can be used for designing pipes and valves with surface treatment of Inconel material based on stainless steel 316L material using the directed energy deposition.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] G .H. Shin, J.P. Choi, K.T. Kim, B.K. Kimm, J.H. Yu, J. Korean Powder Metall. Inst. 24, 210 (2017).
[2] A. Ambrosi, M. Pumera, Chem. Soc. Rev. 45, 2740 (2016).
[3] G .S. Lee, Y.S. Eom, K.T. Kim, B.K. Kim, J. H. Yu, J. Korean Powder Metall. Inst. 26, 138 (2019).
[4] Y.S. Eom, D.W. Kim, K.T. Kim, S.S. Yang, J. Choe, I. Son, J.H. Yu, J. Korean Powder Metall. Inst. 27, 103 (2020).
[5] J. Hwang, S. Shin, J. Lee, S. Kim, H. Kim, Journal of Welding and Joining 35, 28 (2017).
[6] I . Gibson, D. Rosen, B. Stucker, Additive Manufacturing Technologies, Springer New York, 245 (2015).
[7] A. Saboori, D. Gallo, S. Biamino, P. Fino, M. Lombardi, Appl. Sci. 7, 883 (2017).
[8] J.S. Park, M.-G. Lee, Y.-J. Cho, J. H. Sung, M.-S. Jeong, S.-K. Lee, Y.-J. Choi, D.H. Kim, Met. Mater. Int. 22, 143 (2016).
[9] R . Koike, I. Unotoro, Y. Kakinuma, Y. Oda, Int. J. Autom. Techno. 13, 3 (2019).
[10] D.R. Feenstra, A. Molotnikov, N. Birbilis, J. Mater. Sci. 55, 13314- 13328 (2020).
[11] B.E. Carroll, R.A. Otis, J.P. Borgonia, J. Suh, R.P. Dillon, A.A. Shapiro, D.C. Hofmann, Z.-K. Liu, A. M. Beese, Acta Mater. 108, 46 (2016).
[12] T. Abe, H. Sasahara, Precis. Eng. 45, 387 (2016).
[13] G.H. Aydoğdu, M.K. Aydinol, Corros. Sci. 48, 3565 (2006).
[14] H.Y. Al-Fadhli, J. Stokes, M.S.J. Hashmi, B.S. Yilbas, Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 20 (2006).
[15] Y.S. Eom, K.T. Kim, S. Jung, J.H. Yu, D.Y. Yang, J. Choe, C.Y. Sim, S.J. An, J. Korean Powder Metall. Inst. 27, 219 (2020).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Yeong Seong Eom
1 2
Kyung Tae Kim
1
Dong Won Kim
1
Ji Hun Yu
1
Chul Yong Sim
3
Seung Jun An
3
Yong-Ha Park
4
Injoon Son
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Korea Institute of Materials Science, 797 Changwon-daero, Changwon, Republic of Korea
  2. Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehakro, Bukgu, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea
  3. Insstek, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
  4. Samsung Heavy Industries, Geoje-si, Republic of Korea
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

An optimum route to fabricate the Ni-based superalloy with homogeneous dispersion of Y2O3 particles is investigated. Ni-based ODS powder was prepared by high-energy ball milling of gas-atomized alloy powders and Y2O3 particles treated with a high-pressure homogenizer. Decrease in particle size and improvement of dispersion stability were observed by high-pressure homogenization of as-received Y2O3 particles, presumably by the powerful cavitation forces and by collisions of the particles. Microstructural analysis for the ball-milled powder mixtures reveal that Ni-based ODS powders prepared from high-pressure homogenization of Y2O3 particles exhibited more fine and uniform distribution of Ni and Y elements compared to the as-received powder. These results suggested that high-pressure homogenization process is useful for producing Ni-based superalloy with homogeneously dispersed oxide particles.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] T.M. Pollock, T. Sammy, J. Propul. Power 22, 361 (2006).
[2] W. Betteridge, S.W.K. Shaw, Mater. Sci. Technol. 3, 682 (1987).
[3] G . Quan, Y. Zhang, P. Zhang, Y. Mai, W. Wang, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 31, 438 (2021).
[4] W. Sha, H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 25, 705 (1994).
[5] G .W. Noh, Y.D. Kim, K.-A. Lee, H.-J. Kim, J. Korean Powder Metall. Inst. 27, 8 (2020).
[6] J.S. Benjamin, Metall. Trans. 1, 2943 (1970).
[7] S.K. Kang, R.C. Benn, Metall. Trans. A 16, 1285 (1985).
[8] Y.-I. Lee, E.S. Lee, S.-T. Oh, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 21, 4955 (2021).
[9] J.H. Schneibel, S. Shim, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 488, 134 (2008).
[10] Q.X. Sun, T. Zhang, X.P. Wang, Q.F. Fang, T. Hao, C.S. Liu, J. Nucl. Mater. 424, 279 (2012).
[11] J. Kluge, G. Muhrer, M. Mazzotti, J. Supercrit. Fluids 66, 380 (2012).
[12] O . Mengual, G. Meunier, I. Cayré, K. Puech, P. Snabre, Talanta 50, 445 (1999).
[13] W.D. Pandolfe, J. Dispersion Sci. Technol. 2, 459 (1981).
[14] M. Luo, X. Qi, T. Ren, Y. Huang, A.A. Keller, H. Wang, B. Wu, H. Jin, F. Li, Colloids Surf. A 533, 9 (2017).
[15] C. Suryanarayana, Prog. Mater. Sci. 46, 1 (2001).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Jongmin Byun
1
ORCID: ORCID
Young-In Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sung-Tag Oh
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering & The Institute of Powder Technology, Seoul 01811, Republic of Korea
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In this investigation, the effective mechanical, coupling and dielectric properties of Macro-fiber-composites (MFCs) consisting of piezo-rod-element constituents are determined using representative volume element method combined with finite element analysis. Experiments are conducted on piezo-bar-element MFCs to understand the applicability of the proposed approach which would later be extended to composites with modified geometric pattern. The longitudinal strains with respect to static deflections of beam and forced displacements under varying electrical loads are measured for the MFCs, and compared with the numerical simulations. Based on the good agreement from the result comparisons of piezo-bar-element MFCs, the effective material properties of piezo-rod-element MFCs are numerically determined based on the RVE approach.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] R .J. Prazenica, D. Kim, H. Moncayo, B. Azizi, M. Chan, Design, Characterization, and Testing of Macro-Fiber Composite Actuators for Integration on a Fixed-Wing UAV, Proc. of SPIE 9057, 905715-2 (2014).
[2] J.R. Farmer, A comparison of power harvesting techniques and related energy storage issues, Master of Science Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, May (2017).
[3] J. Schröck, T. Meurer, A. Kugi, Control of a flexible beam actuated by macro-fiber composite patches: II. Hysteresis and creep compensation, experimental results, Smart Mater. Struct. 20, 015016 (2011).
[4] R .B. Williams, Nonlinear Mechanical and Actuation Characterization of Piezoceramic Fiber Composites, PhD Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, March (2004).
[5] S. Ju, C.H. Ji, Indirect Impact based Piezoelectric Energy Harvester for Low Frequency Vibration, IEEE Transd., USA, 978-1-4799- 8955-3, June 21-25 (2015).
[6] Y. Kuang, M. Zhu, Evaluation and validation of equivalent properties of macro fibre composites for piezoelectric transducer modelling, Compos. Part B-Eng. 158, 189-197 (2019).
[7] Z. Dong, C. Faria, B.P. luymers, M. Hromčí, M. Šebek, W. Desmet, Structure-preserving low-order modeling approach of laminated composite plates integrated with macro-fiber composite transducers for dynamic application, Compos. Struct. 208, 287-297 (2019).
[8] J. Latalski, Modelling of Macro fiber composite piezoelectric active elements in abaqus system, E. I Niezawodnosc-Main. and Relia., December (2011).
[9] M. Khazaee, A. Rezaniakolaie, L. Rosendahl, A broadband macrofiber- composite piezoelectric energy harvester for higher energy conversion from practical wideband vibrations, Nano Energy 76, 104978 (2020).
[10] R .B. Williams, D.J. Inman, Nonlinear Tensile and Shear Behavior of Macro Fiber Composite Actuators, J. Compos. Mater. 38 (2004).
[11] C.S. Guimarães, V.P. Budinger, F.L.S. Bussamra, J.A. Hernandes, Structural Shape Control using Macro Fiber Composite Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators, Comput. Mech., Argentina, 8263-8279, 15-18 (2010).
[12] Jose M. Simoes Moita, Isidoro F.P. Correia, Cristovao M. Mota Soares, Carlos A. Mota Soares, Active control of adaptive laminated structures with bonded piezoelectric sensors and actuators, CompuStruct. 82, 1349-1358 (2004).
[13] Y.X. Hao, K.F. Zhao, W. Zhang, S.W. Yang, Nonlinear dynamics and dynamic instability of smart structural cross-ply laminated cantilever plates with MFC layer using zigzag theory, Appl. Mathematical Mod (2019). DOI: https://doi.org/j.apm.2019.10.056 (in press).
[14] Shun-Qi Zhang, Ya-Xi Li, Rudiger Schmidt, Modeling and simulation of macro-fiber composite layered smart structures, Comp. Struct 51, (2015).
[15] Satyajit Panda, M.C. Ray, Nonlinear finite element analysis of functionally graded plates integrated with patches of piezoelectric fiber reinforced composite, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 44, 493-504 (2008)
[16] A. Pandey, A. Arockiarajan, An experimental and theoretical fatigue study on macro fiber composite (MFC) under thermomechanical loadings, Eur. J. Mech. A-Solid (2017). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euromechsol.2017.06.005
[17] A. Pandey, A. Arockiarajan, Fatigue study on the sensor performance of Macro Fiber Composite (MFC): Theoretical and experimental approach, Compos. Struct. 174, 301-318 (2017).
[18] A. Pandey, A. Arockiarajan, Performance studies on Macro Fiber composite(MFC) under thermal condition using Kirchhoff and Mindlin plate theories, Int. J. Mech. Sci. (2017). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2017.06.034
[19] K.L. Acosta, S. Srivastava, W.K. Wilkie, D.J. Inman, Primary and secondary pyroelectric effects in macro-fiber composites, Compos. Part B-Eng. 177, 107275 (2019).
[20] D. Tan, P. Yavarow, A. Erturk, Nonlinear elastodynamics of piezoelectric macro-fiber composites with interdigitated electrodes for resonant actuation, Compos. Struct. (2017). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2017.12.056
[21] Q. Jiao, Ji. Hongli, Q. Jinhao, The synergism of peak to peak value, frequency and superimposed DC bias voltage on electricfield- induced strain of PZT based-macro fiber composites, Ceram. Int. 45, 22067-22077 (2019).
[22] K. Steiger, P. Mokrý, Finite element analysis of the macro fiber composite actuator: macroscopic elastic and piezoelectric properties and active control thereof by means of negative capacitance shunt circuit, IOP Publishing, Smart Mater. Struct. 24, 025026 (2015).
[23] S. Sreenivasa Prasath, A. Arockiarajan, Effective electromechanical response of macro-fiber composite (MFC): Analytical and numerical models, Int. J. Mech. Sci. 77, 98-106 (2013).
[24] Z. Abas, H.S. Kim, L. Zhai, J. Kim, Finite element analysis of vibration driven electro-active paper energy harvester with experimental verification, Adv. Mech. Eng. 22, 1-9 (2015).
[25] I EEE Standards on Piezoelectricity, ANSI/IEEE Standard, The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1988.
[26] S. Sreenivasa Prasath, A. Arockiarajan, Analytical, numerical and experimental electromechanical predictions of the effective properties of macro-fiber composite (MFC), Sensor. Actuat. A-Phy. 214, 31-44 (2014).
[27] M.P. Saravanan, K. Marimuthu, P. Sivaprakasam, Modeling and analysis of dynamic structure with macro fiber composite for energy harvesting, Mater. Today-Proc. (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.05.390, 2214-7853 (in press).
[28] Smart-Material Corporation, MFC Datasheet, https://www.smart-material.com/Datasheets.html [29] A. Pandey, A. Arockiarajan, Actuation performance of macro-fiber composite (MFC): Modeling and experimental studies, Sensor. Actuat. A-Phy. 248, 114-129 (2016).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

M.P. Saravanan
1
ORCID: ORCID
K. Marimuthu
2
ORCID: ORCID
K. Jayabal
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Mohamed Sathak AJ College of Engineering, Chennai, India
  2. Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, India
  3. Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing, Kancheepuram, Chennai, India
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

