Applied sciences

Advances in Geodesy and Geoinformation

Content

Advances in Geodesy and Geoinformation | 2022 | vol. 71 | No 1 |

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Abstract

Backlogs of transmission facilities (pipelines, power lines, media networks) on third – party property require regulation. This applies to both existing infrastructure and that which remains in the design phase. Drawing on literature, legislation, and practical knowledge, the article’s authors combined statutory definitions and court interpretations with industry guidelines. The transmission easement term was introduced to the Polish law the Civil Code (Act of 2008). The issue of transmission easement, and especially the rules for defining the scope of encumbrances, areas of influence the facilities have on the real estate, and the remuneration related to that, are complex issues that are worthy of being analysed more closely. The analysis of judical decisions and practical vocational experience have allowed for determining the scope of rights and obligations related to the easement laws. It is the intent of the authors of this article for its contents to clarify the transmission easement term and to draw attention to associated issues. We focus on showcasing the transmission easement issue law-wise, with aid of e.g. rulings of Polish common courts, by highlighting the defectiveness and incompleteness of regulations. It is meant as a basis for initiating detailed studies aimed at determining solutions to specific problems.
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Authors and Affiliations

Benon Bogdan
1
Anna Barańska
1
Anna Przewięźlikowska
1

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

In the article publications have been analyzed and summarized on this topic: studied the experience of implementing building information models and geographic information models for administrative and economic management of transport infrastructure facilities on the example of the regional airport activity. After the stage of collecting geospatial data from various sources and sensors, the data is imported into CAD-systems or GIS-systems. Different software products are used to work with both of these models. The processes of data organization in the process of creating building information models and geographic information models differ to some extent. The issues of integration of such models are not yet fully addressed and need to be addressed. In the process of integration of spatial data, solutions to the integration of semantics, topology, formats and standards of geospatial data are needed. An important task is to develop and study the experience of creating software modules that allow you to integrate BIM-models into geographic information systems. Based on the research, it is established that the current area of research is the development of technologies that allow the generation of information from BIM and GIS to create a more interconnected infrastructure. The integration of BIM and GIS information to create a spatial data infrastructure (SDI) is a perspective direction.
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Authors and Affiliations

Olena Boyko
1
ORCID: ORCID
Dmitry Prusov
2
ORCID: ORCID
Borys Chetverikov
3
ORCID: ORCID
Maria Malanchuk
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. National Aviation University, Kyiv, Ukraine
  2. Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture, Kyiv, Ukraine
  3. Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, Ukraine
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Abstract

The article analyses the development of metrological control technologies for electronic distance measurement rangefinders to determine their main characteristic of accuracy – the root mean square error of distance measurement. It is established that the current reference linear bases are reliable and serve as the main means of transmitting a unit of length from the standards to the working means of measuring length. The article describes the existing linear reference bases and specifies their accuracy and disadvantages. It is concluded that the disadvantages of linear reference bases are deprived of the reference linear bases built in special laboratories. They use distances measured by the differential method with laser interferometers as reference distances. The application of such technology allowed to automate the processes of measurements and calculations. There is development of fibre-optic linear bases, in which optical fibres of known length are used as model lines. The article offers a new technical solution – a combination of fiber-optic and interference linear bases, which allows to qualitatively improve the system of metrological support of laser rangefinders. This is achieved by having a fiber-optic unit, which allows you to create baselines of increased length, while ensuring small dimensions of the baseline, and relative interference base, which provides high accuracy of linear measurements and does not require calibration of the base with a precision rangefinder, which eliminates several difficulties associated with changes in the refractive index, makes measurements independent of the wavelength of the radiation source and almost independent of the ambient temperature.
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Authors and Affiliations

Vsevolod Burachek
1
ORCID: ORCID
Dmytro Khomushko
2
ORCID: ORCID
Oleksiy Tereshchuk
3
ORCID: ORCID
Sergíy Kryachok
3
ORCID: ORCID
Vadim Belenok
4
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Emerging Tehnologies, Kyiv, Ukraine
  2. Private entrepreneur, Chernihiv, Ukraine
  3. Chernihiv Polytechnic National University, Chernihiv, Ukraine
  4. National Aviation University, Kyiv, Ukraine
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Abstract

