Applied sciences

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials

Content

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials | 2021 | vol. 66 | No 3 |

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Abstract

In order to the long-term stability of DSE for electroplating process, the lifetime equations were calculated from the results of the accelerated life testing, and the lifetime of DSE was predicted. The nano-embossing pre-treatment led to 2.65 times in the lifetime of DSE. The degradation mechanism of DSE with a thick metal oxide layer for applied highly current density process condition was identified. The improvement of durability of DSE seems to be closely related to adhesion between titanium plate and mixed metal oxide layer.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Sung Cheol Park
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Yeon Jae Jung
1
ORCID: ORCID
SeokBon Koo
1
ORCID: ORCID
Kee-Ahn Lee
2
ORCID: ORCID
Seong Ho Son
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Advanced Functional Technology R&D Department, Incheon, Republic of Korea
  2. Inha University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Incheon, Republic of Korea
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Abstract

The objective of the present research is to develop new admixed lubricants which can be used for high-density sintered iron when processed using warm die and warm compaction. Depending on various lubricants, the effect of compaction temperature on the ejection behavior and sintered properties was studied. Lubricants were prepared by mixing of Zn-stearate and ethylene bis stearamide (EBS) in various compositions. The iron powders blended with lubricants were compacted under the pressure of 700 MPa at various temperatures. The green compacts were sintered at 1120°C for 30 min. Microstructure, density, hardness, and transverse rupture strength of sintered materials with different lubricants were investigated in detail.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Min Chul Oh
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Byungmin Ahn
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Ajou University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Energy Systems Research, 206 WORLDCUP-RO, SUWON, Gyeonggi, 16499, Korea
  2. AI & Mechanical System Center, Institute for Advanced Engineering, 175-28 GOAN-RO 51 BEON-GIL, Yyongin, Gyeonggi, 17180, Korea
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Abstract

In this study, the effect of the addition of ZrO2 and Al2O3 ceramic powders to Cu-Mo-Cr alloy was studied by examining the physical properties of the composite material. The ceramic additives were selected based on the thermodynamic stability calculation of the Cu-Mo-Cr alloys. Elemental powders, in the ratio Cu:Mo:Cr = 60:30:10 (wt.%), and approximately 0-1.2 wt.% of ZrO2 and Al2O3 were mixed, and a green compact was formed by pressing the mixture under 186 MPa pressure and sintering at 1250°C for 5 h. The raw powders were evenly dispersed in the mixed powder, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. After sintering, the microstructures, densities, electrical conductivities, and hardness of the composites were evaluated. We found that the addition of ZrO2 and Al2O3 increased the hardness and decreased the electrical conductivity and density of the composites.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Yeong-Woo Cho
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Jae-Jin Sim
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Sung-Gue Heo
1 3
ORCID: ORCID
Hyun-Chul Kim
1 3
Yong-Kwan Lee
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Jong-Soo Byeon
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Yong-Tak Lee
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Kee-Ahn Lee
2
ORCID: ORCID
Seok-Jun Seo
1
ORCID: ORCID
Kyoung-Tae Park
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Korea Institute for Rare Metals, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, 7-50 Songdo-dong Yeonsoo-gu, Incheon 21999, Korea
  2. Inha University, Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Incheon 22212, Korea
  3. Korea University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul 02841, Korea
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Abstract

In this study, we propose a cooling structure manufactured using a specialized three-dimensional (3D) printing design method. A cooling performance test system with complex geometry that used a thermoelectric module was manufactured using metal 3D printing. A test model was constructed by applying additive manufacturing simulation and computational fluid analysis techniques, and the correlation between each element and cooling efficiency was examined. In this study, the evaluation was conducted using a thermoelectric module base cooling efficiency measurement system. The contents were compared and analyzed by predicting the manufacturing possibility and cooling efficiency, through additive manufacturing simulation and computational fluid analysis techniques, respectively.
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Bibliography

[1] M .K. Thompson et al, Design for Additive Manufacturing: Trends, opportunities, considerations, and constraints, CIRP Annuals 65, 737-760 (2016).
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[4] F .F. Wang, E. Parker, 3D printed micro-channel heat sink design considerations, 2016 International Symposium on 3D Power Electronics Integration and Manufacturing 16320350 (2016).
[5] Chunlei Wan and et al., Flexible n-type thermoelectric materials by organic intercalation of layered transition metal dischalcogenide TiS2, Nature Materials 14, 622-627 (2015).
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[10] S. Emrecan et al., Thermo-mechanical simulations of selective laser melting for AlSi10Mg alloy to predict the part-scale deformations, Progress in Additive Manufacturing 465-478 (2019).
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Authors and Affiliations

Yeong-Jin Woo
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Dong-Ho Nam
1
ORCID: ORCID
Seok-Rok Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID
Eun-Ah Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Woo-Jin Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID
Dong-Yeol Yang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ji-Hun Yu
1
ORCID: ORCID
Yong-Ho Park
2
ORCID: ORCID
Hak-Sung Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon, 51508, Republic of Korea
  2. Pusan National University, Busan, 46241, Republic of Korea
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Abstract

Influence of Si addition on oxide layer growth of Al-6 mass%Mg alloys in molten state was investigated in this study. After melt holding for 24 h, the melt surface of only Si-free alloy became significantly bumpy, while no considerably oxidized surface was observed even with 1 mass%Si addition. There was no visible change on the appearance of melt surfaces with increasing Si content. As a result of compositional analysis on the melt samples between before and after melt holding, the Si-added alloys nearly maintained their Mg contents even after the melt holding for 24 h. On the other hand, the Mg content in the Si-free alloy showed a great reduction. The bumpy surface on Si-free alloy melt showed a large amount of pores and oxide clusters in its cross-section, while the Si-added alloy had no significantly grown oxide clusters on the surfaces. As a result of compositional analysis on the surfaces, the oxide clusters in Si-free alloy contained a great amount of Mg and oxygen. The oxide layer on the Si-added alloy was divided into Mg-rich and Mg-poor areas and contained certain amounts of Si. Such a mixed oxide layer containing Si would act as a protective layer during the melt holding for a long duration.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Young-Ok Yoon
1
ORCID: ORCID
Seong-Ho Ha
1
ORCID: ORCID
Abdul Wahid Shah
1
ORCID: ORCID
Bong-Hwan Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Hyun-Kyu Lim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Shae K. Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Advanced Materials and Process R&D Department, Incheon 21999, Republic of Korea
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Abstract

