Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection


Archives of Environmental Protection | 2011 | vol. 37 | No 1 |

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The prevalence of heavy metals in wastewater is the cause of death of numerous organisms which take part in biological treatment of wastewater, that is why the aim of the study has been to asses the influence of cadmium and copper ions upon the microfauna of activated sludge. 5, 10, 50, and 100 mg/l of Cd2+ and Cu2+ were added into the samples of activated sludge and then, after 24 hours, the microscopic observations of activated sludge microfauna were carried out, and all changes concerning the amount of microfauna, functional groups, and species composition were determined. The results obtained allowed to find a high level of toxicity of Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions to activated sludge microfauna, which resulted in the changes in the value of the Sludge Biotic Index and classes of sludge, survivability of microfauna, and reduction in the number of taxonomic units. It was observed that Cu2+ ions are more toxic to activated sludge microfauna than Cd2+ ions in identical doses. Organisms sensitive to Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions have been found to be testate amoebae, Aspidisca sp. and Epistylis sp., as well as organisms relatively sensitive to tested metals, which turned out to be ciliates of Opercularia and Vorticella convalaria genera.

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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Krupa
Aleksandra Smyłła
Maciej Kostecki
Beata Malinowska
Anna Kliś
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In this paper, we present results indicating ozone effect on visible plants response as well as on other parameters, such as dry weight, chlorophyll concentration, cell membrane stability and salicylic acid content in bioindicator plants. Ozone-resistant and -sensitive clones of white clover (Trifolium repens L. cv. "Regal") were used in the investigations. The experiment was carried out in ambient air conditions of the Wielkopolska province (Poland) in 2005 growing season. The exposure led to changes in the level of plant response parameters that might be used as potential biomarkers of oxidative stress triggered by tropospheric ozone in ambient air conditions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Janina Zbierska
Klaudia Borowiak
Kinga Drzewiecka
Piotr Goliński
Monika Malicka
Barbara Andrzejewska
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Aluminium is one of the main soil components. Usually it is a part of non-toxic aluminosilicates but in low pH values its mobility is higher and - especially in monomeric form is toxic for plants. Selenium is an essential element necessary for animals and humans. Its compounds have anticancer and anti mutagenic character. However, its high uptake from environment, e.g. with food or water could lead to various diseases including embryonic deformity, decreased hatchling survival and death to aquatic organisms. Soil contamination with aluminium leads to disturbances in plant growth as a result of low calcium and magnesium uptake. High concentrations of selenium lead to its accumulation in plant tissues what is the beginning of selenium fate in food chain. In this work a cultivated layer of soils located near five industry plants in the town of Opole (southern Poland) were investigated. Aluminium and selenium content in soils is an effect of two factors: its natural occurrence in rocks (natural content) and human activity - especially chemicals from agriculture, industrial and transport pollutants. Aluminium was determined in the range of 3440 to 14804 mg/kg d.w. Obtained results of selenium concentration covered the range from 27.1 to 958.1 μg/kg d.w. These results are slightly higher than concentrations noted in natural or non-polluted soils, but still low. These amounts of selenium could have more positive than negative effects. Aluminium and selenium concentrations were discussed concurrently with base soils parameters, such as pH, EC and granulometric fractions composition.

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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Ciesielczuk
Magdalena Senze
Grzegorz Kusza
Monika Kowalska-Góralska
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A prospective brown coal mine "Legnica" is to be responsible for forming a depression funnel which can cover "Ścinawskie Swamps" where 26 herbaceous plant species forming 7 communities were recognized, among others: Phragmitetum australis, Caricetum gracilis and Acoretum calami. Investigated wetland characterizes changeable level of water which brings about the presence of as many as 30.77% species connected with Molinio-Arrhenatheretea class. The half of taxa belongs to synantropic species, while 50% are non - synantropic ones. The area of "Ścinawskie Swamps" can be assessed as featuring moderately high nature values and, therefore worth further protection as ecological areas.

