Applied sciences

Archive of Mechanical Engineering

Content

Archive of Mechanical Engineering | 2017 | vol. 64 | No 3 |

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Abstract

Winglets are introduced into modern aircraft to reduce wing aerodynamic drag and to consequently optimize the fuel burn per mission. In order to be aerodynamically effective, these devices are installed at the wing tip section; this wing region is generally characterized by relevant oscillations induced by flights maneuvers and gust. The present work is focused on the validation of a continuous monitoring system based on fiber Bragg grating sensors and frequency domain analysis to detect physical condition of a skin-spar bonding failure in a composite winglet for in-service purposes. Optical fibers are used as deformation sensors. Short Time Fast Fourier Transform (STFT) analysis is applied to analyze the occurrence of structural response deviations on the base of strain data. Obtained results showed high accuracy in estimating static and dynamic deformations and great potentials in detecting structural failure occurrences.

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Authors and Affiliations

Monica Ciminello
1
Angelo De Fenza
2 3
Ignazio Dimino
1
Rosario Pecora
2

  1. Italian Aerospace Research Center, Capua, Italy
  2. Department of Industrial Engineering – Aerospace Division, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples, Italy
  3. NOVOTECH s.r.l. – Aerospace Advanced Technology, Naples, Italy
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Abstract

The aim of the paper is to validate the use of measurement methods in the study of GFRP joints. A number of tests were carried out by means of a tensile machine. The studies were concerned with rivet connection of composite materials. One performed two series of tests for two different forces and two fibre orientations. Using Finite Element Method (FEM) and Digital Image Correlation (DIC), strain maps in the test samples were defined. The results obtained with both methods were analysed and compared. The destructive force was analysed and, with the use of a strain gauge, the clamping force in a plane parallel to the annihilated sample was estimated. Destruction processes were evaluated and models of destruction were made for this type of materials taking into account their connections, such as riveting.

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Authors and Affiliations

Radosław Bielawski
1
Michał Kowalik
1
Karol Suprynowicz
1
Witold Rządkowski
1
Paweł Pyrzanowski
1

  1. Institute of Aeronautics and Applied Mechanics, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland.
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Abstract

This paper presents the current study of the distribution of stresses for four-point contact wire race ball bearing. The main aim of this article is to define the most important geometrical rules in a wire-race bearing. The results for bearings of different geometrical parameters are presented. In the study, one also estimates the distribution of internal pressure in particular bearing elements.

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Authors and Affiliations

Dominik Gunia
1
Tadeusz Smolnicki
1

  1. Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland
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Abstract

During the machining processes, heat gets generated as a result of plastic deformation of metal and friction along the tool–chip and tool–work piece interface. In materials having high thermal conductivity, like aluminium alloys, large amount of this heat is absorbed by the work piece. This results in the rise in the temperature of the work piece, which may lead to dimensional inaccuracies, surface damage and deformation. So, it is needed to control rise in the temperature of the work piece. This paper focuses on the measurement, analysis and prediction of work piece temperature rise during the dry end milling operation of Al 6063. The control factors used for experimentation were number of flutes, spindle speed, depth of cut and feed rate. The Taguchi method was employed for the planning of experimentation and L18 orthogonal array was selected. The temperature rise of the work piece was measured with the help of K-type thermocouple embedded in the work piece. Signal to noise (S/N) ratio analysis was carried out using the lower-the-better quality characteristics. Depth of cut was identified as the most significant factor affecting the work piece temperature rise, followed by spindle speed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to find out the significant parameters affecting the work piece temperature rise. ANOVA results were found to be in line with the S/N ratio analysis. Regression analysis was used for developing empirical equation of temperature rise. The temperature rise of the work piece was calculated using the regression equation and was found to be in good agreement with the measured values. Finally, confirmation tests were carried out to verify the results obtained. From the confirmation test it was found that the Taguchi method is an effective method to determine optimised parameters for minimization of work piece temperature.