The paper presents preliminary results of research on the use of certain smelting slags in the process of modification of casting alloys, leading to a change in the structure of these alloys and improvement of their mechanical and operational properties. The positive effect of ground copper slag with a fraction below 0.1 mm on the effect of modifying the hypoeutectic silumin AlSi7Mg towards changing the morphology of coarse-grained eutectic to fine-dispersive was demonstrated. The modifying effect also applies to the pre-eutectic α phase and results in the formation of additional crystallization sites (nucleation process), which was demonstrated by the thermal ATD solidification analysis, showing an increase in the temperature Tliq and TEmax. The positive and noticeable influence of the mixture of copper and steel slag on the surface modifying effect of fragmentation of the structure was demonstrated in casting nickel superalloy IN-713C. Based on the results of research conducted so far on the modifying effect of cobalt aluminate, a hypothetical model of the impact of reduced metallic components of the applied metallurgical slags on the nucleation process and shaping of the microstructure of nickel alloys was developed.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] A. Konstanciak, W. Sabela, Odpady w hutnictwie żelaza i ich wykorzystanie, Hutnik-Wiadomości Hutnicze 12, 572-580 (1999).
[2] P. Sobczyński, Żużle hutnicze – ich natura i przydatność gospodarcza, Odpady przemysłowe i komunalne, powstawanie i możliwości ich wykorzystania. Kraków (1999).
[3] J. Sitko, Modernizacja technologii zagospodarowania odpadów hutniczych, Systemy Wspomagania w Inżynierii Produkcji. Inżynieria systemów technicznych: E. Milewska (Red.), P.A. NOVA, 2 (14), 287-294 (2016).
[4] J. Sitko, Problem utylizacji odpadów, Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Śląskiej 73, 531-540 (2014).
[5] T . Stefanowicz, Otrzymywanie i odzysk metali oraz innych surowców ze ścieków i odpadów pogalwanicznych, Wydawnictwo Politechniki Poznańskiej 167-172 (1992).
[6] H. Byrdziak, A. Mizera, J. Piątkowski, KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. – Biuletyn (2000).
[7] D. Krupka, A. Chmielarz, A. Bojanowski, J. Sitko, Polskie srebro. Osiągnięcia produkcyjne i badawcze, III KN „Metale Szlachetne”, Zakopane – Kościelisko (2002).
[8] Z. Bonderek, S. Rzadkosz, Problemy uszlachetniania ciekłych stopów aluminium. Krzepnięcie Metali i Stopów, PAN Katowice 41-49 (1999).
[9] H. Postołek, C. Adamski, Wpływ napięć międzyfazowych na rafinujące oddziaływanie żużli, Archiwum Hutnictwa 38, 4 (1981).
[10] T . Kargul, Opracowanie hybrydowego modelu procesu pozapiecowej rafinacji stali do oceny wybranych technologii metalurgicznych, 2009 AGH, Kraków.
[11] D. Krupka, J. Sitko, B. Ochab i inni, Development of zinc production at the Boleslaw Zinc Plant, The IV International Conference Zinc ‘2006, Plovdiv, Bułgaria, 197-207 (2006).
[12] D. Krupka, J. Sitko, J. Dutrizac, G.E. James, Zakład Elektrolizy Cynku – BIG RIVER ZINC, Sauget w USA, Rudy Metale 46, 10, 461-469 (2001).
[13] S. Pietrowski, Siluminy, 2001 Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, Łódź.
[14] F. Binczyk, Konstrukcyjne stopy odlewnicze, 2003 Wydawnictwo Politechniki Śląskiej, Gliwice.
[15] J. Sitko, Procesy zagospodarowania odpadów hutniczych, Monografia habilitacyjna, 2019 P.A.NOVA, Gliwice.
[16] A. Hernas, Żarowytrzymałość Stali i Stopów, 2000 Wydawnictwo Politechniki Śląskiej, Gliwice.
[17] L.A. Dobrzański, Podstawy nauki o materiałach i metaloznawstwo – materiały inżynierskie z podstawami projektowania materiałowego, 2002 Wydawnictwa Naukowo-Techniczne, Warszawa.
[18] C.N. Wei, H.Y. Bor, C.Y. Ma, T.S. Lee, A study of IN-713LC superalloy grain refinement effects on microstructure and tensile properties, Materials Chemistry and Physics 80, 89-93 (2003).
[19] L. Liu, R. Zhang, L. Wang, S. Pang, B. Zhen, A new method of fine grained casting for nickle-base superalloys, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 77, 300-304 (1998).
[20] P. Gradoń, Procesy fizykochemiczne w układzie forma – modyfikator-ciekły stop kształtujące makro- i mikrostrukturę wybranych nadstopów niklu, Rozprawa doktorska, 2014 Politechnika Śląska, Katowice.
[21] Monografia KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. 2007 Lubin. [22] HSC Chemistry Software – http://www.outotec.com/en/Products-services/HSC-Chemistry/2013
[23] Dokumentacja techniczna programu HSC Chemistry (v. 4.1).
[24] J. Szala, Program komputerowy Met-Ilo, Katowice (2011).
[25] M. Zielińska, J. Sieniawski, M. Wierzbińska, Effect of modification on microstructure and mechanical properties of cobalt casting superalloy, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 53, 3, 887-893 (2008).
[26] F. Binczyk, J. Śleziona, P. Gradoń, Modification of macrostructure of nickel superalloys with cobalt nanoparicles, Kompozyty 11:1. Polskie Towarzystwo Materiałów Kompozytowych 49-54 (2011).
[27] F. Binczyk, J. Śleziona, Effect of modification on the mechanical properties of IN-713C alloy, Archives of Foundry Engineering, Issue Special 1, 195-198 (2010).
[28] Existence of the Hexagonal Modification of Nickel, American Physical Society 10, 1140-1150 (1965).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

J. Sitko
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Silesian University of Technology, Department of Production Engineering, 26-28 Roosevelta Str., 41-800 Zabrze, Poland
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

The use of cold forging is a widely used solution in many industries. One application is the manufacture of bolts and fasteners. The largest amounts of bolts are used in the automotive and machine industry. Those customers demand high standards of quality and reliability from producers based on ISO 9001 and IATF 16949. Also, the construction, agriculture and furniture industries are raising their expectations for deliveries from year to year.
Automotive companies issue their standards specifying specific requirements for products. One of these standards is the aviation standard SAE USCAR 8-4; 2019, which speaks of a compatible arrangement of fibers in the bolt head and in the area of transition into the mandrel.
The article presents the cold forging process of flange bolts. Obtaining a compatible, acceptable and incompatible grain flow pattern based of the above mantioned standard was presented. Then the results of FEM simulation were correlated with the performed experiment.
The effect of incompatible grain flow system was discussed and presented as the crack initiating factor due to delta ferrite, hydrogen embrittlement, tempering embrittlement. The reliability of the connections was confirmed in the assembly test for yield stress on a Schatz machine. The advantages of this method and the difference compared to the tensile test were presented.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] IA TF 16949: 2016 – Automotive Quality Management System Standard.
[2] ISO 9001: 2015 – Systemy zarządzania jakością – Wymagania.
[3] A. Komornicka, M. Sąsiadek, T. Nahirny, Wyzwania przemysłu motoryzacyjnego w świetle wprowadzania standardów IATF 16949:2016, [in:] R. Knosali, Innowacje w Zarządzaniu i Inżynierii Produkcji, Oficyna Wydawnicza Polskiego Towarzystwa Zarządzania Produkcją.
[4] S. Ziółkiewicz, S. Stachowiak, D. Kaczmarczyk, A. Karpiuk, Obróbka Plastyczna Metali 17 (1), 7-13 (2006).
[5] A. Żmudzki, P. Skubisz, J. Sińczak, M. Pietrzyk, Obróbka Plastyczna Metali 17 (3), 9-19 (2006).
[6] N . Biba, S. Stebounov, A. Lishiny, J. Mater. Process. Tech. 113, 34-39 (2001).
[7] M Saad, S. Akhtar, M. Srivastava, J. Chaurasia, Materials Today: Proceedings 5, 19576-19585 (2018).
[8] A . Dubois, L. Lazzarotto, L. Dubar., J. Oudin, Wear 249, 951-961 (2002).
[9] Y . Nugraha, Theory of WireDrawing, Tirtayasa University (2007).
[10] S.Y. Hsia, Y.T. Chou, J.C. Chao, Advances in Mechanical Engineering 8 (3), 1-10 (2016).
[11] R . Bussoloti, L. Albano, L. de Canale, G.E. Totten, Delta Ferrite: Cracking of Steel Fasteners, [in:] R. Colás, G.E. Totten, Encyclopedia of Iron, Steel, and Their Alloys, Five-Volume Set, CRC Press (2006).
[12] D .H. Herring, Indust Heat 73 (16), 9 (2006).
[13] S.V. Brahimi, S. Yue, K.R. Sriraman, Philos. Trans. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 375 (2098), (2017).
[14] SAE USCAR 8-4;2019 „Grain Flow Pattern for Bolts, Screws and Studs”.
[15] PN -EN 26157-3. Części złączne – Nieciągłości powierzchni – Śruby, wkręty i śruby dwustronne specjalnego stosowania.
[16] ISO 898-1:2013-06 Własności mechaniczne części złącznych wykonanych ze stali węglowej oraz stopowej – Część 1: Śruby i śruby dwustronne o określonych klasach własności – Gwint zwykły i drobnozwojny.
[17] ISO 16047:2007 Części złączne – Badanie zależności moment obrotowy/siła zacisku.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

T. Dubiel
1
ORCID: ORCID
T. Balawender
2
ORCID: ORCID
M. Osetek
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Koelner Rawlplug IP Sp. z o. o. Oddział w Łańcucie / Rzeszów University of Technology, Poland
  2. Rzeszów University of Technology, 12 Powstańców Warszawy Av., 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

The electrical contactors play a crucial role in closing the circuit in many power distribution components like overhead lines, underground cables, circuit breakers, transformers, and control systems. The failure in these components mainly occurs due to the break-down of contactors due to the continuous opening and closing action of contacts. Silver (Ag)-based oxide contact materials are widely used in practice, among which silver tin oxide (AgSnO2) is most common. An attempt is made in increasing the performance of AgSnO2, by adding Tungsten Oxide (WO3) in various weight proportions, thus finding the optimal proportion of AgSnO2WO3 to have increased mechanical and electrical performances. All the composite samples are fabricated in-house using powder metallurgy process. The assessment of physical and electrical properties namely, density, hardness, porosity, and electrical conductivity, showed that 90%Ag-8.5%SnO2-1.5%WO3 composite yielded superior results. With help of morphological tests, wear characteristics are also investigated, which showed that 90%Ag-8.5%SnO2-1.5%WO3 composite has a wear coefficient of 0.000227 and a coefficient of friction of 0.174 at an optimized load of 10 N and sliding velocity of 0.5 mm/s.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] P.B. Joshi, N.S.S. Murti, V.L. Gadgeel, V.K. Kaushik, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 14 (16), 1099-1101 (1995). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00423372
[2] P.B. Joshi, P. Ramakrishnan, Materials for electrical and electronic contacts: processing, properties, and applications, Science Pub Inc. (2004).
[3] Z. Ying, W. Jingqin, K. Huiling, IEEE T. Comp. Pack. Man. 9 (5), 864-870 (2018). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TCPMT.2018.2882237
[4] P.B. Joshi, V.J. Rao, B.R. Rehani, A. Pratap, Silver-Zinc oxide electrical contact materials by mechanochemical synthesis route (2007).
[5] B. Holm, Northwest coast Indian art: An analysis of form. University of Washington Press (2017).
[6] O. Nilsson, F. Hauner, D. Jeannot, Replacement of AgCdO by AgSnO/sub 2/in DC contactors, In Proceedings of the 50th IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts and the 22nd International Conference on Electrical Contacts Electrical Contacts. (pp. 70-74). IEEE (2004 September). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/HOLM.2004.1353097
[7] D .A. Romanov, S.V. Moskovskii, E.A. Martusevich, E.A. Gayevoy, V.E. Gromov, Structural-phase state of the system “CdO-Ag coating/copper substrate” formed by electroexplosive method. Metalurgija 57 (4), 299-302 (2018).
[8] P.G. Slade, R.K. Smith, Electrical switching life of vacuum circuit breaker interrupters. In Electrical Contacts-2006. Proceedings of the 52nd IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts (pp. 32- 37). IEEE (2006, September). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/HOLM.2006.284061
[9] S.H. Choi, B. Ali, S.Y. Kim, S.K. Hyun, S.J. Seo, K.T. Park, J.S. Park, Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tec. 13 (2), 258-264 (2016). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ijac.12478
[10] C. Wu, Q. Zhao, N. Li, H. Wang, D. Yi, W. Weng, J. Alloy Compd. 766, 161-177 (2018). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.06.317
[11] J.L. Wintz, S. Hardy, Design guideline of contactors: optimal use of assembled contacts. In 2013 IEEE 59th Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts (Holm 2013) (pp. 1-10). IEEE (2013, September). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/HOLM.2013.6651406
[12] N.M. Talijan, V. Ćosović, J. Stajić-Trošić, A. Grujić, D. Živkovic, E. Romhanji, J. Min. Metall. B. 43 (2), 171-176 (2007). DOI: https://doi.org/10.2298/JMMB0702171T
[13] B. Rehani, P.B. Joshi, P.K. Khanna, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 19 (1), 64-69 (2010). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-009-9437-3
[14] P.G. Slade, (Ed.), Electrical contacts: principles and applications, CRC Press (2017).
[15] M.W. Richert, J. Richert, A. Hotloś, P. Pałka, W. Pachla, M. Perek- Nowak, In Mater. Sci. Forum. 667, 145-150 (2011). DOI: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.667-669.145
[16] V. Ćosović, N. Talijan, D. Živković, D. Minić, Z. Živković, J. Min. Metall. B. 48 (1), 131-141 (2012).
[17] K. Wojtasik, W. Missol, Metal Powder Report 59 (7), 34-39 (2004). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0026-0657(04)00206-1
[18] M . Lungu, S. Gavriliu, T. Canta, M. Lucaci, E. Enescu, J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 8 (2), 576 (2006).
[19] V. Ćosović, M.M. Pavlović, A. Cosovic, P. Vulić, M. Premović, D. Živković, N.M.Talijan, Sci. Sinter. 45 (2), 173-180 (2013). DOI: https://doi.org/10.2298/SOS1302173C
[20] N.M. Talijan, Zaštitamaterijala 52 (3), 173-180 (2011).
[21] M . Mustapha, F. Mustapha, O. Mamat, P. Hussain, Powder Metall. 54 (3), 343-353 (2011). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1179/003258909X12573447241581
[22] N.M. Talijan, V.R. Ćosović, A.R. Ćosović, D.T. Živković, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering 18 (4), 259-272 (2012).
[23] M . Braunovic. IEICE T. Electron. 92 (8), 982-991 (2009). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1587/transele.E92.C.982
[24] A . Dogariu, S. Sukhov, J. Sáenz, Nat. Photonics. 7 (1), 24-27 (2013). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2012.315
[25] M . Taher, F. Mao, P. Berastegui, A.M. Andersson, U. Jansson, Tribol. Int. 119, 680-687 (2018). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2017.11.026
[26] F. Findik, H. Uzun, Mater. Design 24 (7), 489-492 (2003). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-3069(03)00125-0
[27] B.A. Wasmi, A.A. Al-Amiery, A.A.H. Kadhum, A.B. Mohamad, J. Nanomater. (2014).
[28] M . Lungu, S. Gavriliu, D. Patroi, M. Lucaci, Adv. Mat. Res. 23, 103-106 (2007). DOI: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.23.103
[29] M . Raja, J. Chandrasekaran, M. Balaji, P. Kathirvel, Optik 145, 169-180 (2017). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijleo.2017.07.049
[30] E . Harea, I. Lapsker, A. Laikhtman, L. Rapoport, L. Tribol, Lett. 52 (2), 205-212 (2013).
[31] S. Praveen Kumar, R. Parameshwaran, A. Ananthi, J. JenilJaba Sam, Arch. Metall. Mater. 62 (2017). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/amm-2017-0287
[32] S.P. Kumar, R. Parameshwaran, S.A Kumar, S. Nathiya, K. Heenalisha, Mater. Today-Proc. (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.05.666
[33] H . Li, X. Wang, Y. Xi, Y. Liu, X. Guo, Mater. Design. 121, 85-91 (2017). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2017.02.059
[34] Mohd Shahadan Mohd Suan, Nurulhawa Ali Hasim, Mohd Edeerozey Abd Manaf, Mohd Rafie Johan, Chinese J. Phys. 55 (5), 1857-1864 (2017). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjph.2017.08.012
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

