Abstract: Introduction and development of membrane techniques in the production of drinking water and puriﬁ cation of wastewaters, in the last 40 years, was important stage in the ﬁeld of water treatment effectiveness. Desalination of sea and brackish water by RO is an established way for drinking water production. Signiﬁ cant improvements in design of RO, the application of alternative energy sources, modern pretreatment and new materials have caused the success of the process. NF is the method of water softening, because NF membranes can retain di- and multivalent ions, but to a limited extend monovalent. Drinking water containing viruses, bacteria and protozoa, as well as other microorganisms can be disinfected by means of UF. Viruses are retained by UF membranes, whereas bacteria and protozoa using both UF and MF membranes. For the removal of NOM it is possible to use direct NF or integrated systems combining UF or MF with coagulation, adsorption and oxidation. The use of NF, RO and ED, in the treatment of water containing micropollutants for drinking and industrial purposes, can provide more or less selective removal of the pollutants. The very important are disinfection byproducts, residue
of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds. For endocrine disrupting compounds, special attention is paid onto polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and surface-active substances, chlorinated pesticides, phthalates, alkylphenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, hormones, synthetic pharmaceuticals and other substances disposed to the environment. The application of MF and UF in the removal of inorganic and organic micropollutants is possible in integrated systems with: coagulation, adsorption, complexion with polymers or surfactants and biological reactions.
The partial solution for the growing contamination of the environment is the implementation of new technologies. The most of the currently operated systems for surface and groundwaters treatment as well as for wastewater treatment characterize with complex technological arrangements based on a number of unit operations. In water-wastewater management membrane processes are more often applied, especially those in which the difference of pressure at both membrane sites is used as a driving force. As an example of such application is the use of nanoﬁ ltration for groundwaters treatment at Water Treatment Plant Zawada near Dębica or the treatment of municipal landﬁ ll leachate and industrial wastewater at Eko Dolina Waste Utilization Plant in Łężyce near Gdynia (reverse osmosis unit capacity of 120 m /d). Municipal wastewater treatment based on membrane technologies has already been implemented at domestic wastewater treatment plant. It is especially proﬁ table, when the load of contaminant present in a wastewater varies within a year. In the case of membrane systems use, this issue can be neglected. As an example of membrane based system may serve WWTP in Rowy n/Ustka started up in 2013 and modernized in 2017. The latest trends and developments of selected suppliers of membrane systems are also presented.
To improve dye retention, there is a concurrent interest in the development and optimization of an alternative and promising method for the dye recovery in aqueous solutions. In this regard, considerable attention was paid to the polyoxometalates (POMs) assisted ultraﬁ ltration (POMAUF). The aim of the present study is to eliminate toluidine blue (TB) dye by ultraﬁ ltration membrane using keggin polyoxometalates (POMs) as complexing agents. In the ﬁ rst step, the keggin polyoxometalates K3[PW12O40]∙6H2O(PW12) and K7[PW) were prepared. Then, the obtained powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopies. Afterwards, the removal of toluidine blue (TB) using polyoxometalates assisted ultraﬁ ltration (POMAUF) was studied. Factors affecting the retention of dye and permeate ﬂ ux such as transmembrane pressure, operating time, polyoxometalates concentration, ionic strength, surfactant and pH were investigated. All results of both compounds have been presented and discussed. The results reveal that the addition of POMs leads to an increase in dye retention from 11 to 95% for the PW 12 and to 98% for the PW . The results of this work have thus suggested the promising enhancement of ultraﬁ ltration membrane selectivity for the dye removal using new complexing agents such as POMs in place of polyelectrolytes and surfactants.
Since ﬂuoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics are extensively used both in human and veterinary medicine their accumulation in the environment is causing increasing concern. The aim of the study was to isolate a microbial consortium resistant to oﬂ oxacin and norﬂ oxacin and able to biodegrade both antibiotics. Green compost was used as a source of microorganisms. The biodegradation efﬁ ciency was monitored by changes of antibiotics concentrations and toxicity. The microbial consortium was composed of two bacterial isolates: Klebsiella pneumoniae (K2) and Achromobacter sp. (K3) and two fungi Candida manassasensis (K1) and Trichosporon asahii (K4). All the isolates were characterized as highly resistant to both antibiotics – oﬂ oxacin and norﬂ oxacin. FQs were supplied individually into the culture medium in the presence of an easily degradable carbon source – glucose. Biodegradation of norﬂ oxacin was much faster than oﬂ oxacin biodegradation. During 20 days of the experiment, the norﬂ oxacin level decreased by more than 80%. Oﬂ oxacin was generally biodegraded thereafter at relatively slow biodegradation rate. After 28 days the oﬂ oxacin level decreased by 60%. Similarly, the toxicity of biodegraded antibiotics decreased 4-fold and 3.5-fold for norﬂ oxacin and oﬂ oxacin, respectively. The ability of the bacterial-fungal consortium to degrade antibiotics and reduce toxicity could help to reduce environmental pollution with these pharmaceutical.