Real objects in horizontal projection often have a complex geometry. Their irregular shape causes issues during analyses and calculations that consider their geometry. The paper proposes the replacement of real-world objects with equivalent rectangles (ER). The paper also defines the geometric criteria of ER as well as ER parameters and methods for calculating them. The paper also demonstrates the difference in the duration of calculations for different types of rectangles (equivalent rectangle with the same area, surrounding rectangle with the smallest area, inscribed rectangle with the largest area). The presented approach has been illustrated with three case studies. The first one is the application of ER to underground mining cavities to determine post-mining deformations of the ground surface. In the second study, an ER was applied to analyse the geometry of agricultural parcels in a selected part of a rural settlement. ER can help assess whether the spatial layout is faulty and if a planning intervention is necessary. The third example describes a building’s geometry with an ER. Regarding the simplification of building’s geometry, it is crucial to replace a simplified building with a model that has the same centroid location and the same area. It is the perfect solution for rapid analyses of displaying objects on maps in various scales.
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Kwinta
1
ORCID: ORCID
Joanna Bac-Bronowicz
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Agriculture in Krakow, Krakow, Poland
  2. Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wroclaw, Poland
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Abstract

Slope deformations, i.e., all types of landslides of rock masses (flow, creep, fall down, etc.), caused by gravitational forces, are the most widespread implementation of geological hazards and a negative geomorphological phenomenon that threatens the security of the population, destroy all utility values of the affected regions, negatively affects the environment, and cause considerable economic damage. Nowadays, the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) provide accurate data for precise observations around the world due to the growing number of satellites from multiple operators, as well as more powerful and advanced technologies and the implementation of mathematical and physical models more accurately describing systematic errors that degrade GNSS observations such as ionospheric, tropospheric, and relativistic effects or multipath. The correct combination of measurement methods provides even more precise, i.e., better measurement results or estimates of unknown parameters. The combination of measurement procedures and their significant evaluations represent the essential attribute of deformation monitoring of landslides concerning the protection of the environment and the population’s safety in the interest areas for the sustainable development of human society. This article presents the establishment and use of a local geodetic network in particular local space for various needs. Depending upon the specific conditions, it is possible to use GNSS technology to obtain accurate observations and achieve the results applicable to the deformation survey for subsequent processing of the adjustment procedure.
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Authors and Affiliations

Gabriel Weiss
1
ORCID: ORCID
Slavomir Labant
1
ORCID: ORCID
Juraj Gasinec
1
ORCID: ORCID
Hana Stankova
2
ORCID: ORCID
Pavel Cernota
2
ORCID: ORCID
Erik Weiss
3
ORCID: ORCID
Roland Weiss
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Technical University of Kosice, Kosice, Slovakia
  2. VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic
  3. University of Economics in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia
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Abstract

The applications of the machine learning and programming approaches in cartography has been increasing in recent years. This paper presents a case study of the scripting techniques used for cartographic mapping using Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) and R language (raster and tmaps packages). The aim of the study is environmental mapping of Ghana. The materials include high-resolution raster grids: topography by the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO), climate and environmental datasets (TerraClimate) and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for geomorphometric analysis (slope, aspect, hillshade and elevations). The methodology includes code snippets commented and explained with details of scripts. It is argued that using consolebased scripting tools for mapping is effective for cartographic workflow due to the logical structure and repeatability of scripts. The results include eight new thematic maps of Ghana performed using scripting approach inGMTscripting toolset and R language for quantitative and qualitative environmental assessment. Maps show correlations between the landforms of Ghana and certain environmental variables (drought index and soil moisture) showing the effects of the topographic relief on the distribution of the continuous geographic fields. These varied in several geographically distinct regions of Ghana: Ashanti (Kumasi), Volta, Savannah, coastal and northern regions. Demonstrated maps show that scripting method works effectively on a wide range of geosciences including environmental, topographic and climate studies. In such a way, this paper contributes both to the regional studies of Ghana and development of cartographic techniques.
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Authors and Affiliations