S. Praveen Kumar
1
ORCID: ORCID
S.M. Senthil
1
ORCID: ORCID
R. Parameshwaran
1
ORCID: ORCID
R. Rathanasamy
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Kongu Engineering College, Erode, Tamilnadu, India
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Among different bearing materials, copper-based alloys are the most important source for bearing and bushing applications. In this work, the tribological behavior of a leaded tin bronze (Cu-22Pb-4Sn) against an EN31 Steel for various loads (20 N, 70 N, 120 N) and different sliding velocity (1 m/s, 3 m/s, 5 m/s) at 3000 m sliding distance is performed using a pin on disk tribometer. Irrespective of all loads and sliding velocity, a higher specific wear rate is observed at 1 m/s and 120 N that fails to facilitate the formation of lubricating film, whereas a lower specific wear rate is evident when the sliding velocity is increased to 5 m/s. This is attributed to the formation of a stable oxide layer that has been confirmed through the Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis and Scanning electron microscopy. The coefficient of friction is observed in reducing trend from 0.69 to 0.48 for the increasing load (70 N, 120 N) and sliding velocity (3 m/s and 5 m/s) due to stable thin oxide film formation. Also, the increase in frictional force and loading the interacting surface temperature is increased to a maximum of 102°C. The Grey relational analysis indicates that the optimal parameters for the minimum specific wear rate and coefficient of friction is 120 N and 5 m/s that has been confirmed with experimental analysis.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] R.F. Schmidt, D.G. Schmidt, (10Ed.), Selection and application of copper alloy castings: Metals Handbook, ASM International, USA (1993).
[2] H . Turhan, M. Aksoy, V. Kuzucu, M.M. Yildirim, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 114 (3), 207-211 (2001). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-0136(01)00569-6
[3] S . Equey, A. Houriet, S. Mischler, Wear. 273 (1), 9-16 (2011). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2011.03.030
[4] G .C. Pratt, Powder Metall. 12 (24), 356-385 (2014). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1179/pom.1969.12.24.007
[5] B.K. Prasad, Can. Metall. Q. 51 (2), 210-220 (2013). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1179/1879139511Y.0000000030
[6] B. Unlu, Bull. Mater. Sci. 32 (4), 451-457 (2009). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12034-009-0066-0
[7] V. Ruusila, T. Nyyssonen, M. Kallio, P. Vuorinen, A. Lehtovaara, K. Valtonen, V.T. Kuokkala, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J: J. Eng. Tribol. 227 (8), 878-887 (2013). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1350650113478706.
[8] J.P. Pathak, S.N. Tiwari, Wear 155 (1), 37-47 (1992). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1648(92)90107-J
[9] Jan Gerkema, Wear 102 (3), 241-252 (1985). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1648(85)90222-4
[10] B. Unlu, E. Atik, J. Alloys Compd. 489 (1), 262-268 (2010). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.09.068
[11] B.K. Prasad, A.K. Patwardhan, A.H. Yegneswaran, Mater. Sci. Technol. 12 (5), 427-435 (1996). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1179/026708396790165885
[12] J.P. Pandey, B.K. Prasad, Metall. Mater. Trans. A. 29 (4), 1245- 1255 (1998). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-998-0251-6
[13] S . Murphy, T. Savaskan, Wear 98, 151-161 (1984). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1648(84)90224-2
[14] B.K. Prasad, Metall. Mater. Trans. A. 28 (3), 1245-1255 (1997). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-997-0067-9
[15] M. Aksoy, V. Kuzucu, H. Turhan, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 124 (1-2), 113-119 (2002). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-0136(02)00137-1
[16] A.W.J. De Gee, G.H.G. Vaessen, A. Begelinger, ASLE Transactions. 12 (1), 44-54 (2008). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/05698196908972245
[17] M. Nursoy, C. Oner, I. Can, Mater. Des. 29 (10), 2047-2051(2008). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2008.04.020
[18] G . Cui, M. Niu, S. Zhu, J. Yang, Q. Bi, Tribol. Lett. 48 (2), 111- 122 (2012). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11249-012-0007-8
[19] B.K. Prasad, J. Mater. Eng. Perform, 21 (10), 2155-2164 (2012). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-012-0139-x
[20] B. Juszczyk, J. Kulasa, S. Malara, M. Czepelak, W. Malec, B. Cwolek, L. Wierzbicki, Arch. Metall. Mater. 59 (2), 615-620 (2014). DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/amm-2014-0101
[21] F . Summer, F. Grun, M. Offenbecher, S. Taylor, Tribol. Int. 131, 238- 250 (2019). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2018.10.042
[22] M. Kestursatya, J.K. Jim, P.K. Rohatgi, Mater. Sci. Eng., A. 339 (1-2), 150-158 (2003). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-5093(02)00114-4
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

D. Dinesh
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Megalingam
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sathyamangalam, Erode-638401, Tamil Nadu, India
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Bibliography

[1] U. Riaz, I. Shabib, W. Haider, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B. 107 (6), 1970-1996 (2019). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.34290
[2] M.K. Kulekci, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 39 (9-10), 851-865 (2008). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-007-1279-2
[3] H . Furuya, N. Kogiso, S. Matunaga, K. Senda, Mater. Sci. Forum. 350, 341-348 (2000). DOI: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.350-351.341
[4] S.N. Mathaudhu, E.A. Nyberg, Magnesium Alloys in U.S. Military Applications: Past, Current and Future Solutions. In: S.N. Mathaudhu, A.A. Luo, N.R. Neelameggham, E.A. Nyberg, W.H. Sillekens (eds) Essential Readings in Magnesium Technology. Springer, Cham (2016). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-48099-2_10
[5] V.V. Ramalingam, P. Ramasamy, M. Das Kovukkal, G. Myilsamy, Met. Mater. Int. 26 (4), 409-430 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12540-019-00346-8
[6] K.H. Ho, S.T. Newman, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 43 (13), 1287- 1300 (2003). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0890-6955(03)00162-7
[7] M. Hourmand, A.A.D. Sarhan, M. Sayuti, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 91 (1-4), 1023-1056, (2017). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-016-9671-4
[8] B. Nahak, A. Gupta, Manuf. Rev. 6 (2), 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/mfreview/2018015
[9] S.S. Sidhu, A. Batish, S. Kumar, J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 32 (17), 1310-1320 (2013). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0731684413489366
[10] L . Arunkumar, B.K. Raghunath, Int. J. Eng. Technol. 5 (5), 4332- 4338 (2013).
[11] Sohil Parsana, Nishil Radadia, Mohak Sheth, Nisarg Sheth, Vimal Savsani, N. Eswara Prasad, T. Ramprabhu, Arch. Civ. Mech. Eng. 18 (3), 799-817 (2018). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acme.2017.12.007
[12] S. Santosh, S. Javed Syed Ibrahim, P. Saravanamuthukumar, K. Rajkumar, K.L. Hari Krishna, Appl. Mech. Mater. 787, 406- 410 (2015). DOI: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.787.406
[13] M. Hourmand, A.A.D. Sarhan, S. Farahany, M. Sayuti, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 101 (9-12), 2723-2737 (2019). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-018-3130-3
[14] R. Ranjith, P. Tamilselvam, T. Prakash, C. Chinnasamy, Mater. Manuf. Process. 34 (10), 1120-1128 (2019). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10426914.2019.1628258
[15] S. Tripathy, D.K. Tripathy, Mach. Sci. Technol. 21 (3), 362-384 (2017). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10910344.2017.1283957
[16] S. Suresh Kumar, M. Uthayakumar, S. Thirumalai Kumaran, P. Parameswaran, E. Mohandas, G. Kempulraj, B.S. Ramesh Babu, S.A. Natarajan, J. Manuf. Process. 20, 33-39 (2015). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2015.09.011
[17] P. Senthil, S. Vinodh, A.K. Singh, Int. J. Mach. Mach. Mater. 16 (1) 80-94 (2014). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJMMM.2014.063922
[18] K. Shunmugesh, K. Panneerselvam, Arch. Metall. Mater. 62 (3), 1803-1812 (2017). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/amm-2017-0273
[19] S.K. Ramuvel, S. Paramasivam, J. Mater. Res. Technol. 9 (3), 3885- 3896 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2020.02.015
[20] A.K. Sahu, S.S. Mahapatra, S. Chatterjee, J. Thomas, Mater. Today:. Proc. 5 (9), 19019-19026 (2018). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2018.06.253
[21] M. Eswara Krishna, P.K. Patowari, Mater. Manuf. Processes. 29 (9), 1131-1138 (2014). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10426914.2014.930887
[22] A.S. Gill, S. Kumar, Arabian J. Sci. Eng. 43 (3), 1499-1510 (2017). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13369-017-2960-x
[23] P.K Rout, B. Surekha, P.C. Jena, G.N. Arko, Mater. Today: Proc. 26 (2), 2379-2387 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.02.510
[24] M. Gostimirovic, P. Kovac, M. Sekulic, B. Skoric, J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 26 (1), 173-179 (2012). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12206-011-0922-x
[25] M. Ghoreishi, C. Tabari, Mater. Manuf. Processes, 22 (7-8), 833- 841 (2007). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10426910701446812
[26] M. Kiyak, B.E. Aldemir, E. Altan, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 79 (1-4), 513-518 (2015). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-015-6840-9
[27] B.M. Schumacher, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 149 (1-3), 376-381 (2004). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2003.11.060
[28] L . Srinivasan, K. Mohammad Chand, T. Deepan Bharathi Kannan, P. Sathiya, S. Biju, Trans. Indian Inst. Met. 71 (2), 373-382 (2018). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12666-017-1166-y
[29] S. Tripathy, D.K. Tripathy, Eng. Sci. Technol. Int. J. 19 (1), 62-70 (2016). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jestch.2015.07.010
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