Effect of Cu addition on oxide growth of Al-7 mass%Mg alloy at high temperature was investigated. As-cast microstructures of Al-7 mass%Mg and Al-7 mass%Mg-1 mass%Cu alloys showed α-Al dendrites and area of secondary particles. The 1 mass%Cu addition into Al-7 mass%Mg alloy formed Mg32(Al, Cu)49 ternary phase with β-Al3Mg2. The total fraction of two Mg-containing phases in Cu-added alloy was higher than the β-Al3Mg2 fraction in Cu-free alloy. From measured weight gains depending on time at 500°C under an air atmosphere, it was shown that all samples exhibited significant weight gains depending on time. Al-7mass%Mg-1mass%Cu alloy showed the relatively increased oxidation rate when compared with Cu-free alloy. All the oxidized cross-sections throughout the entire oxidation time showed coarse and dark areas regarded as oxides grown from the surface to inside, but bigger oxidized areas were formed in the Al-7mass%Mg-1mass%Cu alloy containing higher fraction of Mg-based phases in the as-cast microstructure. As a result of compositional analysis on the oxide clusters, it was found that the oxide clusters contained Mg-based oxides formed through internal oxidation during a long time exposure to oxidizing environments.
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Bibliography

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[11] S.H. Ha, B.H. Kim, Y.O. Yoon, H.K. Lim, T.W. Lee, S.H. Lim, S.K. Kim, Sci. Adv. Mater. 10, 697 (2018).
[12] D . Ajmera, E. Panda, Corros. Sci. 102, 425 (2016).
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Authors and Affiliations

Seong-Ho Ha
1
ORCID: ORCID
Abdul Wahid Shah
1
ORCID: ORCID
Bong-Hwan Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Young-Ok Yoon
1
ORCID: ORCID
Hyun-Kyu Lim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Shae K. Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Advanced Materials and Process R&D Department, Incheon 21999, Republic of Korea
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Abstract

In this work, we have designed a new high entropy alloy containing lightweight elements, e.g., Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Cu, Si by high energy ball milling and spark plasma sintering. The composition of Si was kept at 0.75 at% in this study. The results showed that the produced AlCuFeMnTiSi0.75 high entropy alloy was BCC structured. The evolution of BCC1 and BCC2 phases was observed with increasing the milling time up to 60 h. The spark plasma sintering treatment of milled compacts from 650-950°C showed the phase separation of BCC into BCC1 and BCC2. The density and strength of these developed high entropy alloys (95-98%, and 1000 HV) improved with milling time and were maximum at 850°C sintering temperature. The current work demonstrated desirable possibilities of Al-Si based high entropy alloys for substitution of traditional cast components at intermediate temperature applications.
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Authors and Affiliations

Minsu Kim
1
Ashutosh Sharma
1
ORCID: ORCID
Myoung Jin Chae
1
Hansung Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID
Byungmin Ahn
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Ajou University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Energy Systems Research, 206 Worldcup-ro, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi, 16499, Korea
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Abstract

In this study, we demonstrated a method of controllably synthesizing one-dimensional nanostructures having a dense or a hollow structure using fibrous sacrificial templates with tunable crystallinity. The fibrous Ga2O3 templates were prepared by calcining the polymer/gallium precursor nanofiber synthesized by an electrospinning process, and their crystallinity was varied by controlling the calcination temperature from 500oC to 900oC. GaN nanostructures were transformed by nitriding the Ga2O3 nanofibers using NH3 gas. All of the transformed GaN nanostructures maintained a one-dimensional structure well and exhibited a diameter of about 50 nm, but their morphology was clearly distinguished according to the crystallinity of the templates. When the templates having a relatively low crystallinity were used, the transformed GaN showed a hollow nanostructure, and as the crystallinity increased, GaN was converted into a denser nanostructure. This morphological difference can be explained as being caused by the difference in the diffusion rate of Ga depending on the crystallinity of Ga2O3 during the conversion from Ga2O3 to GaN. It is expected that this technique will make possible the tubular nanostructure synthesis of nitride functional nanomaterials.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yun Taek Ko
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mijeong Park
2
ORCID: ORCID
Jingyeong Park
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jaeyun Moon
3
ORCID: ORCID
Yong-Ho Choa
1
ORCID: ORCID
Young-In Lee
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Hanyang University, Dept. of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Ansan 15588, Republic of Korea
  2. Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul 01811, Republic of Korea
  3. University of Nevada , Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland PKWY Las Vegas, Nv 89154, United States
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Abstract

This study fabricated a WC/T-800 cermet coating layer with Co-Mo-Cr (T-800) powder and WC powder using laser cladding, and analyzed its microstructure, hardness and wear properties. For comparison, casted bulk T-800 was used. Laser cladded ­WC/T-800 cermet coating layer showed circular WC phases in the Co matrix, and dendritic laves phases. The average laves phase size in the cermet coating layer and bulk T-800 measured as 7.9 µm and 60.6 µm, respectively, indicating that the cermet coating layer had a relatively finer laves phase. Upon conducting a wear test, the cermet coating layer added with WC showed better wear resistance. In the case of laser cladded WC/T-800 cermet coating layer, abrasion wear was observed; on the contrary, the bulk T-800 showed pulled out laves phases. Based on the above findings, the WC/T-800 cermet coating layer using laser cladding and the relationship between its microstructure and wear behavior were discussed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Kyoung-Wook Kim
1
Young-Kyun Kim
1
Sun-Hong Park
2
Kee-Ahn Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Inha University, Dept. Mater. Sci. Eng., Incheon 22212, Republic of Korea
  2. POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Gwangyang 57807, Republic of Korea
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Abstract

An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to predict the tensile properties of dual-phase steels in terms of alloying elements and microstructural factors. The developed ANN model was confirmed to be more reasonable than the multiple linear regression model to predict the tensile properties. In addition, the 3D contour maps and an average index of the relative importance calculated by the developed ANN model, demonstrated the importance of controlling microstructural factors to achieve the required tensile properties of the dual-phase steels. The ANN model is expected to be useful in understanding the complex relationship between alloying elements, microstructural factors, and tensile properties in dual-phase steels.
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Authors and Affiliations

Seung-Hyeok Shin
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sang-Gyu Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Byoungchul Hwang
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul, 01811, Republic of Korea
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Abstract