Polina Lemenkova
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
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Abstract

The problem of outlying observations is very well-known in the surveying data processing. Outliers might have several sources, different magnitudes, and shares within the whole observation set. It means that it is not possible to propose one universal method to deal with such observations. There are two general approaches in such a context: data cleaning or robust estimation. For example, the robust M-estimation has found many practical applications. However, there are other options, such as R-estimation or the absolute M split estimation. The latter method was created to be less sensitive to outliers than the squared M split estimation (the basic variant of Msplit estimation). From the theoretical point of view, the absolute M split estimation cannot be classified as a robust method; however, it was proved that it could be used in such a context under certain conditions. The paper presents the primary comparison between that method and a conventional robust M-estimation. The results show that the absolute M split estimation predominates over the classical methods, especially when the percentage of outliers is high. Thus, that method might be used to process LiDAR data, including mismeasured points. Processing synthetic data from terrestrial laser scanning or airborne laser scanning confirms that the absolute M split / estimation can deal with outliers sufficiently.
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Authors and Affiliations

Robert Duchnowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Patrycja Wyszkowska
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland
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Abstract

The purpose of this study is to analyse the use of agricultural land on the territory of united communities and their individual districts of Zhytomyr region as the smallest units of the administrative territorial division of Ukraine. The relevance of this study, due to current changes in national land relations, dictates the need to have information about agricultural lands, their owners, tenants and the lands status for planning agricultural production, the land-leases development, sale of land. The analysis of land use was carried out according to the following indicators: location of land plots of all owners within the community district and the whole community; their area; monetary evaluation; status of documents for each land plot, in particular the availability of lease, land cultivation presence. The initial data of the researches is the data of the state land cadastre database, and data of the real property rights register, both in general access and in need of special access. As a result of the research there were defined areas and location of lands of some landowners, who leased their lands and areas of lands not leased, also there were defined areas of lands, used illegally, without any documents on land use, defined areas of lands, used or owned by agricultural producers (farms, physical persons, legal entities). A cartographic core was created for the purpose of convenient planning of agricultural land use and land management within selected districts on the territory of the community.
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Authors and Affiliations

Oksana Drebot
1
Olena Zubova
1
Halyna Khant
1
Vitalii Hurelia
1
Nadiya Sknypa
2

  1. Polissia National University, Zhytomyr, Ukraine
  2. Luhansk National Agrarian University, Slavyansk, Ukraine
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Abstract

The applicability of integratedUnmannedAerialVehicle (UAV)-photogrammetry and automatic feature extraction for cadastral or property mapping was investigated in this research paper. Multi-resolution segmentation (MRS) algorithm was implemented on UAVgenerated orthomosaic for mapping and the findings were compared with the result obtained from conventional ground survey technique using Hi-Target Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) receivers. The overlapping image pairs acquired with the aid of a DJI Mavic air quadcopter were processed into an orthomosaic using Agisoft metashape software while MRS algorithm was implemented for the automatic extraction of visible land boundaries and building footprints at different Scale Parameter (SPs) in eCognition developer software. The obtained result shows that the performance of MRS improves with an increase in SP, with optimal results obtained when the SP was set at 1000 (with completeness, correctness, and overall accuracy of 92%, 95%, and 88%, respectively) for the extraction of the building footprints. Apart from the conducted cost and time analysis which shows that the integrated approach is 2.5 times faster and 9 times cheaper than the conventional DGPS approach, the automatically extracted boundaries and area of land parcels were also compared with the survey plans produced using the ground survey approach (DGPS) and the result shows that about 99% of the automatically extracted spatial information of the properties fall within the range of acceptable accuracy. The obtained results proved that the integration of UAVphotogrammetry and automatic feature extraction is applicable in cadastral mapping and that it offers significant advantages in terms of project time and cost.
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Authors and Affiliations

Oluibukun Gbenga Ajayi
1
ORCID: ORCID
Emmanuel Oruma
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
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Abstract