A. Tajdeen
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Megalingam
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sathyamangalam, Erode-638401, Tamil Nadu, India
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In this research, the effect of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) on the geopolymerization of fly ash type F (low calcium) has been studied. The variations of Na2SiO3 used in the synthesized geopolymers were 19, 32, and 41wt%. The fly ash from three different power plant sources was characterized using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Particle Size Analyzer (PSA), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fly ash-based geopolymers were tested for mechanical strength and setting time. The best geopolymer was obtained by adding 32% Na2SiO3, produced a compressive strength of 21.62 MPa with a setting time of 30 hours. Additions of 19wt% Na2SiO3 failed to form geopolymer paste while the addition of 41wt% Na2SiO3 decreased the mechanical strength of the geopolymer. Higher calcium content in low calcium fly ash produces stronger geopolymer and faster setting time.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] Y . Zhang, R. Xiao, X. Jiang, W. Li, X. Zhu, B. Huang, J. Cleaner. Prod. 273, 122970 (2020). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122970
[2] İ.İ. Atabey, O. Karahan, C. Bilim, C.D. Atiş, Constr. Build. Mater. 264 (2020). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.120268
[3] C.L. Wong, K.H. Mo, U.J. Alengaram, S.P. Yap, J. Build. Eng. 32 101655 (2020). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2020.101655
[4] A. Abdullah, K. Hussin, M.M.A.B. Abdullah, Z. Yahya, W. Sochacki, R.A. Razak, K. Błoch, H. Fansuri, Materials 14, 1111 (2021). DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14051111
[5] Y .S. Wang, Y. Alrefaei, J.G. Dai, Cem. Concr. Res. 127, 105932 (2020). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2019.105932
[6] F. Demir, E. Moroydor Derun, J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 524, 119649 (2019). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2019.119649
[7] S. Top, H. Vapur, M. Altiner, D. Kaya, A. Ekicibil, J. Mol. Struct. 1202, 127236 (2020). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2019.127236
[8] O .H. Li, L. Yun-Ming, H. Cheng-Yong, R. Bayuaji, M.M.A.B. Abdullah, F.K. Loong, T.A. Jin, N.H. Teng, M. Nabiałek, B. Jeż, N.Y. Sing, Magnetochemistry 7 (1), 9 (2021). DOI : https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7010009
[9] W.W.A. Zailani, M.M.A.B. Abdullah, M.F. Arshad, R.A. Razak, M.F.M. Tahir, R.R.M.A. Zainol, M. Nabialek, A.V. Sandu, J.J. Wysłocki, K. Błoch, Materials 14, 56 (2021). DOI : https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14010056
[10] M .A. Faris, M.M.A.B. Abdullah, R. Muniandy, M.F. Abu Hashim, K. Błoch, B. Jeż, S. Garus, P. Palutkiewicz, N.A. Mohd Mortar, M.F. Ghazali, Materials 14, 1310 (2021). DOI : https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14051310
[11] P. Zhang, Z. Gao, J. Wang, J. Guo, S. Hu, Y. Ling, J. Cleaner Prod. 270 122389 (2020). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122389
[12] K .U. Ambikakumari Sanalkumar, M. Lahoti, E.H. Yang, Constr. Build. Mater. 225, 283-291 (2019). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.07.140
[13] D . Panias, I.P. Giannopoulou, T. Perraki, Colloids Surf. A. 301, 246-254 (2007). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2006.12.064
[14] A .M. Kaja, A. Lazaro, Q.L. Yu, Constr. Build. Mater. 189, 1113- 1123 (2018). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.09.065
[15] M .N.S. Hadi, M. Al-Azzawi, T. Yu, Constr. Build. Mater. 175, 41-54 (2018). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.04.092
[16] X.Y. Zhuang, L. Chen, S. Komarneni, C.H. Zhou, D.S. Tong, H.M. Yang, W.H. Yu, H. Wang, J. Cleaner Prod. 125, 253-267 (2016). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.03.019.
[17] T . Hemalatha, A. Ramaswamy, J. Cleaner Prod. 147, 546-559 (2017). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.01.114
[18] C. Belviso, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 65, 109-135 (2018). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2017.10.004
[19] R.E. Hidayati, G.R. Anindika, F.S. Faradila, C.I.B. Pamungkas, I. Hidayati, D. Prasetyoko, H. Fansuri, IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng. Sci. Eng. 864 (2020). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/864/1/012017.
[20] J .G. Jang, H.K. Lee, Constr. Build. Mater. 102, 260-269 (2016). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.10.172
[21] H. Fansuri, N. Swastika, L. Atmaja, Akta Kimindo 3, 61-66 (2008).
[22] P. Rożek, M. Król, W. Mozgawa, Spectrochim. Acta – Part A. 198, 283-289 (2018). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2018.03.034
[23] V . Gupta, D.K. Pathak, S. Siddique, R. Kumar, S. Chaudhary, Constr. Build. Mater. 235, 117413 (2020). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.117413
[24] A . Mehta, R. Siddique, Constr. Build. Mater. 150, 792-807 (2017). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.06.067.
[25] S.K. Nath, S. Kumar, Constr. Build. Mater. 233, 117294 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.117294
[26] A . De Rossi, M.J. Ribeiro, J.A. Labrincha, R.M. Novais, D. Hotza, R.F.P.M. Moreira, Process Saf. Environ. Prot. 129, 130-137 (2019). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2019.06.026
[27] L .N. Assi, E. Eddie Deaver, P. Ziehl, Constr. Build. Mater. 167, 372-380 (2018). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.01.193
[28] D .-W. Zhang, D. Wang, Z. Liu, F. Xie, Constr. Build. Mater. 187, 674-680 (2018). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat. 2018.07.205
[29] P. Risdanareni, P. Puspitasari, E. Januarti Jaya, MAT EC Web Conf. 97 (2017). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/20179701031
[30] B .G. Kutchko, A.G. Kim, Fuel. 85, 2537-2544 (2006). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2006.05.016
[31] W.W.A. Zailani, A. Bouaissi, M.M. Al Bakri Abdullah, R. Abd Razak, S. Yoriya, M.A.A. Mohd Salleh, M.A.Z. Mohd Remy Rozainy, H. Fansuri, Appl. Sci. 10, 1-14 (2020). DOI : https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093321
[32] D .D. Burduhos Nergis, P. Vizureanu, L. Andrusca, D. Achitei, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 572, 012026 (2019). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/572/1/012026
[33] D .D. Burduhos Nergis, P. Vizureanu, I. Ardelean, A.V. Sandu, O. Corbu, E. Matei, Materials 13, 3211 (2020). DOI : https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13020343
[34] D .W. Zhang, D.M. Wang, F.Z. Xie, Constr. Build. Mater. 207, 284-290 (2019). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.02.149
[35] L .H. Buruberri, D.M. Tobaldi, A. Caetano, M.P. Seabra, J.A. Labrincha, Elsevier Ltd, 2019. DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2018.11.017
[36] H. Fansuri, D. Prasetyoko, Z. Zhang, D. Zhang, Asia-Pac. J. Chem. Eng. 7 (1), 73-79 (2012). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/apj.493
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Ririn Eva Hidayati
1
Fitria Sandi Faradilla
1
Dadang Dadang
1
Lia Harmelia
1
Nurlina Nurlina
2
Didik Prasetyoko
1
Hamzah Fansuri
1

  1. Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Data Anlytics , Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia
  2. Universitas Tanjungpura, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Pontianak 78111, Indonesia
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

The impact of Garnet addition into the AL7075 Aluminium matrix on the physical, mechanical and corrosion properties are studied in this research paper. Al 7075/garnet composites are fabricated by using two-stage stir casting method in different (0, 5, 10, 15) volume percentages. Photomicrograph of prepared samples revealed the uniform distribution of garnet reinforcement into the base matrix. The corrosion rate is calculated by potentiodynamic polarization method. The actual density is increased by around 1.2% for Al 7075 / garnet (15%) composite as compared to base alloy. Micro hardness of Al 7075 / garnet (15%) composite is raised by around 47 (34%) compare to as cast base matrix. Al7075 / garnet (15%) composite tensile strength stood at 252 Mpa, which is 40% greater than the base alloy. Al 7075 / 15% garnet composites reduce around 97% of corrosion rate than the base matrix. Alloy elements influenced the corrosion than Garnet reinforcement.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] M. Murali, M. Sambathkumar, M.S. Saravanan, Univers. J. Mater. Sci. 2 (3), 49-53 (2014). DOI : https://doi.org/10.13189/ujms.2014.020301
[2] A . Baradeswaran, A. Elaya Perumal, Compos. Part B-Eng. 54 (0), 146-152 (2013). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2013.05.012
[3] V .V. Shanbhag, N.N. Yalamoori, S. Karthikeyan, R. Ramanujam, K. Venkatesan, Procedia Eng. 97 (0), 607-613 (2014). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2014.12.379
[4] S. Devaganesh, P.D. Kumar, N. Venkatesh, R. Balaji, J. Mater. Res. Technol. 9 (3), 3759-3766 (2020). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2020.02.002
[5] S.A. Kumar, A.P. Kumar, B.B. Naik, B. Ravi, Mater. Today-Proc. 5 (9), 17924-17929 (2018). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2018.06.121
[6] M.P. Kumar, K. Sadashivappa, G.P. Prabhukumar, S. Basavarajappa, Mater. Sci.-Medzg 12 (3), 209-213 (2006).
[7] J. Hashim, L. Looney, M.S.J. Hashmi, J. Mater. Process. Tech. 92-93 (0), 1-7 (1999). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-0136(99)00118-1
[8] A . Mandal, M. Chakraborty, B. Murty, Wear 262 (1-2), 160-166 (2007). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2006.04.003
[9] S. Sivakumar, K. Padmanaban, M. Uthayakumar, P.I. Mech Eng. J-J-Eng. 228 (12), 1410-1420 (2014). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1177/1350650114541107
[10] G. Ranganath, S. Sharma, M. Krishna, Wear 251 (1-12), 1408-1413 (2001). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1648(01)00781-5
[11] M. Sambathkumar, P. Navaneethakrishnan, K. Ponappa, K. Sasikumar, Lat. Am. J. Solids Stru. 14 (2), 243-255 (2017). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1590/1679-78253132
[12] M.A. Prasad, N. Bandekar, Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering 3 (03), 1 (2015). DOI : https://doi.org/10.4236/msce.2015.33001
[13] A . Baradeswaran, A.E. Perumal, Compos. Part B-Eng. 56, 464-471 (2014). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2013.08.013
[14] S. Kumar, A. Sharma, R. Arora, O. Pandey, J. Mater. Res. Technol. 8 (6), 5443-5455 (2019). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2019.09.012
[15] S.C. Sharma, Wear 249 (12), 1036-1045 (2001). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1648(01)00810-9
[16] M. Uthayakumar, S. Aravindan, K. Rajkumar. Mater. Design 47, 456-464 (2013). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2012.11.059
[17] A . Sharma, S. Kumar, G. Singh, O. Pandey, Particul. Sci. Technol. 33 (3), 234-239 (2015). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1080/02726351.2014.954686
[18] H .T. Naeem, F.F. Abdullah, Eclet. Quim. 44 (2), 45-52 (2019). DOI: https://doi.org/10.26850/1678-4618eqj.v44.2.2019
[19] K . Seah, M. Krishna, V. Vijayalakshmi, J. Uchil, Corros. Sci. 44 (5), 917-925 (2002). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-938X(01)00099-3
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

M. Sambathkumar
1
ORCID: ORCID
P. Navaneethakrishnan
1
ORCID: ORCID
K.S.K. Sasikumar
1
ORCID: ORCID
R. Gukendran
1
ORCID: ORCID
K. Ponappa
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Kongu Engineering College, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Erode, Tamilnadu, India
  2. Indian Institute of Information Technology Design and Manufacturing Jabalpur, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jabalpur, India
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

On the basis of research, the mechanisms of dissolution and erosion during brazing of aluminium alloys and the influence of these phenomena on brazed joints of heat exchangers are presented. A number of factors have been identified that affect the formation of these phenomena during brazing aluminium alloys, these include : the maximum temperature and holding time at brazing temperature, and the type and amount of filler metal. The research was supported by examples of dissolution and erosion phenomena during series production of aluminium heat exchangers using three brazing profiles (normal, hot and very hot). It has been found that the dissolution of the engine radiator components during brazing, is from 18 to 68%, depending on the brazing profile used. For a very hot profile, erosion in part of the brazed exchanger, even destroys (removes) thin elements of the cooling fins.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] E . Frąckowiak, W. Mroziński, Using flame brazing technology for producing aluminum automotive heat exchangers, Welding Technology Review 9, 57-62 (2007).
[2] Z. Mirski, K. Granat, A. Misiek, Brazing of aluminum heat exchangers in the automotive industry, Spajanie materiałów konstrukcyjnych 2, 32-34 (2015).
[3] D . Pritchard, Soldering, Brazing, Welding; Crowood Press. (2001).
[4] Z. Mirski, J. Pabian, Modern trends in production of brazed heat exchangers for automotive industry. Welding Technology Review 89 (8), 5-12 (2017).
[5] J. Pilarczyk (Ed.), Engineer’s Guide: Welding, 2, WNT, Warszawa (2014).
[6] K . Ferjutz, J.R. Davis. ASM Handbook 6, Welding, Brazing, and Soldering. 10th ed. ASM International; (1993).
[7] M. Motyka, L. Orman, M. Lech-Grega, M. Nowak, Advanced technics in analysis of quality problems in aluminium brazed heat exchangers, Rudy i Metale Nieżelazne 7 (2010).
[8] J. Nowacki, M. Chudziński, P. Zmitrowicz, Brazing in Mechanical Engineering, WNT, Warszawa (2007).
[9] K . Hyun-Ho, L. Soon-Bok, Effect of a brazing process on mechanical and fatigue behavior of alclad aluminum 3005, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 26 (7), 2111-2115 (2012).
[10] A . Sharma, S.H. Lee, H.O. Ban, Y.S. Shin, J.P. Jung, Effect of various factors on the brazed joint properties in Al brazing technology, Journal of Welding and Joining 34 (2), 30-35 (2016).
[11] P.K. Velu, Study of the Effect of Brazing On Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloys For Automotive Heat Exchangers; A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of Purdue University. In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering Purdue University Indianapolis, Indiana, USA (2017).
[12] M. Nylén, U. Gustavsson, W.B. Hutchinson, A. Örtnäs, Mechanistic Studies of Brazing in Clad Aluminium Alloys, Materials Science Forum 217-222, 1703-1708 (1996).
[13] M. Nylén, U. Gustavsson, W.B. Hutchinson, Å. Karlsson, The Mechanism of Braze Metal Penetration by Migration of Liquid Films of Aluminium Alloys, Materials Science Forum 331-337, 1737-1742 (2000).
[14] T. Yiyou, T. Zhen, J. Jianqing, Effect of Microstructure on Diffusional Solidification of 4343/3005/4343 Multi-Layer Aluminum Brazing Sheet. The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International (2012).
[15] M. Nylén, U. Gustavsson, W.B. Hutchinson, Å. Karlsson, H. Johansson, Mechanisms of Erosion during Brazing of Aluminium Alloys, Materials Science Forum 396-402, 1585-1590 (2002).
[16] T. Izumi, T. Ueda, Influence of Erosion Phenomenon on Flow Behavior of Liquid Al-Si Filler Between Brazed Component; 13th International Conference on Aluminum Alloys (ICAA13) Pittsburgh (2012).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Z. Mirski
1
ORCID: ORCID
J. Pabian
2
ORCID: ORCID
T. Wojdat
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Metal Forming, Welding and Metrology, 27 Wybrzeże Wypiańskiego, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
  2. Research & Development, MAHLE Behr Ostrów Wielkopolski
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