In this study, energetic behaviors of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-coated zirconium (Zr) powders were investigated using thermogravimetric analyzer-differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC). PVDF-coated Zr powder had 1.5 times higher heat flow than ZrO2-passivated Zr powder. PVDF-coated Zr powder had a Zr-F compound formed on its surface by its strong chemical bond. This compound acted as an oxidation-protecting layer, providing an efficient combustion path to inner pure Zr particle while thermal oxidation was progressing at the same time. PVDF coating layers also made thermal reaction start at a lower temperature than ZrO2-passivated Zr powder. It was obtained that the surface PVDF coating layer evaporated at approximately 673 K, but the surface oxide layer fully reacted at approximately 923 K by DSC analysis. Hence, Zr powders showed enhanced energetic properties by the PVDF-coated process.
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Authors and Affiliations

Won Young Heo
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sung Hwa Bae
2
ORCID: ORCID
Injoon Son
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Kyungpook National University, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea
  2. Kyushu University, Department of Materials Process Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Fukuoka, Japan
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Abstract

Ferrotitanium can be produced as a method of recycling Ti scraps. The eutectic composition of ferrotitanium, Fe29.5Ti70.5, can be obtained as a nanocrystalline phase due to relatively low melting point. Fe29.5Ti70.5 in which FeTi and β-Ti form a lamellar structure have high strength but low strain. To improve this, impurities were removed through hydrogen plasma arc melting (HPAM) and annealed. HPAM can remove substitutional/interstitial solid solutions. As a result, from 6733 ppm to 4573 ppm of initial impurities were removed by HPAM process. In addition, the strain was improved by spheroidizing and coarsening the lamellar structure through annealing. The effect of impurities removed through HPAM on the Young’s modulus, yield strength, and strain was observed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Suhwan Yoo
1
Jung-Min Oh
1
Jaeyeol Yang
2
Jaesik Yoon
2
Jae-Won Lim
1

  1. Jeonbuk National University, Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, Jeonju 54896, Republic of Korea
  2. Korea Basic Science Institute, Division of Earth and Environmental Science, Cheongju 28119, Republic of Korea
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Abstract

Oxide-dispersion-strengthened high-entropy alloys were produced by hot-pressing a ball-milled mixture of Y2O3 and atomized CoCrFeMnNi powder. The effect of milling duration on grain size reduction, oxide formation behavior, and the resulting mechanical properties of the alloys was studied. Both the alloy powder size and Y2O3 particle size decreased with milling time. Moreover, the alloy powder experienced severe plastic deformation, dramatically generating crystalline defects. As a result, the grain size was reduced to ~16.746 nm and in-situ second phases (e.g., MnO2 and σ phase) were formed at the defects. This increased the hardness of the alloys up to a certain level, although excessive amounts of in-situ second phases had the reverse effect.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yongwook Song
1
ORCID: ORCID
Daeyoung Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Seungjin Nam
1
ORCID: ORCID
Kee-Ahn Lee
2
ORCID: ORCID
Hyunjoo Choi
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Kookmin University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul, Republic of Korea
  2. Inha University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Incheon 22212, Republic of Korea
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Abstract

Selective deposition was performed on a micrometer trench pattern using a microcontact printing (μCP) process. Alkanethiols required for selective deposition were analyzed according to the carbon chain by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). According to the LSV analysis, the effect of inhibiting Cu deposition depending on the length of the carbon chain was observed. During the Cu electrodeposition, the trench could be filled without voids by additives (PEG, SPS, JGB) in the plating solution. A μCP process suppressing the deposition of the sample was used for selective Cu electrodeposition. However, there was oxidation and instability of the sample and 1-hexadecanethiol in air. To overcome these problems, the μCP method was performed in a glove box to achieve effective inhibition.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jinyong Shim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jinhyun Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID
Bongyoung Yoo
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Hanyang University, Department of Material Science & Chemical Engineering, Ansan, Korea
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Abstract

A novel process to recover lithium and manganese oxides from a cathode material (LiMn2O4) of spent lithium-ion battery was attempted using thermal reaction with hydrogen gas at elevated temperatures. A hydrogen gas as a reducing agent was used with LiMn2O4 powder and it was found that separation of Li2O and MnO was taken place at 1050°C. The powder after thermal process was washed away with distilled water and only lithium was dissolved in the water and manganese oxide powder left behind. It was noted that manganese oxide powder was found to be 98.20 wt.% and the lithium content in the solution was 1,928 ppm, respectively.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jei-Pil Wang
1

  1. Pukyong National University, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Busan, Republic of Korea
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Abstract

Rutile-TiO2 nanorod thin films were formed on Ti disks via alkali treatment in NaOH solutions followed by heat treatment at 700°C. Ag nanoparticles were loaded on nanorods using a photo-reduction method to improve the photocatalytic properties of the prepared specimen. The surface characterization and the photo-electrochemical properties of the Ag-loaded TiO2 nanorods were investigated using a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-Vis spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The TiO2 nanorods obtained after the heat treatment were 80 to 180 nm thick and 1 μm long. The thickness of the nanorods increased with the NaOH concentration. The UV-Vis spectra exhibit a shift in the absorption edge of the Ag-loaded TiO2 to the visible light range and further narrowing of the bandgap. The decrease in the size of the capacitive loops in the EIS spectra showed that the Ag loading effectively improved the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanorods.
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Authors and Affiliations

Kwangmin Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID
Daeheung Yoo
1 2
Ahmad Zakiyuddin
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Chonnam National University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju 61186, Republic of Korea
  2. Quality Tech. Dept. Chosun Refractories Co., Ltd, Republic of Korea
  3. Universitas Indonesia, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Depok 16425 Indonesia
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Abstract

Gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) is one of the lanthanide rare-earth oxides, which has been extensively studied due to its versatile functionalities, such as a high permittivity, reactivity with moisture, and ionic conductivity, etc. In this work, GdOx thin film was grown by atomic layer deposition using cyclopentadienyl (Cp)-based Gd precursor and water. As-grown GdOx film was amorphous and had a sub-stoichiometric (x ~ 1.2) composition with a uniform elemental depth profile. ~3 nm-thick GdOx thin film could modify the hydrophilic Si substrate into hydrophobic surface with water wetting angle of 70°. Wetting and electrical test revealed that the growth temperature affects the hydrophobicity and electrical strength of the as-grown GdOx film.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sung Yeon Ryu
1
Hee Ju Yun
1
Min Hwan Lee
2
Byung Joon Choi
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Seoul 01811, Korea
  2. University of California Merced, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Merced, California, USA
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Abstract