The object of the study is the processing of space images on the territory of the Carpathian territory in the Lviv region, obtained from the Landsat-8 satellite. The work aims to determine the area of deforestation in the Carpathian territory of the Lviv region from different time-space images obtained from the Landsat-8 satellite. Methods of cartography, photogrammetry, aerospace remote sensing of the Earth and GIS technology were used in the experimental research. The work was performed in Erdas Imagine software using the unsupervised image classification module and the DeltaCue difference detection module. The results of the work are classified as three images of Landsat-8 on the territory of the Carpathian territory in the Lviv region. The areas of forest cover for each of them for the period of 2016-2018 have been determined. During the three years, the area of forests has decreased by 14 hectares. Our proposed workflow includes six stages: analysis of input data, band composition of space images on the research territory, implementation of unsupervised classification in Erdas Imagine software and selection of forest class and determination of implementing this workflow, the vector layers of the forest cover of the Carpathians in the Lviv region for 2016, 2017, 2018 were obtained, and on their basis, the corresponding areas were calculated and compared.
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Authors and Affiliations

Borys Chetverikov
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ihor Trevoho
1
ORCID: ORCID
Lubov Babiy
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Mariia Malanchuk
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, Ukraine
  2. Kryvyi Rih National University, Kryvyi Rih, Ukraine
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Abstract

M split estimation is a novel method developed to process observation sets that include two (or more) observation aggregations. The main objective of the method is to estimate the location parameters of each aggregation without any preliminary assumption concerning the division of the observation set into respective subsets. Up to now, two different variants of M split estimation have been derived. The first and basic variant is the squared M split estimation, which can be derived from the assumption about the normal distribution of observations. The second variant is the absolute M split estimation, which generally refers to the least absolute deviation method. The main objective of the paper is to compare both variants of M split estimation by showing similarities and differences between the methods. The main dissimilarity stems from the different influence functions, making the absolute M split estimation less sensitive to gross errors of moderate magnitude. The empirical analyses presented confirm that conclusion and show that the accuracy of the methods is similar, in general. The absolute M split estimation is more accurate than the squared M split estimation for less accurate observations. In contrast, the squared M split estimation is more accurate when the number of observations in aggregations differs much. Concerning all advantages and disadvantages of M split estimation variants, we recommend using the absolute M split estimation in most geodetic applications.
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Authors and Affiliations

Patrycja Wyszkowska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Robert Duchnowski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland
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Abstract

The article deals with issues related to the application of statistical methods used in the valuation process. The proposed algorithm for real estate valuation can be used in the statistical market analysis method in the process of mass appraisal. The algorithm uses a multiple linear regression model. Legal considerations indicate the need for such an algorithm for the determination of the value of representative properties. Due to the large size of the database of comparables, the proposed algorithm can be used only to appraise typical properties. A good statistical model is parsimonious, that is, it uses as few mathematical concepts as possible in a given situation. A model should extract what is systematic in the results observed, allowing for the presence of purely random deviations. The article discusses the basic principles of building a good statistical model. Attention is drawn to the number of market attributes that are entered into the model and the range of their values. As few explanatory variables as possible should be entered into the model to explain the phenomenon under study. Explanatory variables are only those characteristics of the property that differentiate prices in a given market defined and adopted by the appraiser as the basis for valuation. The article highlights the importance of taking into account market changes during the period under study.
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Authors and Affiliations

Agnieszka Bitner
1
ORCID: ORCID
Małgorzata Frosik
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Agriculture in Krakow, Krakow, Poland

Instructions for authors

The Advances in Geodesy and Geoinformation accepts a wide range of papers including original research papers, original short communication papers, review articles and symposium pieces. Details of submission are provided below. Please, note, that at the submission stage, the author(s) ensure(s) that the submitted work will not be published elsewhere in any language without the consent of the copyright owners. All co-authors also agree on the publication ethics statement.

For all parties involved in the act of publishing (the author, the journal editor(s), the peer reviewer and the publisher) it is necessary to agree upon standards of expected ethical behavior. The ethics statements for Advances in Geodesy and Geoinformation are based on the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors (https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines ).