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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Koszelnik-Leszek
Klara Tomaszewska
Mariola Czak
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The paper presents microbiological characteristic of sewage sludge composted in controlled conditions together with biowastes (wheat, maize and rapeseed straw, sawdust and refined glycerol). An experiment was carried out in which the material was mixed at appropriate weight proportions and then placed in bioreactor chambers of constant air flow (4 lźmin-1). The performed composting process aimed at determining the developmental dynamics of heterotrophic bacteria, molds, actinomycetes as well as bacteria from Salmonella genus and Enterobacteriaceae family. Microbiological analyses were performed on selective substrates using Koch's plate method. Moreover, using the floatation method, the presence of live eggs of ATT (Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Toxocara spp.) intestinal parasites was assessed and levels of dehydrogenase activity were determined using 1% triphenylotetrazole chloride as a substrate. It was concluded, on the basis of the obtained research results, that the composting process reduced bacterial counts of heterotrophic bacteria, molds and the activity of dehydrogenases activity in all experimental treatments. On the other hand, no reduction was observed in quantities of actinomycetes in the composted materials whose changes in numbers were found to correlate positively most strongly with levels of dehydrogenases activity. In addition, it was found that changes in numbers of the analysed groups of microorganisms depended, primarily, on the pH value and concentrations of ammonia released from the composted materials. Furthermore, the obtained research results also revealed that the sewage sludge used in the experiment did not contain Salmonella spp. bacteria and live eggs of ATT intestinal parasites, and that the composting process reduced completely numbers of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family in all compost treatments. The obtained composts fulfilled all sanitary standards complying with the requirements issued by the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development (2008) as well as with the EU regulation (EC) No. 185/2007 from February 2007 changing EEC regulations No. 809/2003 and No. 810/2003 connected with the extension of the period of transitional requirements for composting and biogas plants as provided by the EU regulation No. 1774/2002 of the European Parliament and Council.

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Authors and Affiliations

Agnieszka Wolna-Maruwka
Krzysztof Pilarski
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The paper presents results of floristic investigation conducted within the territory of post-industrial spoil heaps connected with zinc and lead products manufacturing. The flora of specific technogenic habitats was analyzed with regard to geographical-historical groups and syntaxonomic classification. For each species, the following characteristics were determined: a life form according to the classification of Raunkiaer, means of seed spreading and types of mycorrhiza for each species based on the literature. On the two heaps, a total of 257 species of vascular plants belonging to 59 families were found. Only 92 species occurred on both sites, which is 36% of all plants recorded. The most numerous families are: Asteraceae (45 species) and Poaceae (28 species). Apophytes dominate in the flora of spoil heaps (70.9%). Hemicryptophytes are the most numerous group and therophytes are also abundant. Ruderal (belonging to Artemisietea vulgaris and Stelarietea mediae) and meadow species (belonging to Molino-Arrhenatheretea) dominate on both post-industrial dumps. Xerothermal species (belonging to Festuco-Brometea) are also fairly numerous (6.7%). Their presence is related to the specific habitat conditions. The anemochoric species dominate in the flora of dumps. The high proportion of mycorrhizal plants was recorded. Finally, reclamation interventions which were carried out on the H2 spoil heap are discussed.