The effects of the sintering holding time and cooling rate on the microstructure and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline Fe-Cr-C alloy were investigated. Nanocrystalline Fe-1.5Cr-1C (wt.%) alloy was fabricated by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. Different process conditions were applied to fabricate the sintered samples. The phase fraction and grain size were measured using X-ray powder diffraction and confirmed by electron backscatter diffraction. The stability and volume fraction of the austenite phase, which could affect the mechanical properties of the Fe-based alloy, were calculated using an empirical equation. The sample names consist of a number and a letter, which correspond to the holding time and cooling method, respectively. For the 0A, 0W, 10A, and 10W samples, the volume fraction was measured at 5.56, 44.95, 6.15, and 61.44 vol.%. To evaluate the mechanical properties, the hardness of 0A, 0W, 10A, and 10W samples were measured as 44.6, 63.1, 42.5, and 53.8 HRC. These results show that there is a difference in carbon diffusion and solubility depending on the sintering holding time and cooling rate.
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Authors and Affiliations

Gwanghun Kim
1
Junhyub Jeon
1
Namhyuk Seo
1
Seunggyu Choi
1
Min-Suk Oh
1
Seung Bae Son
1
Seok-Jae Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Jeonbuk National University, Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, 54896, Republic of Korea
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Abstract

The four-layer stack accumulative roll bonding (ARB) process using AA1050, AA5052 and AA6061 alloy sheets is performed up to 2 cycles without a lubricant at room temperature. The sample fabricated by the ARB is a multi-layer complex aluminum alloy sheet in which the AA1050, AA5052 and AA6061 alloys are alternately stacked to each other. The changes of microstructure and mechanical properties with annealing for the-ARBed aluminum sheet are investigated in detail. The as-ARBed sheet shows an ultrafine grained structure, however the grain diameter is some different depending on the kind of aluminum alloys. The complex aluminum alloy still shows ultrafine structure up to annealing temperature of 250℃, but above 275℃ it exhibits a heterogeneous structure containing both the ultrafine grains and the coarse grains due to an occurrence of discontinuous recrystallization. This change in microstructure with annealing also has an effect on the change of the mechanical properties of the sample. Especially, the specimen annealed at 300℃ represents abnormal values for the strength coefficient K and work hardening exponent n value.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sang-Hyeon Jo
1
Seong-Hee Lee
1

  1. Mokpo National University, Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Muan-Gun, Jeonnam 58554, Korea
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Abstract

Iron oxide nanoparticles were incorporated to form composite microspheres of SiO2 and Fe2O3 for magnetic separation of the particles after adsorption or photochemical decomposition. Economic material, sodium silicate, was purified by ion exchange to prepare aqueous silicic acid solution, followed by mixing with iron oxide nanoparticles. Resulting aqueous dispersion was emulsified, and composite microspheres of SiO2 and Fe2O3 was formed from the emulsion droplets as micro-reactors during heating. Removal of methylene blue using the composite microspheres was performed by batch adsorption process. Synthesis of composite microspheres of silica containing Fe2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles was also possible, the particles could be separated using magnets efficiently after removal of organic dye.
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Authors and Affiliations

Young-Sang Cho
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sohyeon Sung
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Korea Polytechnic University, Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, 237 Sangidaehak-ro, Siheung-si, Gyeonggi 15073, Korea
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Abstract

Oxidation and indentation properties of silicon carbide-coated carbon composites were investigated to analyze its durability under atmospheric thermal shock conditions. The silicon carbide-coated samples were prepared either with chemical vapor deposition or chemical vapor reaction/chemical vapor deposition hybrid coating. The remnant weight of uncoated and coated samples was investigated after each thermal shock cycle. The surface and cross-section of coated samples were then analyzed to confirm morphological changes of the coating layers. The spherical indentation test for uncoated and coated samples were also performed. As a result, silicon carbide coating improved the oxidation resistance, elastic modulus, and hardness of carbon composites. Hybrid coating drastically enhanced the durability of samples at high temperature in atmospheric conditions.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ji Eun Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID
Soo Bin Bae
1
ORCID: ORCID
Nam Choon Cho
1
ORCID: ORCID
Hyung Ik Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID
Zicheng Meng
2
ORCID: ORCID
Kee Sung Lee
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Agency for Defense Development, Yuseong P.O. Box 35, Daejeon, 34186, Korea
  2. Kookmin University, School of Mechanical Engineering, JEONGNEUNG-RO 77, SEONGBUK-GU, SEOUL, 02707, KOREA
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Abstract

This study suggests a new way to modify the size and morphology of Al-Fe phases in modified AA 7075 by using an Fe-Mn solid solution powder as the precursor. When Fe and Mn are added in the form of a solid solution, the diffusion of Fe and Mn toward the Al is delayed, thus altering the chemical composition and morphology of the precipitates. The fine, spherical precipitates are found to provide a good balance between strength and ductility compared to the case where Fe and Mn are separately added.
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Authors and Affiliations

Min Sang Kim
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Dae Young Kim
3
ORCID: ORCID
Young Do Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Hyun Joo Choi
3
ORCID: ORCID
Se Hoon Kim
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Hanyang University, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Seoul, Republic of Korea
  2. Metallic Material R&D Center, Korea Automotive Technology Institute, Cheonan-si, Republic of Korea
  3. Kookmin University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul, Republic of Korea
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Abstract

In this study, the alloying of Ti, Al and Dy powders by high energy ball milling, and the spark plasma sintering (SPS) characteristics of as milled powders have been investigated based on the observation of microstructure. Pure Ti, 6wt% Al and 4wt% Dy powders were mixed and milled with zirconia balls at 600 ~ 1000 rpm for 3h in an Ar gas. The initial sizes of Ti, Al and Dy powders were approximately 20, 40, and 200 μm, respectively. With increasing the milling speed from 600 to 1000 rpm, the size of mixing powders reduced from 120 to 15 μm. On the other hand, from XRD results of powders milled at higher speeds than 700rpm, the peaks of Ti3Al and AlDy phases were identified, indicating the successful alloying. Therefore, the powders milled at 800 rpm have been employed for the SPS under the applied pressure of 50 MPa at 1373K for 15 min. In the SPSed sample, the Al3Dy and two ternary Ti-Al-Dy phases were newly detected, while the peak of AlDy phase disappeared. The SPSed Ti-6Al-4Dy alloy revealed high relative density and micro-hardness of approximately 99% and 950Hv, respectively.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yuri Kim
1
Hoseong Rhee
1
Si Young Chang
1