A n-type semiconductor ZnO has high transmittance features, excellent chemical stability and electrical properties. It is also commonly used in a range of fields, such as gas sensors, photocatalysts, optoelectronics, and solar photocell. Magnesium-doped zinc oxide (Mg-ZnO) nano powders were effectively produced using a basic chemical precipitation process at 45°C. Calcined Mg-ZnO nano powders have been characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM-EDX and PL studies. XRD measurements from Mg-ZnO revealed development of a crystalline structure with an average particle size of 85 nm and SEM analysis confirmed the spherical morphology. Electrochemical property of produced Mg-ZnO nanoparticles was analyzed and the specific capacitance value of 729 F g–1 at 0.5 A g–1 current density was recorded and retained a specific capacitance ~100 percent at 2 A g–1 current density.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] M . Kim, K.-J. Kim, S.-J. Lee, H.-M. Kim, S.-Y. Cho, M.-S. Kim, S.-H. Kim, K.-B. Kim, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9 (1), 701-709 (2017). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b12622
[2] S. Choi, S. I. Han, D. Kim, T. Hyeon, D.-H. Kim, Chem. Soc. Rev. 48 (6), 1566-1595 (2019). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/C8CS00706C
[3] L .H. Madkour, in Nanoelectron. Mater. Springer, 605-699 (2019). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-21621-4_16
[4] M . Rafique, M. B. Tahir, I. Sadaf, in Adv. Res. Nanosci. Water Technol. Springer, 95-131 (2019). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-02381-2_5
[5] T. Xiao, J. Huang, D. Wang, T. Meng, X. Yang, Talanta 206, 120210 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2019.120210
[6] Y. Zhang, X. Xia, B. Liu, S. Deng, D. Xie, Q. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Wu, X. Wang, J. Tu, Adv. Energy Mater. 9 (8), 1803342 (2019). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201803342
[7] F. Khurshid, M. Jeyavelan, M.S.L. Hudson, S. Nagarajan, R. Soc. Open Sci. 6 (2), 181764 (2019). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.181764
[8] M .M. Sajid, N.A. Shad, Y. Javed, S.B. Khan, N. Amin, Z. Zhang, Z. Imran, M.I. Yousuf, Appl. Nanosci. 10 (2), 421-433 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13204-019-01199-8
[9] H . Zeng, X. Zhao, F. Zhao, Y. Park, M. Sillanpää, Chem. Eng. J. 382, 122972 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2019.122972
[10] L . Zheng, F. Teng, X. Ye, H. Zheng, X. Fang, Adv. Energy Mater. 10 (1), 1902355 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201902355
[11] M . Periyasamy, A. Kar, J. Mater. Chem. C 8 (14), 4604-4635 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/C9TC06469A
[12] S.K. Gupta, S. Gupta, A.K. Gupta, Adv. Sci. Eng. Med. 12 (1), 11-26 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1166/asem.2020.2516
[13] Z. Li, A. Khajepour, J. Song, Energy 182, 824-839 (2019). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2019.06.077
[14] S.A. Hashmi, N. Yadav, M.K. Singh, Polym. Electrolytes Charact. Tech. Energy Appl. 231-297 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9783527805457.ch9
[15] X. Kong, L. Yang, Z. Cheng, S. Zhang, Materials 13 (1), 180 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010180
[16] B. Zhao, F. Mattelaer, J. Kint, A. Werbrouck, L. Henderick, M. Minjauw, J. Dendooven, C. Detavernier, Electrochimica Acta 320, 134604 (2019). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2019.134604
[17] Y. Wang, C. Ma, C. Wang, P. Cheng, L. Xu, L. Lv, H. Zhang, Sol. Energy 189, 412-420 (2019). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2019.07.082
[18] J. Jiang, S. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, J. Fan, X. Lou, X. Wang, H. Zhang, L. Yang, Chem. Eng. J. 359, 746-759 (2019). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2018.11.190
[19] H .M.A. Javed, W. Que, M.R. Ahmad, K. Ali, M.I. Ahmad, A. ul Haq, S.K. Sharma, in Sol. Cells (Springer, 2020), pp. 25-54. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36354-3
[20] S.E. Arasi, P. Devendran, R. Ranjithkumar, S. Arunpandiyan, A. Arivarasan, Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 106, 104785 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mssp.2019.104785
[21] H .-C. Chen, Y.R. Lyu, A. Fang, G.J. Lee, L. Karuppasamy, J.J. Wu, C.K. Lin, S. Anandan, C.Y. Chen, Nanomaterials 10 (3), 475 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030475
[22] N . Sivakumar, J. Gajendiran, R. Jayavel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 745, 137262 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cplett.2020.137262
[23] M .A.F. Mohd Shaifuddin, C.A. Che Abdullah, S.H. Ribut, N.S. Rosli, R. Mohd Zawawi, Malays. J. Sci. Health Technol. (2019). https://oarep.usim.edu.my/jspui/handle/123456789/5353
[24] G. Wu, Y. Song, J. Wan, C. Zhang, F. Yin, J. Alloys Compd. 806, 464-470 (2019). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2019.07.175
[25] S. Kasap, I.I. Kaya, S. Repp, E. Erdem, Nanoscale Adv. 1 (7), 2586-2597 (2019). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/C9NA00199A
[26] U . Bhat, S. Meti, Graphene-Based ZnO nanocomposites for Supercapacitor Applications in Graphene as Energy Storage Materials for Supercapacitors, Eds. Inamuddin, Rajender Boddula, Mohammad Faraz Ahmer and Abdullah M. Asiri, Materials Research Foundations 64, 181 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.21741/9781644900550-7
[27] M . Ghosh, S. Mandal, A. Roy, S. Chakrabarty, G. Chakrabarti, S.K. Pradhan, Mater. Sci. Eng. C 106, 110160 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2019.110160
[28] R . Subbiah, S. Muthukumaran, V. Raja, Optik 164556 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijleo.2020.164556
[29] R . Sánchez-Tovar, E. Blasco-Tamarit, R.M. Fernández-Domene, M. Villanueva-Pascual, J. García-Antón, Surf. Coat. Technol. 125605 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2020.125605
[30] N . Jayaprakash, R. Suresh, S. Rajalakshmi, S. Raja, E. Sundaravadivel, M. Gayathri, M. Sridharan, Mater. Technol. 35 (2), 112-124 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10667857.2019.1659533
[31] M . Achehboune, M. Khenfouch, I. Boukhoubza, B.M. Mothudi, I. Zorkani, A. Jorio, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 31 (6), 4595- 4604 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-020-03011-8
[32] C.V. Thulasi-Varma, B. Balakrishnan, H.-J. Kim, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 81, 294-302 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2019.09.017
[33] J. Yus, B. Ferrari, A.J. Sanchez-Herencia, Z. Gonzalez, Electrochimica Acta 335, 135629 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2020.135629
[34] N . Liu, Z. Pan, X. Ding, J. Yang, G. Xu, L. Li, Q. Wang, M. Liu, Y. Zhang, J. Energy Chem. 41, 209-215 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jechem.2019.05.008
[35] M . Bolsinger, M. Weller, S. Ruck, P. Kaya, H. Riegel, V. Knoblauch, Electrochimica Acta. 330, 135163 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2019.135163
[36] H . Jia, Z. Wang, B. Tawiah, Y. Wang, C.-Y. Chan, B. Fei, F. Pan, Nano Energy 70, 104523 (2020). DOI: h ttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2020.104523
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

S. Arul
1
ORCID: ORCID
T. Senthilnathan
2
ORCID: ORCID
V. Jeevanantham
3
ORCID: ORCID
K.V. Satheesh Kumar
4
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Jai Shriram Engineering College, Department of Physics, Tirupur-638660, Tamilnadu, India
  2. Sri Venkateshwara College of Engineering, Department of Applied Physics, Sriperumbudur-602117, Tamilnadu, India
  3. Vivekanandha College of Arts & Sciences for Women, Department of Chemistry, Tiruchengode 637205, Tamilnadu, India
  4. Kongu Engineering College, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Erode-638060, Tamilnadu, India
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Metal-intermetallic layered (MIL) composites attract considerable attention due to their remarkable structural and ballistic performance. This study aimed to develop a Ti/Al-based multilayered MIL material by adding ceramic powders, since they can improve the composite’s impact resistance. To this end, an experiment was conducted which a stack of alternating Ti and Al sheets bonded by hot pressing; Ti/Al multilayers containing additional layers of Al2O3 and SiC powders were also produced. The samples obtained were examined using electron microscopy techniques. The clads’ mechanical properties were investigated using a Charpy hammer. In the reaction zone, only one intermetallic phase occurred: the Al3Ti phase. The model with an additional Al2O3 layer showed the highest impact energy. None of the Ti/Al clads broke during the Charpy impact test, a result proving their high ductility.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] I.A. Bataev, A.A. Bataev, V.I. Mali, D.V. Pavliukova, Structural and mechanical properties of metallic-intermetallic laminate composites produced by explosive welding and annealing, Mater. Design 35, 225-234 (2012). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2011.09.030
[2] F. Foadian, M. Soltanieh, M. Adeli, M. Etminanbakhsh, A Study on the Formation of Intermetallics During the Heat Treatment of Explosively Welded Al-Ti Mulitlayers, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 45A, 1823 (2014). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-013-2144-6
[3] H. Paul, Ł. Maj, M. Prażmowski, A. Gałka, M. Miszczyk, P. Petrzak, Microstructure and mechanical properties of multilayered Al/Ti composites produced by explosive welding, Procedia Manufacturing 15, 1391-1398 (2018). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2018.07.343
[4] D.M. Fronczek, R. Chulist, Z. Szulc, J. Wojewoda-Budka, Growth kinetics of TiAl3 phase in annealed Al/Ti/Al explosively welded clads, Mater. Lett. 198, 160-163 (2017). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2017.04.025
[5] F. Kong, Y. Chen, D. Zhang, Interfacial microstructure and shear strength of Ti-6Al-4V/TiAl laminate composite sheet fabricated by hot packed rolling, Mater. Design 32, 3167-3172 (2011). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2011.02.052
[6] H. Xiao, Z. Qi, C. Yu, C. Xu, Preparation and properties for Ti/ Al clad plates generated by differential temperature rolling, J. Mater. Process. Tech. 249, 285-290 (2017). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2017.06.013
[7] M. Fan, Z. Luo, Z. Fu, X. Guo, J. Tao, Vacuum hot pressing and fatigue behaviors of Ti/Al laminate composites, Vacuum 154, 101- 109 (2018). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vacuum.2018.04.047
[8] L. Qin, M. Fan, X. Guo, J. Tao, Plastic deformation behaviors of Ti-Al laminated composite fabricated by vacuum hot-pressing, Vacuum 155, 96-107 (2018). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vacuum.2018.05.021
[9] J . Li, K.H. Wang, K. Zhang L.L. Kang, H. Liang, Mechanism of interfacial reaction between Ti and Al-ceramic, Mater. Design 105, 223-233 (2016). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2016.05.073
[10] G .H.S.F.L. Carvalho, I. Galvão, R. Mendes, R.M. Leal, A. Loureiro, Explosive welding of aluminium to stainless steel, J. Mat. Process. Tech. 262, 340-349 (2018). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2018.06.042
[11] I. D. Zakharenko, Critical conditions in detonation welding, Fizika Goreniya i Vzryva 8 (3), 422-427 (1972).
[12] M. Tayyebi, D. Rahmatabadi, M. Adhami, R. Hashemi, Influence of AR B technique on the microstructural, mechanical and fracture properties of the multilayered Al1050/Al5052 composite reinforced by SiC particles, J. Mater. Res. Tech. 8 (5), 4287-4301 (2019). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2019.07.039
[13] M.N. Yuan, Lili Li, Zh J. Wang, Study of the microstructure modulation and phase formation of Ti-Al3Ti laminated composites, Vacuum 157, 481-486 (2018). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vacuum.2018.09.002
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

W. Kowalski
1
ORCID: ORCID
H. Paul
1
ORCID: ORCID
P. Petrzak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ł. Maj
1
ORCID: ORCID
I. Mania
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Faryna
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science , Polish Academy of Sciences , 25 Reymonta Str., 30-059 Kraków, Poland
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