The current study was aimed to evaluate the industrial efﬂ uents biodegradation potential of an indigenous microorganism which reduced water pollution caused by these efﬂ uents. In the present study biodegradation of three textile industrial efﬂ uents was performed with locally isolated brown rot fungi named Coniophora puteana IEBL-1. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed under Box Bhenken Design (BBD) for the optimization of physical and nutritional parameters for maximum biodegradation. Quality of treated efﬂ uents was checked by study of BOD, COD and analysis through HPLC. Three ligninolytic enzymes named lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase were also studied during the biodegradation process. The results showed that there was more than 85% biodegradation achieved for all three efﬂ uents with decrease in Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) below the recommended values for industrial efﬂ uent i.e. 80 mg/L for BOD and 220 mg/L for COD after optimization of nutritional parameters in the second stage. Analysis of samples through HPLC revealed the formation of less toxic diphenylamine, 3-methyldiphenylamine and N-methylaniline after treatment. The ligninolytic enzymes assays conﬁ rmed the role of lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase in biodegradation process. Lignin peroxidase with higher activity has more contribution in biodegradation of efﬂ uents under study. It can be concluded through the results that Coniophora buteana IEBL-1 is a potential fungus for the treatment of industrial efﬂuents.
The aim of the research was to determine the microbiological quality of atmospheric air in the Tuchów Sewage Treatment Plant, based on the presence of mesophilic bacteria, α- and β-hemolytic bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi. Bioaerosol measurements were made at four points (raw sewage inlet, aeration chamber, puriﬁ ed sewage outlet and 150 m from the treatment plant, at the background point) in the period from January to December 2018. Bioaerosol samples were collected using Andersen’s 6-stage cascade impactor. The tested atmospheric air was characterized by a qualitatively and quantitatively diverse microﬂ ora. The highest amounts of all the studied groups of microorganisms were found at the raw sewage inlet, and in the case of actinomycetes, also twice in the place of biological puriﬁcation. However, there were analyzes in which a higher concentration of microorganisms was observed outside the treatment plant at the control point constituting the background. This applies to bacteria and fungi. The largest source of emission of microorganisms to the atmosphere was the mechanical part of the sewage treatment plant (raw sewage inlet). The tested treatment plant may therefore contribute to the deterioration of the quality of the atmospheric air.
Results of life cycle inventory (LCI) and life cycle assessment (LCA) for septic tanks collecting domestic sewage were presented. The study included the whole life cycle: construction, use and end-of-life stages of septic tanks. The analyses were conducted basing on actual data concerning performance of 793 septic tanks in Żory. Environmental impact assessment of the life cycle of septic tanks was conducted with TRACi and ReCiPe methods. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, eutrophication, fossil fuel depletion and metal depletion indicators were calculated and determinants of LCA of septic tanks were analysed. The system boundary was from cradle to grave. It was concluded that at the construction stage, GHG emission and fossil fuel depletion indicators are determined by the amount of concrete, steel, polyester resin, polyethylene, cast iron and PCV. At the use stage, GHG emission is determined by the amount and type of electricity used to treat sewage in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Untreated wastewater, introduced into the environment (leaking tanks and users discharging sewage), is a determinant of inﬂ uence on eutrophication. Life cycle inventory and environmental assessment of septic tanks with life cycle perspective are presented in the literature for the ﬁ rst time. The results highlight the importance of including each stage in the environmental assessment of elements of the urban wastewater system.
Nanotechnology is a manipulation of nature that has emerged through the use of basic sciences, material science and engineering at the nano-scale. The interaction between biological environment and nanoparticles-nanoparticles or nanoparticles-organic materials is not yet well-understood. The toxic effects of nanoparticles on plants were investigated and it was proved that they caused morphological and physiological changes in plants. This study aimed to determine the effects of TiO -TiO2Ag nanoparticles, and co-application of EDDS-TiO2Ag nanoparticles alone, co-application of ZnO nanoparticles- Ag nanoparticles on seed germination, seedling vigor, radicle and plumule elongation of two different wheat species. In the experimental stage, ten seeds were placed in petri-dishes with a double layer of ﬁ lter paper which was used as an inert material. Then 5 mL of TiO2Ag, ZnO+TiO2Ag, and EDDS+TiO2Ag suspensions were added to every petri dish. Results showed that the maximum SVI was determined at the concentration of 50 mg∙L-1 TiO2 Ag+EDDS for bread wheat and the minimum SVI was observed at 100 mg∙L-1 TiO2Ag nanoparticles concentration for durum wheat. The effect of both nanoparticles-nanoparticles interaction and the other chemicals-nanoparticles interaction on the ecosystems should be evaluated.