  1. Korea Aerospace University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Goyang 10540, Korea
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Abstract

Molybdenum (Mo) is used to form a barrier layer for metal wiring in displays or semiconductor devices. Recently, researches have been continuously attempted to fabricate Mo sputtering targets through additive manufacturing. In this study, spherical Mo powders with an average particle size of about 37 um were manufactured by electrode induction melting gas atomization. Subsequently, Mo layer with a thickness of 0.25 mm was formed by direct energy deposition in which the scan speed was set as a variable. According to the change of the scan speed, pores or cracks were found in the Mo deposition layer. Mo layer deposited with scan speed of 600 mm/min has the hardness value of 324 Hv with a porosity of approximately 2%. We demonstrated that Mo layers with higher relative density and hardness can be formed with less effort through direct energy deposition compared to the conventional powder metallurgy.
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Authors and Affiliations

Goo-Won Roh
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Eun-Soo Park
2
ORCID: ORCID
Jaeyun Moon
3
ORCID: ORCID
Hojun Lee
4
ORCID: ORCID
Jongmin Byun
4
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea
  2. Research and Development Center, Eloi Materials Lab (EML) Co. Ltd., Suwon 16229, Republic of Korea
  3. University of Nevada, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland PKWY Las Vegas, NV 89154, United States
  4. Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering Seoul 01811, Republic of Korea
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Abstract

The nano-sized Y2O3 dispersed W composite powder is prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of a tungsten precursor using ammonium metatungstate hydrate and a polymer addition solution method using Y-nitrate. XRD analysis for calcined powder showed the formation of WO2 phase by partial oxidation of W powder during calcination in air. The TEM and phase analysis for further hydrogen reduction of calcined powder mixture exhibited that the W powder with a uniform distribution of Y2O3 nanoparticles can be successfully produced. These results indicate that the wet chemical method combined with spray pyrolysis and polymer solution is a promising way to synthesis the W-based composites with homogeneous dispersion of fine oxide particles.
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Authors and Affiliations

Hyeonhui Jo
1
Young-In Lee
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Myung-Jin Suk
3
Young-Keun Jeong
4
Sung-Tag Oh
1 2

  1. Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul 01811, Republic of Korea
  2. Seoul National University of Science and Technology, The Institute of Powder Technology, Seoul 01811, Republic of Korea
  3. Kangwon National University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Samcheok 25913, Republic of Korea
  4. Pusan National University, Graduate School of Convergence Science, Busan 46241, Republic of Korea
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Abstract

The influence of nano dispersion on the thermoelectric properties of Bi2Te3 was actively investigating to wide-spread thermoelectric applications. Herein this report, we have systematically controlled the microstructure of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 (BST) alloys through the incorporation of carbon nanofiber (CNF), and studied their effect on thermoelectric properties, and mechanical properties. The BST/x-CNF (x-0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 wt.%) composites powder was fabricated using high energy ball milling, and subsequently consolidated the powder using spark plasma sintering. The identification of CNF in bulk composites was analyzed in Raman spectroscopy and corresponding CNF peaks were recognized. The BST matrix grain size was greatly reduced with CNF dispersion and consistently decreased along CNF percentage. The electrical conductivity was reduced and Seebeck coefficient varied in small-scale by embedding CNF. The thermal conductivity was progressively diminished, obtained lattice thermal conductivity was lowest compared to bare sample due to induced phonon scattering at interfaces of secondary phases as well as highly dense fine grain boundaries. The peak ZT of 0.95 achieved for 0.1 wt.% dispersed BST/CNF composites. The Vickers hardness value of 101.8 Hv was obtained for the BST/CNF composites.
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Authors and Affiliations

P. Sharief
1
B. Madavali
1
Y. Sohn
2
J.H. Han
2
G. Song
1
S.H. Song
1
S.J. Song
1

  1. Kongju National University, Division of Advanced Materials Engineering & Institute for Rare Metals, Cheonan, 331-717, Republic of Korea
  2. Chungnam National University, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Daejeon, 34134, Republic of Korea
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Abstract

Copper slag is usually a mixture of iron oxide and silicon dioxide, which exist in the form of fayalite (2FeO·SiO2), and contains ceramic components as the SiO2, Al2O3 and CaO depending on the initial ore quality and the furnace type. Our present study was focused on manufacture of foundry pig iron with Cu content from copper slag using high-temperature reduction smelting and investigate utilization of by-products as a reformed slag, which is giving additional value to the recycling in a replacement of raw material of Portland cement. Changes of the chemical and mineralogical composition of the reformed slag are highly dependent on the CaO concentration in the slag. The chemical and mineralogical properties and microstructural analysis of the reformed slag samples were determined through X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy, X-Ray diffractometer and Scanning Electron Microscopy connected to the dispersive spectrometer studies.
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Authors and Affiliations

Urtnasan Erdenebold
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jei-Pil Wang Wang
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Pukyong National University, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Busan, Republic of Korea
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Abstract

To comprehensively investigate the diversity of a chamfer technology and a convex roll technology under the same soft reduction process (i.e., section size, reduction amount, casting speed and solid fraction), a three-dimensional mechanical model was developed to investigate the effect of the chamfer profile and roll surface profile on the deformation behavior, cracking risk, stress concentration and reduction force of as-cast bloom during the soft reduction process. It was found that a chamfer bloom and a convex roll can both avoid the thicker corner of the as-cast bloom solidified shell, and significantly reduce reduction force of the withdrawal and straightening units. The convex profile of roll limits lateral spread along bloom width direction, therefore it forms a greater deformation to the mushy zone of as-cast bloom along the casting direction, the tensile strain in the brittleness temperature range (BTR) can obviously increase to form internal cracks. The chamfer bloom is much more effective in compensating the solidification shrinkage of mushy zone. In addition, chamfer bloom has a significant decrease of tensile strain in the brittleness temperature range (BTR) areas, which is expected to greatly reduce the risk of internal cracks.
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Authors and Affiliations

Nanfu Zong
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tao Jing
1
ORCID: ORCID
Yang Liu
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Tsinghua University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084, China
  2. Jiangsu Changqiang Iron and Steel Corp., Ltd., Jiangsu 214500, China
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Abstract

Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) is identified as a suitable technique to prepare the alumina titanium carbide composite to overcome the difficulty in fabricating it through other consolidation method. The present work focuses on the fabrication and characterization of a series of titanium carbide reinforced alumina ceramic composites using a spark plasma sintering process. The titanium carbide reinforcement on the alumina matrix is varied between 20 and 35 wt.%, in order to improve the electrical conductivity and fracture toughness of the composites. The particle size of the starting powders at received and ball milled conditions was analysed through Particle size analyser and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Microstructural analysis revealed that the TiC reinforcement is uniformly dispersed in the sintered composite. XRD report showed that α-alumina and titanium carbide were the two dominant phases without the formation of any reaction phases. Further, the correlation between mechanical and physical properties of the prepared composite was investigated as a function of TiC. Various fracture toughening indicators like crack deflection, bridging and branching were analysed by Vicker’s indentation method. Electrical resistivity of the sintered compact decreases proportionally with the increase in titanium carbide constituents. Maximum density (98.80%) and hardness (20.56 GPa) was obtained for 30 wt. % reinforced composite. Almost 40% improvement in fracture toughness is noted for 25 wt. % reinforced composite. This work demonstrates the synthesis and fabrication of alumina titanium carbide composites at low temperature via SPS resulted in obtaining an intact compact with improved mechanical and electrical properties.
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Authors and Affiliations

G. Selvakumar
1
S. Prakash
1
K. Rajkumar
1

  1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Sivasubramaniya Nadar College of Engineering, Chennai, India
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Abstract

Welding of AISI H13 tool steel which is mainly used in mold making is difficult due to the some alloying elements and it high hardenability. The effect filler metal composition on the microstructural changes, phase evolutions, and hardness during gas tungsten arc welding of AISI H13 hot work tool steel was investigated. Corrosion resistance of each weld was studied. For this purpose, four filler metals i.e. ER 312, ER NiCrMo-3, ER 80S, and 18Ni maraging steel were supplied. Potentiodynamic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to study the corrosion behavior of weldments. It was found the ER 80S weld showed the highest hardness owing to fully martensitic microstructure. The hardness in ER 312 and ER NiCrMo3 weld metals was noticeably lower than that of the other weld metals in which the microstructures mainly consisted of austenite phase. The results showed that the corrosion rate of ER 312 weld metal was lower than that other weld metals which is due to the high chromium content in this weld metal. The corrosion rate of ER NiCrMo-3 was lower than that of 18Ni maraging weld. The obtained results from EIS tests confirm the findings of potentiodynamic polarization tests.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sadegh Varmaziar
1
ORCID: ORCID
Hossein Mostaan
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mahdi Rafiei
2
ORCID: ORCID
Mahdi Yeganeh
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Faculty of Engineering, Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Arak University, Arak 38156-8-8349, Iran
  2. Advanced Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
  3. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
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Abstract

In this study, the surface roughness of galvannealed low carbon Al-killed and Ti-Nb stabilized interstitial free steels was investigated using the industrial galvannealing process parameters. The iron content of the coatings was also analysed to establish a relationship with the surface roughness and coating composition. The surface roughness displayed an exponential behaviour with increasing of annealing time at each annealing temperature in both steel coatings, which was in an increasing order in the galvannealed low carbon Al-killed steel coating, whereas it was a reverse order in the galvannealed Ti-Nb stabilized interstitial free steel coating. The craters were observed on the galvannealed coatings resulting in high surface roughness. Increasing the iron content of the coatings leads to a reduction in the surface roughness with δ1k phase.
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Authors and Affiliations

Candan Sen Elkoca
1
ORCID: ORCID
Bulent Ekmekci
2
ORCID: ORCID
Oktay Elkoca
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Bulent Ecevit University, Alapli Vocational High School, Zonguldak 67850, Turkey
  2. Bulent Ecevit University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Zonguldak 67100, Turkey
  3. Duzce University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Duzce 81620, Turkey
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Abstract

In this study, Ni20Cr coatings were obtained by cold spraying on an aluminum alloy 7075 substrate. The obtained coatings were characterized by a uniform microstructure and low porosity. The sprayed coating has the same phase composition as the powder used. Next, the cold sprayed coatings were heat treated using a TRUMPF TLF 6000 TURBO (4 kW) CO2 laser. The laser surface melting of the coatings resulted in the formation of a columnar structure and an improvement in their mechanical properties. The Ni20Cr cold sprayed coatings after additional laser melting showed lower porosity and an increase in microhardness and Young`s modulus.
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Authors and Affiliations

D. Soboń
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Kielce University of Technology, 7 Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego Av., 25-314 Kielce, Poland
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Abstract

In this work the conical Ni structures were obtained from an electrolyte containing NH4Cl as a crystal modifier. This process is called one-step method and allows to cover large areas with micro- and nanostructures during a single electrodeposition. Presence of NH4Cl promotes a vertical direction of structure growth in order to block a horizontal one. Additionally, this method does not require using chromic acid solution, which is dangerous for the environment. Due to the ferromagnetic properties of Ni, obtained coatings could be applied as magnetic devices. The influence of the parameters such as a preparation of copper substrate, a composition of electrolyte and electrodeposition conditions (time, the electrolyte temperature and current density) was investigated in this work.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

K. Skibińska
1
ORCID: ORCID
S. Semeniuk
1
D. Kutyła
1
ORCID: ORCID
K. Kołczyk-Siedlecka
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Jędraczka
1
ORCID: ORCID
P. Żabiński
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Non-Ferrous Metals, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059, Krakow, Poland
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Abstract

This work investigates the distribution and the effect of synthesized nano TiO2, micro SiC and B4C particle on the aluminium (A356) metal matrix composites (AMMC). The consequences of this reinforcement on the mechanical, tribology and corrosion behaviour of the AMMC matrix are analyzed. The nano TiO2 is synthesized by wet chemistry sol-gel process, and the reinforcements are added with A-356 by stir casting method. The ASTM standard test specimens are characterized through mechanical, tribology, and corrosion tests for identifying their properties. The metallurgical characterization has been deliberated through XRD and SEM with EDS. In the tensile test results, the percentage of elongation is dropped drastically by 73% due to the enhanced volume % of nano TiO2, micro SiC, and B4C particles. The particle addition of the wear rate and weight loss are reduced at different volume percentages of the A356 matrix. The time plays a significant role in the corrosion rate. The test results also confirm that the corrosion rate is comparatively minimum in 24 hrs (592.35 mm/yr) duration than the 48 hrs (646.368 mm/yr) in both the solutions.
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Authors and Affiliations