β-FeSi2 with the addition of B4C nanoparticles was manufactured by sintering mechanically alloyed Fe and Si powders with Mn, Co, Al, P as p and n-type dopants. The consolidated samples were subsequently annealed at 1123 K for 36 ks. XRD analysis of sinters after annealing confirmed nearly full transformation from α and ε into thermoelectric β-FeSi2 phase. SEM observations of samples surface were compliant with the diffraction curves. TEM observations allowed to depict evenly distributed B4C nanoparticles thorough material, with no visible aggregates and establish grain size parameter d2 < 500 nm. All dopants contributed to lower thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, with Co having strongest influence on increasing electrical conductivity in relation to reference FeSi2. Combination of the addition of Co as dopant and B4C nanoparticles as phonon scatterer resulted in dimensionless figure of merit ZT reaching 7.6 × 10–2 at 773 K for Fe0.97Co0.03Si2 compound.
Comparison of the thermoelectric properties of examined sinters to the previously manufactured of the same stoichiometry but without B4C nanoparticles revealed theirs overall negative influence.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] S. Twaha, J. Zhu, Y. Yan, B. Li, A comprehensive review of thermoelectric technology: Materials, applications, modelling and performance improvement, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 65, 698-726 (2016).
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.07.034
[2] R .M. Ware, D.J. McNeill, Iron disilicide as a thermoelectric generator material, Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 111, 178 (1964). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1049/piee.1964.0029
[3] T. Kojima, Semiconducting and Thermoelectric Properties of Sintered Iron Disilicide, Phys. Stat. Sol. (A) 111, 233-242 (1989). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1002/pssa.2211110124
[4] M . Takeda, M. Kuramitsu, M. Yoshio, Anisotropic Seebeck coefficient in β-FeSi2 single crystal, Thin Solid Films 461, 179-181 (2004). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2004.02.066
[5] M . Ito, T. Tada, S. Katsuyama, Thermoelectric properties of Fe0.98Co0.02Si2 with ZrO2 and rare-earth oxide dispersion by mechanical alloying, J. Alloys Compd. 350, 296-302 (2003). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-8388(02)00964-7
[6] K . Biswas, J. He, I. Blum, et al., High-performance bulk thermoelectrics with all-scale hierarchical architectures, Nature 489, 414-418 (2012). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11439
[7] A . Michalski, M. Rosiński, Pulse Plasma Sintering and Applications, Adv. Sinter. Sci. Technol. 219-226 (2017).
[8] K .F. Cai, C.W. Nan, X.M. Min, The effect of silicon addition on thermoelectric properties of a B4C ceramic, Materials Science and Engineering: B 67, 3, 1999, 102-107 (1999). ISSN 0921-5107. DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-5107(99)00220-2
[9] Y. Ohba, T. Shimozaki, H. Era, Thermoelectric Properties of Silicon Carbide Sintered with Addition of Boron Carbide, Carbon, and Alumina, Materials Transactions 49, 6, 1235-1241 (2008). DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.2320/matertrans.MRA2007232
[10] M .J. Kruszewski et al., Microstructure and Thermoelectric Properties of Bulk Cobalt Antimonide (CoSb3) Skutterudites Obtained by Pulse Plasma Sintering, J. Electron. Mater. 45, 1369-1376 (2016). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-015-4037-5
[11] A. Michalski, D. Siemiaszko, Nanocrystalline cemented carbides sintered by the PPS method, Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater. 25, 153 (2007). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2006.03.007
[12] A.M. Abyzov, M.J. Kruszewski, Ł. Ciupiński, M. Mazurkiewicz, A. Michalski, K.J. Kurzydłowski, Diamond-tungsten based coating- copper composites with high thermal conductivity produced by Pulse Plasma Sintering, Mater. Des. 76, 97 (2015). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2015.03.056
[13] J. Grzonka, J. Kruszewski, M. Rosiński, Ł. Ciupiński, A. Michalski, K.J. Kurzydłowski, Interfacial microstructure of copper/ diamond composites fabricated via a powder metallurgical route, Mater. Charact. 99, 188 (2015). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchar.2014.11.032
[14] M. Rosiński, J. Wachowicz, T. Płociński, T. Truszkowski, A. Michalski, Properties of WCCO/diamond composites produced by PPS method intended for drill bits for machining of building stones, Ceram. Trans. 243, 181 (2014). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118771464
[15] W. Liu, X. Yan, G. Chen, Z. Ren, Recent advances in thermoelectric nanocomposites, Nano Energy 1, 42-56 (2012). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2011.10.001
[16] F. Dąbrowski, Ł. Ciupiński, J. Zdunek, J. Kruszewski, R. Zybała, A. Michalski, K.J. Kurzydłowski, Microstructure and thermoelectric properties of p and n type doped β-FeSi2 fabricated by mechanical alloying and pulse plasma sintering, Materials Today: Proceedings 8, 2, 531-539 (2019). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2019.02.050
[17] M. Ito, H. Nagai, S. Katsuyama, K. Majima, Thermoelectric properties of β-FeSi2 with B4C and BN dispersion by mechanical alloying, J. Mat. Science 37, 2609-2614 (2002). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015891811725
[18] M . Ito, H. Nagai, T. Tanaka, S. Katsuyama, K. Majima, Thermoelectric performance of n-type and p-type β-FeSi2 prepared by pressureless sintering with Cu addition, J. Alloys Compd. 319, 303-311 (2001). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-8388(01)00920-3
[19] N . Niizeki, et al., Effect of Aluminum and Copper Addition to the Thermoelectric Properties of FeSi2 Sintered in the Atmosphere, Mater. Trans. 50, 1586-1591 (2009). DOI : https://doi.org/10.2320/matertrans.E-M2009808
[20] A . Heinrich, et al., Thermoelectric properties of β-FeSi2 single crystals and polycrystalline β-FeSi2+x thin films, Thin Solid Films 381, 287-295 (2001). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6090(00)01758-2
[21] K. Nogi, T. Kita, Rapid production of β-FeSi2 by spark-plasma sintering, J. Mater. Sci. 35, 5845-5849 (2000). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026752206864
[22] J. Tani, H. Kido, Electrical properties of Co-doped and Ni-doped β-FeSi2, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1408 (1998). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1063/1.368174
[23] H . Nagai, M. Ito, S. Katsuyama, K. Majima, The Effect of Co and Ni Doping on the Thermoelectric Properties of Sintered β-FeSi2, Journal of the Japan Society of Powder and Powder Metallurgy, Released December 04, 2009. DOI : https://doi.org/10.2497/jjspm.41.560
[24] H.Y. Chen, X.B. Zhao, C. Stiewe, D. Platzek, E. Mueller, Microstructures and thermoelectric properties of Co-doped iron disilicides prepared by rapid solidification and hot pressing, J. Alloys Compd. 433, 338-344 (2007). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2006.06.080
[25] Y . Ohta, S. Miura, Y. Mishima, Thermoelectric semiconductor iron disilicides produced by sintering elemental powders, Intermetallics, 7, 1203-1210 (1999). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/S0966-9795(99)00021-7
[26] H .Y. Chen, X.B. Zhao, T.J. Zhu, Y.F. Lu, H.L. Ni, E. Muller, A. Mrotzek, Influence of nitrogenizing and Al-doping on microstructures and thermoelectric properties of iron disilicide materials, Intermetallics 13, 704-709 (2005). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intermet.2004.12.019
[27] M . Ito, H. Nagai, E. Oda, S. Katsuyama, K. Majima, Effects of P doping on the thermoelectric properties of β-FeSi2, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2138-2142 (2002). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1436302
[28] X. Qu, S. Lü, J. Hu, Q. Meng, Microstructure and thermoelectric properties of β-FeSi2 ceramics fabricated by hot-pressing and spark plasma sintering, J. Alloys Compd. 509, 10217-10221 (2011). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2011.08.070
[29] Y. Ma, R. Heijl, A.E.C. Palmqvist, Composite thermoelectric materials with embedded nanoparticles, J Mater Sci 48, 2767-2778 (2013). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-012-6976-z
[30] T. Wejrzanowski, Computer Assisted Analysis of Gradient Materials Microstructure, Masters Thesis, Warsaw University of Technology (2000).
[31] K. Nogi, T. Kita, X-Q. Yan, Optimum Sintering and Annealing Conditions for β-FeSi2 Formed by Slip Casting, J. Ceram. Soc. Japan 109, 265-269 (2001). DOI : https://doi.org/10.2109/jcersj.109.1267_265
[32] G. Shao, K.P. Homewood, On the crystallographic characteristics of ion beam synthesized, Intermetallics 8, 1405-1412 (2000). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/S0966-9795(00)00090-X
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

F. Dąbrowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ł. Ciupiński
1
ORCID: ORCID
J. Zdunek
1
ORCID: ORCID
W. Chromiński
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Kruszewski
1
ORCID: ORCID
R. Zybała
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
A. Michalski
1
K.J. Kurzydłowski
1

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, 141 Wołoska Str., 02-507 Warszawa, Poland
  2. Łukasiewicz Research Network, Institute of Microelectronics and Photonics, 32/46, Lotników Str., 02-668 Warszawa, Poland
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Much zinc residue is produced during the traditional processes involved in zinc hydrometallurgy in the leaching stage: its composition is complex and valuable metals are difficult to recover therefrom. If not handled properly, it can lead to a waste of resources and environmental pollution. To solve this problem, zinc leach residue specimens were treated using the carbothermal reduction method (CTR) that is easy to operate and has a high energy utilisation rate. The methods, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were used for analytical characterisation. Based on this, this research investigated a structure-function relationship between microstructures and microwave-absorbing properties of ZnO smoke from CTR-treated zinc leach residue. The results demonstrate that microstructures and macro-properties of ZnO smoke obtained at different temperatures differ greatly. Under conditions including a calcination temperature of 1250°C, holding time of 60 min, and addition of 50% and 10% of powdered coal and CaO separately, the ZnO content in the obtained smoke is 99.14%, with regular micron-sized ZnO particles therein. For these particles, the minimum reflection loss (RLmin) reached –25.56 dB at a frequency of 15.84 GHz with a matching thickness of 5 mm. Moreover, frequency bandwidth corresponding to RL < –10 dB can reach 2.0 GHz. ZnO smoke obtained using this method is found to have excellent microwave-absorbing performance, which provides a new idea for high-value applications of zinc-rich residue.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] M. Li, B. Peng, L.Y. Chai, Technological Mineralogy and Environmental Activity of Zinc Leaching Residue from Zinc Hydrometallurgical Process, T. Nonfer. Metal. Soc. 23 (5), 1480-1488 (2013). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1003-6326(13)62620-5
[2] G .M. Jiang, B. Peng, Y.J. Liang, Recovery of Valuable Metals from Zinc Leaching Residue by Sulfate Roasting and Water Leaching, T. Nonfer. Metal. Soc. 27, 1180-1187 (2017). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1003-6326(17)60138-9
[3] H . Yan, L.Y. Chai, B. Peng, A Novel Method to Recover Zinc and Iron from Zinc Leaching Residue, Mine Eng. 55, 103-110 (2014). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mineng.2013.09.015
[4] W . Luo, Q. Feng, L. Ou, Kinetics of Saprolitic Laterite Leaching by Sulphuric Acid at Atmospheric Pressure, Mine Eng. 23 (6), 458- 462 (2010). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mineng.2009.10.006
[5] L. Tang, C.B. Tang, J. Xiao, A Cleaner Process for Lead Recovery from Lead-containing Hazardous Solid Waste and Zinc Leaching Residue Via Reducing-matting Smelting, J. Clean Prod. 241, 1-8 (2019). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.118328
[6] A . Özverdi, M. Erdem, Environmental Risk Assessment and Stabilization/Solidification of Zinc Extraction Residue: I. Environmental Risk Assessment, Hydrometallurgy 100, 103-109 (2010). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hydromet.2009.10.011
[7] J.M. Steer, A.J. Giffiths, Investigation of Carboxylic Acids and Non-aqueous Solvents for the Selective Leaching of Zinc from Blast Furnace Dust Slurry, Hydrometallurgy 140, 34-4 1(2013). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hydromet.2013.08.011
[8] P. Xing, B.Z. Ma, P. Zeng, Deep Cleaning of a Metallurgical Zinc Leaching Residue and Recovery of Valuable Metals, Int. J. Min. Met. Mater. 24 (11), 1217-1227 (2017). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-017-1514-2
[9] S. Wang, Y.Y. Shen, S.Q. Zhang. Leaching of High Arsenic Content Dust and a New Process for the Preparation of Copper Arsenate, Arch. Metall. Mater. 63 (3), 1167-1172 (2018). DOI: https://doi.org/10.24425/123789
[10] X.B. Li, C. Wei, Z.G. Deng, Extraction and Separation of Indium and Copper from Zinc Residue Leach Liquor by Solvent Extraction, Sep. Purif. Technol. 156, 348-355 (2015). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/j.seppur.2015.10.021
[11] O .N. Kononova, A.G. Kholmogorov, N.V. Danilenko, Recovery of Silver from Thiosulfate and Thiocyanante Leach Solutions by Adsorption on Anion Exchange Resins and Activated Carbon, Hydrometallurgy 88, 189-195 (2007). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hydromet.2017.03.012
[12] G .G. Mei, D.R. Wang, J.Y. Zhou, Zinc Hydrometallurgy [M], Central South University of Technology Press, 2001 China, Changsha.
[13] G . Yu, N. Peng, L. Zhou, Selective Reduction Process of Zinc Ferrite and its Application in Treatment of Zinc Leaching Residues. T. Nonfer. Metal. Soc. 55, 103-110 (2014). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1003-6326(15)63899-7
[14] I . M. Alibe, K.A. Matori, H.A.A. Sidek, The Influence of Calcination Temperature on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnOSiO2 Nanocomposite by Simple Thermal Treatment Route, Arch. Metall. Mater. 63 (2), 539-545 (2018). DOI: https://doi.org/10.24425/118972
[15] M.H. Tang, M.Z. Chen, X. Zhu, Elimination of 180° Non-uniqueness of ZnO Diffraction Pattern, Anal. Test. Technol. Instrum. 23 (2), 130-134 (2017). DOI: https://doi.org/10.16495/j.1006-3757.2017.02.012
[16] G .Z. Liu, Z.D. Wang, Z.G. Wan, Study on Microwave Synthesis of ZnO Microrods, J. Hubei. Univ. Technol. 22 (5), 5-7 (2007).
[17] I .M. Alibe, K.A. Matori, E. Saion, The Influence of Calcination Temperature on Structural and Pptical Properties of ZnO Nanoparticles Via Simple Polymer Synthesis Route, Sci. Sinter. 49 (3), 263-275 (2017). DOI: https://doi.org/10.2298/SOS1703263A
[18] I .M. Alibe, K.A. Matori, H.A.A. Sidek, Effects of Calcination Holding Time on Properties of Wide Band Gap Willemite Semiconductor Nanoparticles by the Polymer Thermal Treatment Method, Molecules 23 (4), 1-18 (2018). DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040873
[19] S. Geetha, K.K.K. Satheesh, C.R.K. Rao, EMI Shielding: Methods and Materials. A Review. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 112 (4), 2073-2086 (2010). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/app.29812
[20] L.L. Yan, M. Zhang, S.C. Zhao, Wire-in-tube ZnO@carbon by Molecular Layer Deposition: Accurately Tunable Electromagnetic Parameters and Remarkable Wave Absorption, Chem. Eng. J. 382, 1-11 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2019.122860
[21] X. Meng, Y.Q. Liu, G.H. Han, Three-dimensional (Fe3O4/ ZnO)@C Double-core@shell Porous Nanocomposites with Enhanced Broadband Wave Absorption, Carbon 162, 356-364 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2020.02.035
[22] L.Z. Zhao, S.X. Hu, S.W. Li, Absorption Principle and Research Progress of Absorbing Materials, Modern Defense. Technol. 35 (1), 27-31 (2007).
[23] X.J. Zhang, G.S. Wang, Y.Z. Wei, Polymer-composite with High Dielectric Constant and Enhanced Absorption Properties Based on Grapheme-CuS Nanocomposites and Polyvinylidene Fluoride, J. Mater. Chem. A 1 (39), 12115-12122 (2013). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/c3ta12451g
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Zhiwei Ma
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sheng Wang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Xueyan Du
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ji Zhang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ruifeng Zhao
1
ORCID: ORCID
Shengquan Zhang
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Lanzhou University of Technology, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non-ferrous Metals, Lanzhou 730050, China
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In this research, the carbon particle dispersions are made in two different levels as carbon nano tube (CNT) and carbon particle in microns range. The mechanical strength is evaluated for the composites developed by axial loading and bending test analysis. In addition, the air jet abrasive particle erosion study is performed for different angle of impingement. The dispersion of carbon particle in the matrix material has reduced the mechanical strength. The sample with 4% of CNT dispersion in the composite has a maximum strength of 143 MPa and a minimum strength of 112 MPa. For the same combination (4% of CNT composite), the maximum flexural strength is 116 MPa. It is clear to infer that the strength of CNT in matrix materials is superior to the increase in length of carbon particle. The dispersion of carbon particle in the matrix material increases the brittleness and the strength is diminished. During the flexural bending, the fiber delamination occurred with severe deformation in the plain composite. When the materials are subjected to impingement of solid particle, the attrition effect on the exposed surfaces is vulnerable towards erosive mechanism. The presence of carbon in the matrix material has significantly increased the surface property. The results are appreciable for 4% of CNT composite. Especially at 30º, the minimum erosive wear 0.0033 g/g has been recorded. Erosive wear is less at minimum impingement angle and the wear is found increasing at higher impingement angle. Therefore, it is recommended not to add carbon particle to a higher weight percentage, since it leads to brittleness.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] S. Wu, S. Peng, C. Wang, Polym. 10 (5), 542 (2018). DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10050542
[2] K. Sravanthi, V. Mahesh, B. Nageswara Rao, Mater. Today Proc. (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.06.298
[3] P. Naik, S. Pradhan, P. Sahoo, S.K. Acharya, Mater. Today Proc. 26, 1892-1896 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.02.414
[4] R .K. Nayak, D. Rathore, B.C. Routara, B.C. Ray, Int. J. Plast. Technol. 20 (2), 334-344 (2016). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12588-016-9158-z
[5] R .K. Nayak, A. Dash, B.C. Ray, Procedia Mater. Sci. 6, 1359-1364 (2014). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mspro.2014.07.115
[6] J.N. Coleman, U. Khan, W.J. Blau, Y.K. Gun’ko, Carbon N. Y. 44 (9), 1624-1652 (2006). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2006.02.038
[7] G . Zhang, Z. Rasheva, J. Karger-Kocsis, T. Burkhart, Express Polym. Lett. 5 (10), 859-872 (2011). DOI: https://doi.org/10.3144/expresspolymlett.2011.85
[8] C. Lee, X. Wei, J. W. Kysar, J. Hone, Science, 321 (58), 385-388 (2008). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1157996
[9] Z. Spitalsky, D. Tasis, K. Papagelis, C. Galiotis, Prog. Polym. Sci. 35 (3), 357-401 (2010). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2009.09.003
[10] B.-X. Yang, K.P. Pramoda, G.Q. Xu, S.H. Goh, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17 (13), 2062-2069 (2007). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.200600599
[11] L . Gorbatikh, S.V. Lomov, I. Verpoest, Procedia Eng. 10, 3252- 3258 (2011). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2011.04.537
[12] S.S. Wicks, R.G. de Villoria, B.L. Wardle, Compos. Sci. Technol. 70 (1), 20-28 (2010). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2009.09.001
[13] N . Chisholm, H. Mahfuz, V.K. Rangari, A. Ashfaq, S. Jeelani, Compos. Struct. 67 (1), 115-124 (2005). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2004.01.010
[14] T . Peijs, F. Inam, D.W.Y. Wong, M. Kuwata, J. Nanomater. 2010 (2010). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/453420
[15] K.S. Ahmed, S. Vijayarangan, A.C.B. Naidu, Mater. Des. 28 (8), 2287-2294 (2007). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2006.08.002
[16] D.P.N. Vlasveld, P.P. Parlevliet, H.E.N. Bersee, S.J. Picken, Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 36 (1), 1-11 (2005). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2004.06.035
[17] B.K. Kandola, B. Biswas, D. Price, A.R. Horrocks, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 95 (2), 144-152 (2010). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2009.11.040
[18] T .P. Chua, M. Mariatti, A. Azizan, A.A. Rashid, Compos. Sci. Technol. 70 (4), 671-677 (2010). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2009.12.023
[19] N . Mohan, S. Natarajan, S.P. KumareshBabu, Mater. Des. 32 (3), 1704-1709 (2011). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2010.08.050
[20] S.P. Jani, A. Senthil Kumar, M. Adam Khan, M. Uthaya Kumar. Mater. Manuf. Processes. 31 (10), 1393-1399 (2016).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