TYPES OF MANUSCRIPTS

Original Research papers:

Research papers can have 8000 words in length, although longer articles will be accepted on an occasional basis if the topic demands this length of treatment.

Original Short communication papers:

Short communication papers can have 2500 words as a maximum and contain at most 1 table and 3 figures. Such a note is technical and well-focused, for example illustrating a new technique, describing a well worked-out case study or a specific new algorithm.

Original research and short communications papers should contain the following sections: Abstract (max. of 250 words), Introduction, Data used and methods applied, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgments, References.

Review article:

The journal also considers short reviews (not exceeding 12 pages in print) intended to debate recent advances in rapidly developing fields that are within its scope. Such articles may have ample references. Reviews should contain the following sections: Abstract (max. of 250 words), Introduction, Topics (with headings and subheadings), Conclusions and Outlook, Acknowledgments, References

Symposium pieces:

Symposium pieces describe a research symposium or seminar and present the topic covered in the form of a news brief, opinion piece, or mini-review. A news brief summarizes a few talks on the same general topic or issues at a given symposium. This can include a summary of the discussion that followed the symposium or the significance of the talks at a large symposia to a particular field. It is important to indicate the main point of the symposium.

An opinion piece discusses the personal perspectives after a given symposium, including an analysis of the symposium and how this affected the author.

A mini-review can be based on a theme from a given symposium. This may require the author(s) to review articles written by a speaker at that symposium.

These articles should be no more than 3,000 words. All symposium pieces should include the following sections: Abstract (max. of 250 words), Introduction, Topics (with headings and subheadings) [specifically required for a mini-review], Conclusions and Outlook, References

LEGAL REQUIREMENTS

The author(s) guarantee(s) that the manuscript will not be published elsewhere in any language without the consent of the copyright owners, that the rights of the third parties will not be violated, and that the publisher will not held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.

Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.

ETHICAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF AUTHORS

Submission of the manuscript implies: that the work has not been published before (except in form of an abstract or as a part of a published lecture, review or thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried out.

In case the manuscript has more than one author its submission should include the list specifying contribution of each author to the manuscript with indicating who is the author of the concept, assumptions, research methodology, data processing. Major responsibility is on the corresponding author.

The Editor will counteract in Advances in Geodesy and Geoinformation against Ghostwriting, i.e. when someone substantially contributed to the preparation of the manuscript but has neither been included to the list of authors nor his role is mentioned in the acknowledgements as well as Ghost authorship, i.e. when the author/co-author did not contribute to the manuscript or his contribution is negligible. Any detected case of Ghostwriting and Ghost authorship will be exposed and the appropriate subjects, i.e. employers, scientific organizations, associations of editors etc., will be informed.

MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION

The manuscripts are submitted online via https://www.editorialsystem.com/geocart/ and should be submitted in Word. Please, do not exceed the number of words intended to a specific submission. Please, count the number of words before submitting, with abstract, acknowledgements and references excluded.

Names of authors and their affiliation should be removed from the manuscripts for the review process in order to have a fair evaluation of their manuscript. All authors of the manuscript are responsible for its content; they must have agreed to its publication and have given the corresponding author the authority to act on their behalf in all matters pertaining to publication. The Corresponding Author is responsible for informing the coauthors of the manuscript status throughout the submission, review, and production process. The editorial system requires: the name(s) of the author(s), the name(s) and address(es) of the affiliation(s) of the author(s), the e-mail address of the corresponding author, the 16-digit ORCID number of the author(s). The corresponding author is required to provide his/her ORCID number. ORCID numbers of co-authors are not necessary, but advised.

Manuscript preparation

Manuscripts should be typed in single-line spacing throughout on the A4 sheet with 2.5 cm margins. Use plain 11-point Times Roman font for text, italics for textual emphasis, bold for mathematical vectors.

1. Abstract: The paper must be preceded by a sufficiently informative abstract presenting the most important results and conclusions. It should not be longer than 250 words and should not contain any unexplained abbreviations and unspecified references.