D. Paulraj
1
ORCID: ORCID
P.D. Jeyakumar
1
ORCID: ORCID
G. Rajamurugan
2
ORCID: ORCID
P. Krishnasamy
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. B.S. Abdur Rahman Crescent Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chennai-600 048, Tamilnadu, India
  2. Vellore Institute of Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Vellore-632014, Tamilnadu, India
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Abstract

This study is to find the extent of variation in mechanical properties between plate and pipe welds fabricated out of the same FSW process parameters. Common thickness of 3 mm along with similar tool specifications is used to fabricate the weld. Process parameters of tool rotational speed 2000 rpm and weld speed 94 mm/min that was defined as optimal for pipe weld is used as common process parameters. Welds are analyzed for hardness and tensile properties. Yield strength and ultimate tensile strength varied about 8.1% and 11.2% respectively between plate and pipe welds. The hardness of the stir zones varied about 11.6% between plate and pipe welds.
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Authors and Affiliations

S.M. Senthil
1
S. Ragu Nathan
2
R. Parameshwaran
1
M. Bhuvanesh Kumar
3

  1. Kongu Engineering College, Erode, India
  2. Sree Vidyan Ikethan Engineering College, Tirupati, India
  3. National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, India
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Abstract

Nowadays the automotive industry mostly prefers innovative solid-state welding technologies that would enable to welding of lightweight and high-performance materials. In this work, 3105-H18 Aluminium alloy (Al) and pure Copper (Cu) specimens with 0.5 mm thickness have been ultrasonically welded in a dissimilar (Al-Cu) manner. Optimization of process parameters of ultrasonic welding has been carried out through full factorial method, three levels of variables considered for this experimental studies namely, weld pressure, amplitude, and time, also each variable interaction with welding strength has been studied. Additionally, micro-hardness and microstructure investigation in welded joints has been studied. The result shows that the weld strength greatly influenced weld amplitude at a medium and higher level of weld pressure. The interface micro-hardness of the welded joint has lower compared to the base metal.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Mohan Kumar
1
ORCID: ORCID
R. Rajasekar
1
ORCID: ORCID
V. Karthik
2
ORCID: ORCID
S. Kheawhom
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. School of Building and Mechanical Sciences, Kongu Engineering College, Erode, Tamilnadu, India - 6380602
  2. NIT, Tiruchirappalli, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tamilnadu, India – 620015
  3. Chulalongkorn University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Bangkok, Thailand – 10330
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Abstract

A huge amount of carbon black (40-60 phr) was commonly used as a reinforcing material in manufacturing of tires to improve the technical properties of pure rubber. Carbon black causes severe health hazard like skin cancer, respiratory problem due to its fly loss property. This study focusses on reducing the usage of carbon black by replacing it with minimal quantity of nanoclay to compensate the technical properties of rubber. Natural Rubber nanocomposite are fabricated using solution and mechanical mixing method in presence and absence of compatibilizer. Cure characteristics, wear test and mechanical properties were examined. NR nanocomposite with dual filler in presence of compatibilizer showed enhancement in torque values, mechanical and wear resistant property. Wear resistance, tensile strength and modulus of dual filler nanocomposite was increased by 66.7%, 91% and 85% when compared to pure NR. Hence NR nanocomposite with dual filler in presence of compatibilizer was found as a proving and possible nanocomposite for tire application.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Harikrishna Kumar
1
ORCID: ORCID
Shankar Subramaniam
1
Rajasekar Rathanasamy
1
ORCID: ORCID
Samir Kumar Pal
2
ORCID: ORCID
Sathish Kumar Palaniappan
2

  1. School of Building and Mechanical Sciences, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai – 638060, Tamil Nadu State, India
  2. Department of Mining Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur – 721302, West Bengal State, India
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Abstract

This research study intends to develop an online tool condition monitoring system and to examine scientifically the effect of machining parameters on quality measures during machining SAE 1015 steel. It is accomplished by adopting a novel microflown sound sensor which is capable of acquiring sound signals. The dry turning experiments were performed by employing uncoated, TiAlN, TiAlN/WC-C coated inserts. The optimal cutting conditions and their influence on flank wear were determined and predicted value has been validated through confirmation experiment. During machining, sound signals were acquired using NI DAQ card and statistical analysis of raw data has been performed. Kurtosis and I-Kaz coefficient was determined systematically. The correlation between flank wear and I-Kaz coefficient was established, which fits into power-law curve. The neural network model was trained and developed with least error (3.7603e-5). It reveals that the developed neural network can be effectively utilized with minimal error for online monitoring.
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Authors and Affiliations

Moganapriya Chinnasamy
1
ORCID: ORCID
Rajasekar Rathanasamy
1
ORCID: ORCID
Gobinath Velu Kaliyannan
2
ORCID: ORCID
Prabhakaran Paramasivam
1
ORCID: ORCID
Saravana Kumar Jaganathan
3 4 5
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Kongu Engineering College, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Perundurai – 638060, Tamil Nadu State, India
  2. Kongu Engineering College, Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Perundurai – 638060, Tamil Nadu State, India
  3. Bionanotechnology Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
  4. Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
  5. Department of Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Hull, HU6 7RX, United Kingdom
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Abstract

In this study, a new chemically modified cellulose polymer-capped ZnO nanopowder prepared by hydrothermal method using chemically modified cellulose polymer as capping agent was successfully reported. The structural characteristics of CMC-capped ZnO nanopowder was reported by FTIR, XRD, SEM and EDX studies. XRD results revealed crystallographic properties like crystal composition, phase purity and crystallite size of the prepared CMC-capped ZnO nanopowder and average size calculated by Debye Scherrer formula as 14.66 nm. EDX studies revealed that the presence of elemental compositions of capping agent in the nanopowder samples. The optical characterization of the CMC-capped ZnO nanopowder was studied using UV absorption (λmax = 303 nm) and PL spectroscopy (λex = 295 nm). The average crystal diameter and grain size were calculated by effective mass approximation formula and compared with XRD findings that agreed well and verified CMC capped ZnO with particle size of 193 nm. Thus, the promising optical characteristics shown by the synthesized CMC capped ZnO nanopowders exposes its potential usage in bio-medical fields.
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Authors and Affiliations

R. Jagadeeswari
1
P. Selvakumar
2
ORCID: ORCID
V. Jeevanantham
2
R. Saravanan
1

  1. Department of Chemistry, KPR Institute of Engineering And Technology, Coimbatore-641407, Tamilnadu, India
  2. Department of Chemistry, Vivekanandha College of Arts And Sciences for Women, Tiruchengode-637205, Tamilnadu, India
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Abstract