In this study, the aim was to model the toxic effect of copper (Cu) and analyse the removal of Cu in aqueous Saharan and non-Saharan mediums by Lemna minor. Two separate test groups were formed: with Saharan dust (S) and without Saharan dust (WS). These test groups were exposed to 3 different Cu concentrations (0.05, 0.50 and 5.00 ppm). Time, concentration, and group-dependent removal efﬁ ciencies were compared using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test and statistically signiﬁ cant differences were found. The optimum removal values were tested at the highest concentration 79.6% in the S medium and observed on the 4th day for all test groups. The lowest removal value (16%) was observed at 0.50 ppm on the 1st day in the WS medium. When the S medium and WS medium were compared, in all test groups Cu was removed more successfully in the S medium than the WS medium contaminated by Cu in 3 different concentrations of (0.05 ppm, 0.50 ppm, 5.00 ppm). The regression analysis was also tested for all prediction models. Different models were performed and it was found that cubic models show the highest predicted values (R2). The R2 values of the estimation models were found to be at the interval of 0.939–0.991 in the WS medium and 0.995–1.000 in the S medium.
Tires play an important role in the automobile industry. However, their disposal when worn out has adverse effects on the environment. The main aim of this study was to prepare activated carbon from waste tire pyrolysis char by impregnating KOH onto pyrolytic char. Adsorption studies on lead onto chemically activated carbon were carried out using response surface methodology. The effect of process parameters such as temperature (°C), adsorbent dosage (g/100 ml), pH, contact time (minutes) and initial lead concentration (mg/l) on the adsorption capacity were investigated. It was found out that the adsorption capacity increased with an increase in adsorbent dosage, contact time, pH, and decreased with an increase in lead concentration and temperature. Optimization of the process variables was done using a numerical optimization method. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FTIR) analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope were used to characterize the pyrolytic carbon char before and after activation. The numerical optimization analysis results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of
93.176 mg/g was obtained at adsorbent dosage of 0.97 g/100 ml, pH 7, contact time of 115.27 min, initial metal concentration of 100 mg/and temperature of 25°C. FTIR and TGA analysis showed the presence of oxygen containing functional groups on the surface of the activated carbon produced and that the weight loss during the activation step was negligible.
The paper is focused on the research of ecotoxicological properties of mortar prisms produced with partial cement replacement by ash from energy recovery of municipal waste. Two types of ash were used: ash from incineration and ash from municipal waste gasifi cation. According to the Waste Catalogue, ash is considered other waste, which is non-hazardous and nowadays it is predominantly landfi lled. Negative results of standardized biotests are inevitable precondition for the use of ash for construction products. The results from both biotests (acute toxicity test on aquatic organisms Daphnia magna and growth inhibition test of higher cultivated plants Sinapis alba) confi rmed suitability of cement replacement by ash from energy recovery of municipal waste. Environmental safety of produced mortar prisms is different. Recommended replacement of cement with ash, obtained from municipal waste gasifi cation, is 10% and with ash gained from incineration is 15%. The use of this type of waste in construction industry will lead to the decrease of landfi lled waste. Due to the replacement of cement with waste (from industrial branches) natural resources of raw materials used in the process of cement production are saved.
Agriculture is a signifi cant source of gaseous pollutants such as ammonia, methane, nitrous oxide and volatile organic compounds. Ammonia is particularly important due to the high emission and local, as well as global impact on the environment. The release of NH3 is one of the main ways of nitrogen emission to the atmosphere and it contributes to its subsequent deposition. The aim of the study was to analyze ammonia emissions from animal production in Poland in 2005–2017, its regional diversity and possibilities of its reduction in agriculture. The ammonia emission was calculated for the animal production groups according to the NFR classifi cation. The values of ammonia emission were calculated based on ammonia emission factors used by KOBIZE, in accordance with the EMEP/EEA methods. In 2017, the NH3 emission from Polish agriculture amounted 288 Gg and it accounted for 96% of the emission in 2005. Ammonia emission from livestock production, in 2005–2017, on average accounted for 79.8% of agricultural emissions. The largest share had the cattle (51%) and swine (30%) production. The NH3 emissions differed strongly between provinces. The emission density (kg NH3·km-2·year-1) in provinces with intensive livestock production was about 5.5 times higher than in regions, where livestock production was the lowest. The mitigation strategies should be implemented primarily in provinces where reduction potential is the largest. The assessment of the reduction potential should take into account the NH3 emission per 1 km2 and the low
NH3 emission technologies, which are already applied in the regions.
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