K. Sravanthi
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
V. Mahesh
3
ORCID: ORCID
B. Nageswara Rao
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Deemed to be University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Green Fields, Vaddeswaram, Guntur522 502, India
  2. Marri Laxman Reddy Institute of Technology and Management, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hyderabad, India
  3. SR Engineering College, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Warangal 506371, India
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

The current work is dedicated to the mathematical description of a protrusion of the leading phase (cementite) over the wetting phase (austenite) observed during the author’s experiments in previous articles. A cementite protrusion is confirmed in the directionally solidified Fe-4.25% C eutectic alloy. The protrusion is defined due to the mass balance fulfilment. A coordinate system is attached to the solid/liquid interface, which is moving with the constant growth rate v.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] E . Cadirli, H. Kaya, M. Gunduz, Materials Research Bulletin 38, 1457-1476 (2003).
[2] G .J. Davies, Solidification and casting, Wiley (1973).
[3] V .L. Davies, Journal of the Institute of Metals 93, 10-14 (1964-65).
[4] M. Hillert, V.V. Subba Rao, Iron and Steel Intitute Publication 110, 204-212 (1968).
[5] D .M. Stefanescu, Eutectic solidification, Science and Engineering of Casting Solidification, Springer 207 (2015).
[6] E . Fraś, Krystalizacja metali, Wydawnictwo Naukowo Techniczne, Warszawa (2003).
[7] M. Trepczyńska-Łent, Archives of Foundry Engineering 13 (3), 101-106 (2013).
[8] M. Trepczyńska-Łent, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 58 (3), 987-991. (2013). DOI : https://doi.org/10.2478/amm-2013-0116
[9] M. Trepczyńska-Łent, Archives of Foundry Engineering 16 (4), 169-174 (2016). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1515/afe-2016-0104
[10] M. Trepczyńska-Łent, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 62 (1), 365-368 (2017). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1515/amm-2017-0056
[11] M. Trepczyńska-Łent, Crystal Research and Technology 52 (7), 1600359 (2017). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1002/crat.201600359
[12] M. Trepczyńska-Łent, Archives of Foundry Engineering 19 (4), 113-116 (2019).
[13] E . Guzik, A model of irregular eutectic growth taking as an example the graphite eutectic in Fe-C alloys. Dissertations Monographies 15, AGH Kraków (1994).
[14] P . Magnin, W. Kurz, Acta Metall. 35, 1119 (1987).
[15] J.D Hunt., K.A Jackson, Trans Metall. Soc. AI ME 236, 843-852 (1966).
[16] K .A. Jackson, J.D. Hunt, Transactions of the Metallurgical Society of AI ME 236, 1129-1142 (1966).
[17] W Wołczyński, Defect and Diffusion Forum 272, 123-138 (2007).
[18] W. Wołczyński, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 63 (1), 65-72 (2018).
[19] G .A Chadwick, Eutectic Alloy Solidification, Chapter 2 in: Progress in Materials Science. Pergamon Press, Headington Hill Hall, Oxford (1964).
[20] W. Wołczyński, Crystal Research and Technology 25 (1), 1303- 1309 (1990).
[21] W. Wołczyński, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 65 (2), 653-666 (2020). DOI : https://doi.org/10.24425/amm.2020.132804
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

M. Trepczyńska-Łent
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. UTP University of Science and Technology, Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In this paper, detailed characterization of the oxide scale, grown on the Inconel 686 coating after high-temperature oxidation at 650°C in ashes from waste incineration power plant was performed. Phase composition, morphology, microstructure and chemical composition of the oxide scale were investigated using XRD and SEM analysis. Mechanisms of formation and growth of oxide scales were examined, resulting in the insights into oxidation kinetics. Results revealed presence of NiO in the outermost layer of the oxide scale. At the bottom of oxide scale, CrNi2O4 spinel layers were formed due to the increasing concentration of Cr. In the middle area of oxide scale, due to higher concentration of Cr and lower amount of Ni, the Cr2NiO4 spinel is formed. The innermost layer was composed of Cr2O3.
Go to article

Bibliography

[1] Special Metals Corporation, www.Specialmetals.com, Corrosion- Resistant Alloys.
[2] R. Zhang, S.D. Kiser, B.A. Baker, Nickel alloy weld overlays improves the life of power generation boiler tubing, Special metals welding products company (2007).
[3] J.N. Dupont, S. Babu, S. Liu, Welding of materials for energy applications, Metall. Mater. Trans. A. 44, 3385-3410 (2013). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-013-1643-9
[4] C . T. Sims, A contemporary view of nickel-base superalloys, JOM. 18, 1119-1130, (1966). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03378505
[5] S. Mrowec, T. Werber, Gas corrosion of metals, National Centre for Scientific, Warsaw, 1978.
[6] K .P. Lillerud, P. Kofstad, Sulfate-induced hot corrosion of nickel, Oxid. Met. 21, 233-270 (1984). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00656835
[7] U .K. Chatterjee, S.K. Bose, S.K. Roy, Environmental degradation of metals: Corrosion technology series/14, CRC Press, ISBN 9780824799205, 2001.
[8] Z. Zeng, K. Natesan, Z. Cai, D.L. Rink, Effect of coal ash on the performance of alloys in simulated oxy-fuel environments, Fuel. 117, 133-145 (2014). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.09.021
[9] Y . Niu, H. Tan, Ash-related issues during biomass combustion : Alkali-induced slagging, silicate melt-induced slagging (ash fusion), agglomeration , corrosion , ash utilization, and related countermeasures, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 52, 1-61 (2016). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2015.09.003
[10] D.L. Douglass, The oxidation mechanism of dilute Ni-Cr alloys, Corros. Sci. 8, 665-678 (1968). [11] D.J. Young, High Temperature Oxidation and Corrosion of Metals: Second Edition, Elsevier, New York, 2016.
[12] T . Tsao, A. Yeh, J. Yeh, M. Chiou, C. Kuo, H. Murakami, K. Kakehi, High temperature properties of advanced directionally – solidified high entropy superalloys, Superalloys 2016 13th Int. Symp. 1001-1009 (2016). DOI : https://doi.org/10.3390/e18020062
[13] K . Fueki, J.B. Wagner, Studies of the oxidation of nickel in the temperature range of 900 to 1400, J. Electrochem. Soc. 112, 384- 388 (1965).
[14] W .C. Hagel, A.U. Seybolt, Cation diffusion in Cr2O3, J. Electrochem. Soc. 1146-1152 (1961).
[15] K .H. Chang, J.H. Huang, C. Bin Yan, T.K. Yeh, F.R. Chen, J.J. Kai, Corrosion behavior of Alloy 625 in supercritical water environments, Prog. Nucl. Energy. 57, 20-31 (2012). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnucene.2011.12.015
[16] C . Wagner, Formation of composite scales consisting of oxides of different metals, J. Electrochemi. Soc. 103, 627-633 (1956).
[17] C .G. Pickin, S.W. Williams, M. Lunt, Characterisation of the cold metal transfer (CMT) process and its application for low dilution cladding, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 211, 496-502 (2011).
[18] J. Adamiec, High temperature corrosion of power boiler components cladded with nickel alloys, Mater. Charact. 60, 1093-1099 (2009). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchar.2009.03.017
[19] J. Słania, R. Krawczyk, S. Wójcik, Quality requirements put on the Inconel 625 austenite layer used on the sheet pile walls of the boiler’s evaporator to utilize waste thermally, Arch. Metall. Mater. 60, 677-685 (2015). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1515/amm-2015-0192
[20] M. Solecka, J. Kusiński, A. Kopia, M. Rozmus-Górnikowska, A. Radziszewska, High-temperature corrosion of Ni-base alloys by waste incineration ashes, Acta Phys. Pol. A. 130 (2016). DOI : https://doi.org/10.12693/APhysPolA.130.1045
[21] M. Solecka, A. Kopia, A. Radziszewska, B. Rutkowski, Microstructure, microsegregation and nanohardness of CMT clad layers of Ni-base alloy on 16Mo3 steel, J. Alloys Compd. 751, 86-95 (2018). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.04.102
[22] M. Solecka, A. Kopia, P. Petrzak, A. Radziszewska, Microstructure, chemical and phase composition of clad layers of Inconel 625 and Inconel 686, Arch. Metall. Mater. 63, 513-518 (2018). DOI: https://doi.org/10.24425/118969
[23] M. Solecka, A. Radziszewska, B. Rutkowski, New insight on study of Ni-base alloy clad layer after oxidation at 650°C, Corros. Sci. 149, 244-248 (2019). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2019.01.013
[24] C .C. Silva, C.R.M. Afonso, A.J. Ramirez, M.F. Motta, H.C. Miranda, J.P. Farias, Assessment of microstructure of alloy Inconel 686 dissimilar weld claddings, J. Alloys Compd. 684, 628-642 (2016). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.05.231
[25] J. Dille, M.F. Motta, H.C. de Miranda, C.C. Silva, C.C. Silva, Electron detection modes comparison for quantification of secondary phases of Inconel 686 weld metal, Mater. Charact. 133, 10-16 (2017). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchar.2017.09.014
[26] B. Arulmurugan, M. Manikandan, Development of welding technology for improving the metallurgical and mechanical properties of 21st century nickel based superalloy 686, Mater. Sci. Eng. A. 691, 126-140 (2017). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2017.03.042
[27] Y . Chen, T. Tan, H. Chen, Oxidation companied by Scale Removal: Initial and Asymptotical Kinetics, J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 7, 662-667 (2008).
[28] J. Xiao, N. Prud, N. Li, V. Ji, Influence of humidity on high temperature oxidation of Inconel 600 alloy: Oxide layers and residual stress study, Appl. Surf. Sci. 284, 446-452 (2013). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2013.07.117
[29] S. Chevalier, F. Desserrey, J.P. Larpin, Oxygen transport during the high temperature oxidation of pure nickel, Oxid. Met. 64, 219-234 (2005). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s11085-005-6560-x
[30] Y .C. Ma, X.J. Zhao, M. Gao, K. Liu, High-Temperature oxidation behavior of a Ni-Cr-W-Al alloy, J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 27, 841- 845 (2011). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/S1005-0302(11)60152-7
[31] E . Schmucker, C. Petitjean, L. Martinelli, P. Panteix, S. Ben, M. Vilasi, Oxidation of Ni-Cr alloy at intermediate oxygen pressures. I. Diffusion mechanisms through the oxide layer, Eval. Program Plann. 111, 474-485 (2016). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2016.05.025
[32] R. Halder, P. Sengupta, G. Abraham, C.P. Kaushik, G.K. Dey, Interaction of Alloy 693 with borosilicate glass at high temperature, Mater. Today Proc. 3, 3025-3034 (2016). DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2016.09.017
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