In this study, NiCrBSi-B4C (wt. %5, %10 ve %15 B4C) powder mixtures are coated on the stainless steel surface of AISI304 by tungsten inert gas (TIG) method. We use optic microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the coating layer analysis, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) for element distribution analysis and X-ray diffractogram (XRD) for the analysis of phase components. The measurements of hardness are determined by the microhardness tester. Based on the results obtained by the examination of microstructure and phases, it has been observed that while B and C elemets are more intense in the middle and upper parts of the coating layer, the parts close to the interface have a higher intensity of Ni and Fe. Moreover, there are phases such as Cr7C3, γ – Ni, CrFeB, Ni3B, CrB ve Fe2B are formed in the coating layer. The increasing ratio of B4C results in increasing on the measurement values of microhardness. The maximum hardness value (430,8 HV0.2) is obtained from the coating layer of S4 sample while the minimum value (366,9 HV0.2) is observed from the NiCrBSi coated sample.
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Authors and Affiliations

Musa Kiliҫ
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Batman University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Batman, Turkey

Instructions for authors

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is a quarterly of Polish Academy of Sciences and Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of the Polish Academy of Sciences, which publishes original scientific papers and reviews in the fields of metallurgy and materials science. Papers with focus on synthesis, processing and properties of metal materials, including thermodynamic and physical properties, phase relations, and their relation to microstructure of materials are of particular interest.

Submissions to Archives of Metallurgy and Materials should clearly present aspects of novelty of findings, originality of approach etc. If modeling is presented it should be logically connected to experimental evidence. Submissions which just report the results without in depth analysis and discussion will not be published.

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References should be typed on separate pages and numbered consecutively applying the system accepted by the Quarterly (initials and names all authors, journal title [abbreviated according to the Journal Title Abbreviations of Web of Science: http://library.caltech.edu/reference/abbreviations/ or book title; journal volume or book publisher; page spread; publication year in bracket). Use of DOI is strongly encouraged.

Samples:

Journals:

[1] L.B. Magalas, Arch. Metall. Mater. 60 (3), 2069-2076 (2015).

[2] E. Pagounis, M.J. Szczerba, R. Chulist, M. Laufenberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 152407 (2015).

[3] H. Etschmaier, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012), DOI: 10.1007/s11665-011-0090-2 (in press).

Books:

[4] K.U. Kainer (Ed.), Metal Matrix Composites, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2006).

[5] K. Szacilowski, Infochemistry: Information Processing at the Nanoscale, Wiley (2012).

[6] L. Reimer, H. Kohl, Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation, Springer, New York (2008).

Proceedings or chapter in books with editor(s):

[7] R. Major, P. Lacki, R. Kustosz, J. M. Lackner, Modelling of nanoindentation to simulate thin layer behavior, in: K. J. Kurzydłowski, B. Major, P. Zięba (Eds.), Foundation of Materials Design 2006, Research Signpost (2006).

Internet resource:

[8] https://www.nist.gov/programs-projects/crystallographic-databases, accessed: 17.04.2017

Academic thesis (PhD, MSc):

[9] T. Mitra, PhD thesis, Modeling of Burden Distribution in the Blast Furnace, Abo Akademi University, Turku/Abo, Finland (2016).

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Brief explanation (2-3 sentence-long) why each person is suitable as a reviewer should also be provided. The suggested reviewers cannot be from the same country as affiliation of the corresponding author. The decision to appoint a reviewer belongs solely to the editor.

4.2. Revised manuscript submission

When revision of a manuscript is requested, Authors should return the revised version of their manuscript as soon as possible. Prompt action may ensure fast publication if a paper is finally accepted for publication in Arch. Metall. Mater. If it is the first revision of an article Authors are requested to return their revised manuscript within 14 days.

If it is the second revision Authors are requested to return their revised manuscript within 7 days

4.3 Final proofreading

Authors will receive a pdf file with the edited version of their manuscript for final proofreading. This is the last opportunity to view an article before its publication on the journal web site. No changes or modifications can be introduced once it is published. Thus authors are requested to check their proof pages carefully against manuscript within 3 working days and prepare a separate document containing all changes that should be introduced. Authors are sometimes asked to provide additional comments and explanations in response to remarks and queries from the language or technical editors.

5. Original version

Starting from issue 1/ 2018, Volume 63, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is published in electronic via www.journals.pan.pl. The printed version is printed only for designated libraries (legal basis: Regulation of the Minister of Culture and Art of March 6, 1997).

6. Prevent cases of plagiarism

Readers should be sure that the authors present the results of their work transparently, fair and honest, regardless of whether they are the direct authors, or used the help of a specialized entity (natural or legal person). To prevent cases of plagiarism, "ghostwriting" and "guest Authorship", the Editorial Office will require that the Authors disclosed the contribution of individual Authors in the creation of manuscript (with their affiliations and contributions, i.e. the information who is responsible for: research concept and design, collection and/or assembly of data, data analysis and interpretation, writing the manuscript). Funding sources (together with grant number) must also be revealed. The corresponding Author will bear the main responsibility for the manuscript. Detected cases will be exposed, including notifying the appropriate entities (institutions employing the Authors, scientific societies, associations of editors of scientific journals, etc.).

7. License type

Articles are printed in an open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).

This license allows authors to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, remix, transform, and build upon the material. Authors may not use the material for commercial purposes. However, this condition does not include dependent works (they may be covered by another license).

Submission of an article to the journal is unequivocal to expressing consent to the publication in both paper and electronic form.

Additional info

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is covered by the following services:


Arianta, Baidu Scholar, BazTech, Celdes, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) - CAplus, Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters) - Current Contents/Engineering, Computing, and Technology, Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters) - Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters) - Materials Science Citation Index, Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters) - Science Citation Index Expanded, CNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), CNPIEC, DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals), EBSCO (relevant databases), EBSCO Discovery Service, Elsevier - SCOPUS, Genamics JournalSeek, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, J-Gate, JournalTOCs, KESLI-NDSL (Korean National Discovery for Science Leaders), Microsoft Academic, Naviga (Softweco), Primo Central (ExLibris), ProQuest (relevant databases), ReadCube, ResearchGate, SCImago (SJR), Sherpa/RoMEO, Summon (Serials Solutions/ProQuest), TDNet, TEMA Technik und Management, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb, WanFang Data, WorldCat (OCLC)

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