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Authors and Affiliations

N.L. Bhirud
1
R.R. Gawande
2

  1. Research Scholar, Bapurao Deshmukh College of Engineering, RSTMU, Nagpur and Mechanical Engineering Dept, Sandip Institute of Engineering & Management, Savitribai Phule Pune University, India.
  2. Mechanical Engineering Dept, Bapurao Deshmukh College of Engineering, RSTMU, Nagpur, India
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Abstract

In this paper, the basic cutting characteristics such as cutting forces, cutting power and its distribution, specific cutting energies were determined taking into account variable tool corner radius ranging from 400 to 1200 μm and constant cutting parameters typical for hard turning of a hardened 41Cr4 alloy steel of 55 ± 1 HRC hardness. Finish turning operations were performed using chamfered CBN tools. Moreover, selected roughness profiles produced for different tool corner radius were compared and appropriate surface roughness parameters were measured. The measured values of Ra and Rz roughness parameters are compared with their theoretical values and relevant material distribution curves and bearing parameters are presented.

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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Żak
1

  1. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Opole University of Technology, Poland
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Abstract

Complex structures used in various engineering applications are made up of simple structural members like beams, plates and shells. The fundamental frequency is absolutely essential in determining the response of these structural elements subjected to the dynamic loads. However, for short beams, one has to consider the effect of shear deformation and rotary inertia in order to evaluate their fundamental linear frequencies. In this paper, the authors developed a Coupled Displacement Field method where the number of undetermined coefficients 2n existing in the classical Rayleigh-Ritz method are reduced to n, which significantly simplifies the procedure to obtain the analytical solution. This is accomplished by using a coupling equation derived from the static equilibrium of the shear flexible structural element. In this paper, the free vibration behaviour in terms of slenderness ratio and foundation parameters have been derived for the most practically used shear flexible uniform Timoshenko Hinged-Hinged, Clamped-Clamped beams resting on Pasternak foundation. The findings obtained by the present Coupled Displacement Field Method are compared with the existing literature wherever possible and the agreement is good.

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Authors and Affiliations

Korabathina Rajesh
1
Koppanati Meera Saheb
1

  1. Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India
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Abstract

The combined effect of conjugation, external magnetic field and oscillation on the enhancement of heat transfer in the laminar flow of liquid metals between parallel plate channels is analyzed. In order to make our results useful to the design engineers, we have considered here only the wall materials that are widely employed in liquid metal heat exchangers. Indeed, all the results obtained through this mathematical investigation are in excellent agreement with the available experimental results. The effective thermal diffusivity κ_e is increased by 3×10^6 times due to oscillation and that the heat flux as high as 1.5×10^10 (W/m^2) can be achieved. Based on our investigation, we have recommended the best choice of liquid metal heat carrier, wall material and its optimum thickness along with the optimum value of the frequency to maximize the heat transfer rate. At the optimum frequency, by choosing a wall of high thermal conductivity and optimum thickness, an increase of 19.98% in κ_e can be achieved. Our results are directly relevant to the design of a heat transfer device known as electromagnetic dream pipe which is a very recent development.

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Authors and Affiliations

P. Puvaneswari
1
K. Shailendhra
1

  1. Department of Mathematics, Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amrita University, India
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Abstract

In the paper, the authors discuss the construction of a model of an exemplary urban layout. Numerical simulation has been performed by means of a commercial software Fluent using two different turbulence models: the popular k-ε realizable one, and the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM), which is still being developed. The former is a 2-equations model, while the latter – is a RSM model – that consists of 7 equations. The studies have shown that, in this specific case, a more complex model of turbulence is not necessary. The results obtained with this model are not more accurate than the ones obtained using the RKE model. The model, scale 1:400, was tested in a wind tunnel. The pressure measurement near buildings, oil visualization and scour technique were undertaken and described accordingly. Measurements gave the quantitative and qualitative information describing the nature of the flow. Finally, the data were compared with the results of the experiments performed. The pressure coefficients resulting from the experiment were compared with the coefficients obtained from the numerical simulation. At the same time velocity maps and streamlines obtained from the calculations were combined with the results of the oil visualisation and scour technique.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mateusz Jędrzejewski
1
Marta Poćwierz
1
Katarzyna Zielonko-Jung
2

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Aeronautics and Applied Mechanics, Warsaw, Poland
  2. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture, Warsaw, Poland

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