2. Keywords: Three to five keywords should be supplied. These are used for indexing purposes.

3. Introduction: It should explicitly state the purpose of the investigation and give a short review of the pertinent literature.

4. Main text: It should include all methods and input data (working details must be given concisely; well-known operations should not be described in details); results presented in tabular or graph form, with appropriate statistical evaluation, discussion of results - statement of conclusions drawn from the work and conclusions.

5. Acknowledgements: Please, include all institutions, names or numbers of grants that require acknowledgement. The names of funding organizations or institutions providing data should be given in full. This information is mandatory for all submitted papers.

6. Author Contributions: All authors contributing to the paper need to have their role assigned.

7. Data availability: Indicate where to download the data you used and how they can be accessed. Are your final results available anywhere?

8. References: The list of references should be prepared in alphabetical order and should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications could only be mentioned in the text. References in the text, should be cited by author(s) last name and year: e.g. (Beutler, 2003a), (Featherstone and Kirby, 2000), (Schwarz et al., 1990), (Sjöberg et al., 2000; Strykowski, 2001b; 2002). The details on the reference list preparation is provided below.

9. Formulae and symbols: They must be written legibly and will be typeset in italics. One-layer indexing is preferable. Numbering of formulae, if necessary should be given in brackets fitted to the right margin. use the equation editor or MathType for equations

10. Illustrations and tables: All figures (photographs, graphs or diagrams) and tables should be cited in the text and numbered consecutively throughout. Lowercase roman letters should identify figure parts. Figure legends must be brief and must contain self-sufficient explanations of the illustrations. Each table should have a title and a legend explaining any abbreviation used in that table. Tables and illustrations have to be placed in the text and send as separate files.

11. Units: SI units must be used.

12. Short title: Please, include a running head consisting of at most 60 characters. This concise banner represents the title of the article and must be submitted by the author(s).

Proofreading

Proofreading is the responsibility of the author. Corrections should be clear; standard correction marks should be used. Corrections that lead to a change in the page layout should be avoided. The author is entitled to formal corrections only. Substantial changes in content, e.g. new results, corrected values, title and authorship are not allowed without the approval of the editor. In such case please contact the Editor-in-chief before returning the proofs.

Reference list

a. Journal Article (one author)

Nikora, V. (2006). Hydrodynamics of aquatic ecosystems: spatial-averaging perspective. Acta Geophysica, 55(1), 3-10. DOI: 10.2478/s11600-006-0043-6.

b. Journal Article (two or more authors)

Cudak, M. and Karcz J. (2006). Momentum transfer in an agitated vessel with off-centred impellers. Chem. Pap. 60(5), 375-380. DOI: 10.2478/s11696-006-0068-y.

c. Journal article from an online database

Czajgucki Z., Zimecki M. & Andruszkiewicz R. (2006, December). The immunoregulatory effects of edeine analogues in mice [Abstract]. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett. 12(3), 149-161. Retrieved December 6.

d. Book (one author)

Baxter, R. (1982). Exactly Solvable Models in Statistical Mechanics. New York: Academic Press.

e. Book (two or more authors)

Kleiner, F.S., Mamiya C.J. and Tansey R.G. (2001). Gardner’s art through the ages (11th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Harcourt College Publishers.

f. Book chapter or article in an edited book

Roll, W.P. (1976). ESP and memory. In J.M.O. Wheatley and H.L. Edge (Eds.), . (pp. 154-184). Springfield, IL: American Psychiatric Press.

g. Proceedings from a conference

Field, G. (2001). Rethinking reference rethought. In Revelling in Reference: Reference and Information Services Section Symposium, 12-14 October 2001 (pp. 59-64). Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Australian Library and Information Association.

h. Online document

Johnson, A. (2000). Abstract Computing Machines. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved March 30, 2006, from SpringerLink http://springerlink.com/content/w25154. DOI: 10.1007/b138965.

i. Report

Osgood, D. W., and Wilson, J. K. (1990). Covariation of adolescent health problems. Lincoln: University of Nebraska. (NTIS No. PB 91-154 377/AS).