M. Solecka
1
ORCID: ORCID
B. Rutkowski
2
ORCID: ORCID
A. Kopia
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 25 Reymonta Str., 30-059 Krakow, Poland
  2. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland

Instructions for authors

Instructions for Authors


Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is a quarterly journal of Polish Academy of Sciences and Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS which publishes original scientific papers and reviews in the fields of metallurgy and materials science, foundry, mechanical working of metals, thermal engineering in metallurgy, thermodynamic and physical properties of materials, phase equilibria in the broad context and diffusion. In addition to the regular, original scientific papers and conference proceedings, invited reviews presenting the up-to-date knowledge and monothematic issues devoted to preferred areas of research will be published. Submission of a paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that if accepted it will not be published elsewhere in the same form.


When preparing the manuscript, please pay attention to the following rules:


1. Manuscript submission

1.1. Manuscripts to be considered for publication should be submitted to the Editorial Office via www.editorialsystem.com/amm/. Authors should designate corresponding author, whose responsibility is to represent the Authors in contacts with the Editorial Office. The corresponding author receives an e-mail notification confirming the submission of the manuscript to the Editorial Office and is informed about the progress of the review process.


1.2. Manuscript should not exceed 15 pages of full-size paper (A4), must be double spaced (please use 12 point font), with generous margins, and the pages must be numbered. Authors should submit an electronic file of their manuscript in Microsoft Word (minimum : version 2000).


1.3. All manuscripts must be written in good English. Both British and U.S. English are acceptable but Authors should be consistent in their usage. It is sole responsibility of the Authors to make sure that the manuscript is grammatically correct and spell checked. Authors are strongly encouraged to have the manuscript proofread by a native speaker of English or a language professional, before it is submitted to the editorial office. Papers written in poor English will be automatically rejected without being subjected to review.


1.4. Authors should submit an electronic copy of final version of their paper in Microsoft Word Format, shemes (sketches) and figures saved as .eps, .jpeg, or .tiff.


1.5. Articles submitted for publication should include abstract and maximum 5 keywords.


1.6. Please adhere to the following order of presentation:


Author(s) with first names in full and ORCID.

Affiliation(s): in a short form (Institution, City, Country). Use the superscripts (*, **, . . .) after the Authors’ names in case of different affiliations.

Title: All words in lower case (first letter of first word capitalized).


Abstract: maximum 10 lines, including primary objective, research design, methods and procedures, main outcomes and results. Do not use abbreviations in the abstract.

Keywords: 5 maximum.

Main text: Begin on the second page with Introduction, followed by Experimental (Materials and Methods) and/or Theory section, Results, Discussion, and end with Conclusion section and Acknowledgement. When appropriate the Authors may choose to combine Results section and Discussion section into one Results and Discussion section. Make sure the text in sections is divided logically into paragraphs.
Use the decimal system for sections, subsections and (at the most) sub-subsections, as exemplified in the headings of these instructions.
All abbreviations should be spelled out the first time they are introduced in text or references. Thereafter the abbreviation can be used.


Appendices

References

Correspondence address: title, name, postal address, telephone and e-mail address of the corresponding Author, number ORCID.

Figure captions

Tables

2. Manuscript preparation


The editorial system includes:


1. Manuscript, which should contain the full text with figures, tables and signatures to them where they are placed.


2. Figures, tables and signatures to them as separate files.


2.1. Formulae, equations and units
The formulas should be written in Microsoft Equation and MathType with the possibility of editing (not as graphics).
Formulae and equations should be typed on separate lines and numbered consecutively in parentheses on the right side (1) . . . (n). Vectors must be indicated as such. Size of symbols should be kept uniform for all equations in the manuscript. Formulae and equations should be referred to in the text as follows: Eq. (1).
Numbers and units must be separated by a space, e.g. 5.5 wt.%, 273.15 K, 1013 MPa, etc. The only exception are angle degrees, e.g. 90°.

2.2. Figures

Figures should be complete without corrections and additions in the word. Figures are usually printed in reduced size (fitting column width of 85 mm) and this should be taken into account when preparing them. For the best results, make sure that lettering on figures and micrographs is at least 2 mm high after reduction, and the style of labeling must be uniform for all figures. Each figure should have its own caption explaining the content without reference to the text. Figure captions should be typed on a separate page at the end of manuscript. The appropriate place of in the text should be indicated by <Fig. 3 > written in separate line. Figures should be referred to in text as follows: Fig. 1. The magnification must be indicated by a labeled scale marker on the micrograph itself, not drawn below it. For optimum printing quality micrographs should be saved as .eps or .tiff at a resolution of at least 300 dpi while line drawings at a resolution of at least 600 dpi.

2.3. Move file
The authors can make movie files up to 100 MB in MP4 format.
The author at the first reference (Movie 1. Click here) should with the Click here command connect the web address with the place of uploading the movie (hyperlink) and at the end of the article provide a list of hyperlinks (samples: Movie 1, hyperlink, movie no 2, hyperlink ......).

The files will be removed from the edytorial system when rejected or published article (moved to Rejected or Published manuscripts).


2.4. Tables

Tables together with captions should be typed on separate page at the end of manuscript. Tables are to be numbered consecutively using Arabic numbers in the text (TABLE 1 . . . n). A caption must be placed above respective table and should explain the symbols used in the heading and in the left hand column. Tables should be referred to in the text as follows: TABLE 1.


2.5. References

References should be typed on separate pages and numbered consecutively applying the system accepted by the Quarterly (initials and names all authors, journal title [abbreviated according to the Journal Title Abbreviations of Web of Science: http://library.caltech.edu/reference/abbreviations/, everyone abbreviation should be end with a dot - example. Arch.Metall.Mater.] or book title; journal volume or book publisher; page spread; publication year in bracket).

The use of DOI numbers (full notation and linked) is mandatory for each paper and should be formatted as shown in the examples below:

Journals:

[1] L.B. Magalas, Development of High-Resolution Mechanical Spectroscopy, HRMS: Status and Perspectives. HRMS Coupled with a Laser Dilatometer. Arch. Metall. Mater. 60 (3), 2069-2076 (2015). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/AMM-2015-0350

[2] E. Pagounis, M.J. Szczerba, R. Chulist, M. Laufenberg, Large Magnetic Field-Induced Work output in a NiMgGa Seven-Lavered Modulated Martensite. Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 152407 (2015). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4933303

[3] H. Etschmaier, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, Suppression of Interdiffusion in Copper/Tin thin Films. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012).DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-011-0090-2 (in press).

Books:

[2] M. H. Kamdar, A.M.C. Westwood, Environment-Sensitive Mechanical Behaviour, New York 1981.

Proceedings:

[3] F. Erdogan, in: H. Liebowitz (Ed.), Fracture 2, Academic Press 684, New York (1968).

Internet resource:

[4] http://www.twi.co.uk/content/fswqual.html

PhD Thesis:

[6] F.M. LIang. World Hyphenation by Computer. PhD thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, June.

Chapter in books:

[7] R. Major, P. Lacki, R. Kustosz, J. M. Lackner, Modelling of nanoindentation to simulate thin layer behavior, in: K. J. Kurzydłowski, B. Major,

P. Zięba (Ed.), Foundation of Materials Design 2006, Research Signpost (2006).

Articles in press:

[8] H. EtschmaIer, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012), DOI: 10.1007/s11665-011-0090-2 (in press).

3. Fees

No honorarium will be paid. The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

4. Review and proofread process

4.1. Peer review process All submitted manuscripts undergo review by renowned specialists appointed by the Editor-in-Chief and members of the Editorial Board. Reviewers receive guidance to help them perform the review, and submit written opinion on the manuscript together with recommendation to accept as is, or reject, or accept after revision. In the latter case i.e. when revision is requested, the authors are obliged to respond to Editor and Reviewers’ comments in detail and make revisions to the manuscript. A rebuttal to Reviewers’ comments can also be sent via the Editorial System in writing. Decision to reject the article is taken by the Editorial Board with the final decision belonging to the Editor, who may appoint another reviewer if necessary. Reviewers remain anonymous to Authors and their identity cannot be revealed by the Editorial Office.

In a separate file, the authors are requested to suggest names and contact details (affiliations and valid e-mail addresses) of at least three experts who could serve as reviewers.

Brief explanation (2-3 sentence-long) why each person is suitable as a reviewer should also be provided. The suggested reviewers cannot be from the same country as affiliation of the corresponding author. The decision to appoint a reviewer belongs solely to the editor.

4.2. Revised manuscript submission

When revision of a manuscript is requested, Authors should return the revised version of their manuscript as soon as possible. Prompt action may ensure fast publication if a paper is finally accepted for publication in Arch. Metall. Mater. If it is the first revision of an article Authors are requested to return their revised manuscript within 7 days.

If it is the second revision Authors are requested to return their revised manuscript within 1 day.

4.3. Final proofreading

Authors will receive a pdf file with the edited version of their manuscript for final proofreading. This is the last opportunity to view an article before its publication on the journal web site. No changes or modifications can be introduced once it is published. Thus authors are requested to check their proof pages carefully against manuscript within 3 working days and prepare a separate document containing all changes that should be introduced. Authors are sometimes asked to provide additional comments and explanations in response to remarks and queries from the language or technical editors.

5. Original version

Starting from issue 1/ 2018, Volume 63, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is published in electronic via www.journals.pan.pl. The printed version is printed only for designated libraries (legal basis: Regulation of the Minister of Culture and Art of March 6, 1997).

6. Prevent cases of plagiarism

Readers should be sure that the authors present the results of their work transparently, fair and honest, regardless of whether they are the direct authors, or used the help of a specialized entity (natural or legal person). To prevent cases of plagiarism, "ghostwriting" and "guest Authorship", the Editorial Office will require that the Authors disclosed the contribution of individual Authors in the creation of manuscript (with their affiliations and contributions, i.e. the information who is responsible for: research concept and design, collection and/or assembly of data, data analysis and interpretation, writing the manuscript). Funding sources (together with grant number) must also be revealed. The corresponding Author will bear the main responsibility for the manuscript. Detected cases will be exposed, including notifying the appropriate entities (institutions employing the Authors, scientific societies, associations of editors of scientific journals, etc.).

7. License type

Articles are printed in an open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). This license allows authors to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, remix, transform, and build upon the material. Authors may not use the material for commercial purposes. However, this condition does not include dependent works (they may be covered by another license).

Submission of an article to the journal is unequivocal to expressing consent to the publication in both paper and electronic form.

Additional info

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is covered by the following services:


Arianta, Baidu Scholar, BazTech, Celdes, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) - CAplus, Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters) - Current Contents/Engineering, Computing, and Technology, Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters) - Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters) - Materials Science Citation Index, Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters) - Science Citation Index Expanded, CNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), CNPIEC, DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals), EBSCO (relevant databases), EBSCO Discovery Service, Elsevier - SCOPUS, Genamics JournalSeek, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, J-Gate, JournalTOCs, KESLI-NDSL (Korean National Discovery for Science Leaders), Microsoft Academic, Naviga (Softweco), Primo Central (ExLibris), ProQuest (relevant databases), ReadCube, ResearchGate, SCImago (SJR), Sherpa/RoMEO, Summon (Serials Solutions/ProQuest), TDNet, TEMA Technik und Management, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb, WanFang Data, WorldCat (OCLC)

This page uses 'cookies'. Learn more