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Authors and Affiliations

Kaja Skubała
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In the present paper we show results of our research on the contents of selected heavy metals in the surface and subsurface water layers of the estuarine lake Gardno. Obtained results show that there are substantial differences between concentrations of lead, copper and zinc in surface microlayer and subsurface waters. We observed that the surface microlayer is capable of accumulating much higher amounts of these metals than the subsurface waters. Analysis of seasonal changes in heavy metal concentrations in surface microlayers and subsurface waters shows some periodicity of these changes.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jan Trojanowski
Józef Antonowicz
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Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria communities were evaluated in a completely mixed, laboratory scale membrane reactor (MBR) working under anoxic conditions for 5 months. The microorganisms in activated sludge were fed a synthetic medium containing 66-150 mg NH4 +-N/l. The age of the activated sludge in MBR was 50 days and the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 3.3 days. The estimation of the diversity and complexity of the AOB community together with the identification of the dominant bacteria in the activated sludge under anoxic conditions were performed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing. Molecular analysis of the microbial community carried out with two microbial molecular markers, 16S rRNA gene and amoA gene, suggested that nitrification was led by a Nitrosomonas-like species. In the biocenosis of the investigated bioreactor, oxygen was the crucial selective parameter. The results obtained in this work showed that amoA gene research is more suitable to study the stability and effectiveness of ammonia oxidation. This information emphasizes the necessity of the usage of molecular markers based on functional genes instead of ribosomal ones in order to present the actual state of the process performed in bioreactors. It was also stated that Nitrosomonas -like bacteria are able to perform nitritation even in anoxic environment, that is probably the reason why these bacteria are the most common AOB in different bioreactors.

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Authors and Affiliations

Aleksandra Ziembińska
Sławomir Ciesielski
Anna Raszka
Korneliusz Miksch
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The aim of the work was to estimate the influence of plants mycorrhizas on the number of hydrocarbons degrading bacteria, saprophytic bacteria and molds fungi during the remediation of the soil samples contaminated with used engine oil. The investigation were carried out in laboratory conditions. Nine modifications of the soil substrate were prepared and divided into three groups: the first one - without used engine oil; the second one - with 10% (w/w) of used engine oil; the third one - with 25% (w/w) of used oil. In each group one sample was sown with ribwort, one was inoculated with living spores of mycorrhizal fungi and sown with ribwort, and the third one was left without plants and mycorrhizal fungi. The sample of the uncontaminated soil was the control. The investigation showed a significant effect of used engine oil, the presence of ribwort and mycorrhizal fungi on the number of soil microorganisms. The increase of the number of hydrocarbons degrading bacteria, in respect to the control sample was observed in the used engine oil contaminated samples. The seeding of soil samples with plants and additional inoculation with spores of mycorrhizal fungi stimulated the increase of the number of microorganisms in the all studied groups.

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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Małachowska-Jutsz
Joanna Rudek
Weronika Janosz
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This article presents test results for hydraulic conductivity and porosity structure of hardening slurries prepared of Portland cement, betonite, water and fluidal ashes from the combustion of hard and brown coal. The slurries were exposed to persistent filtering action (180 days) of liquids chemically aggressive to cement binders, i.e. distilled water, 0.5% solution of nitric acid, 1% solution of sodium sulphate, 1% solution of magnesium nitrate and 1% solution of ammonium nitrate. Samples exposed to filtration of tap water constituted the reference base. The research was into relations between hydraulic conductivity and pore structure parameters in slurries, as well as into the influence of the type of aggressive medium on leak tightness of slurries (their porosity and hydraulic conductivity).

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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Falaciński

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Archives of Environmental Protection

Instructions for Authors

Archives of Environmental Protection is a quarterly published jointly by the Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Committee of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Thanks to the cooperation with outstanding scientists from all over the world we are able to provide our readers with carefully selected, most interesting and most valuable texts, presenting the latest state of research in the field of engineering and environmental protection.

The Journal principally accepts for publication original research papers covering such topics as:
- Air quality, air pollution prevention and treatment;
- Wastewater treatment technologies and processing of sewage sludge;
- Technologies in waste management in the field of neutralization / recovery / closed circulation;
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- Soil protection and remediation;
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The Journal accepts also authoritative and critical reviews of the current state of knowledge in the topic directly relating to the environment protection.

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Nowak, S.W., Smith, A.J. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of the article, Archives of Environmental Protection, 10, 2, pp. 93–98, DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330

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Orszulik, E. (2009). Palenisko fluidalne, Patent polski: nr PL20070383311 20070910 z 16 marca 2009. Smith, I.M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

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Nowak, S.W. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of article, Journal Name, 10, 2, pp. 93–98, DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330. (in Polish)

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