j. Government publication

Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy. (1997). The national drug strategy: Mapping the future. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

MANUSCRIPT REVIEW PROCEDURE

The editor of a peer-reviewed journal is responsible for deciding which articles submitted to the journal should be published, and, moreover, is accountable for everything published in the journal. In making these decisions, the editor may be guided by the policies of the journal’s editorial board as well as by legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The editor may confer with other editors or reviewers when making publication decisions. The editor maintain the integrity of the academic record, preclude business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards, and always be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed. The editor evaluate manuscripts for intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author(s). The editor do not disclose any information about a manuscript under consideration to anyone other than the author(s), reviewers and potential reviewers, and in some instances the editorial board members, as appropriate.

The editor is guided by COPE’s Guidelines (https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines) for Retracting Articles when considering retracting, issuing expressions of concern about, and issuing corrections pertaining to articles that have been published in Advances in Geodesy and Geoinformation.

Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and, through the editorial communication with the author, may also assist the author in improving the manuscript.

Any manuscripts received for review is treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except if authorized by the editor.

Manuscript evaluations are assigned one of four outcomes: Accept without changes, accept after changes suggested by reviewer, rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review, reject, withdraw.

Manuscripts requiring minor revision (accept after changes suggested by reviewer) not require a second review. All manuscripts receiving a "Rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review " evaluation must be subjected to a second review. Rejected manuscripts are given no further consideration. Normally, manuscripts that receive a "Rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review " decision have only one additional chance for revision and the revised version should be uploaded to the Editorial System within six weeks. If the author(s) failed to make satisfactory changes, the manuscript is rejected. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to suit house style. The article should be withdraw due to technical reason (e.g. names of authors are placed in the text, lack of references, or inappropriate structure of the text) or plagiarism.

Charges

Advances in Geodesy and Geoinformation is published in Open Access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. This means that all articles are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication free of charge for the readers.

Publication Ethics Policy


ETHIC POLICY

Editor Responsibilities

The editor of Advances in Geodesy and Geoinformation is guided by COPE’s Guidelines ( https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines) for Retracting Articles when considering retracting, issuing expressions of concern about, and issuing corrections pertaining to articles that have been published in the journal. The editor evaluates manuscripts for intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author(s). The editor do not disclose any information about a manuscript under consideration to anyone other than the author(s), reviewers and potential reviewers, and in some instances the editorial board members, as appropriate. The editor seeks so ensure a fair and appropriate peer review process. Editors recuse themselves (i.e. ask a co-editor, associate editor or other member of the editorial board instead to review and consider) from considering manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or (possibly) institutions connected to the papers. Editors require all contributors to disclose relevant competing interests and publish corrections if competing interests are revealed after publication. If needed, other appropriate action should be taken, such as the publication of a retraction or expression of concern.

Reviewer Responsibilities


Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and, through the editorial communication with the author, may also assist the author in improving the manuscript. Any invited referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible should immediately notify the editor so that alternative reviewers can be contacted.

Any manuscripts received for review is treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except if authorized by the editor. Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inacceptable. Referees should express their views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments.

Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published data of which they have personal knowledge.

Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review is kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the submission.

Author Responsibilities

Authors reporting results of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the manuscript. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable.

The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others that this has been appropriately cited or quoted.
An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Parallel submission of the same manuscript to more than one journal constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.

Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. Authors should also cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work.

Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be named in an Acknowledgement section.

The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors (according to the above definition) and no inappropriate co-authors are included in the author list of the manuscript, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.

If the work involves chemicals, procedures or equipment that have any unusual hazards inherent in their use, the authors must clearly identify these in the manuscript.

All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or their interpretation in the manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.

When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal’s editor or publisher and cooperate with them to either retract the paper or to publish an appropriate erratum.

Publisher’s Confirmation

In cases of alleged or proven scientific misconduct, fraudulent publication or plagiarism the publisher, in close collaboration with the editors, will take all appropriate measures to clarify the situation and to amend the article in question. This includes the prompt publication

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