Applied sciences

Archives of Electrical Engineering


Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 4 December

Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


This paper considers the feasibility of different technologies for an electromagnetic launcher to assist civil aircraft take-off. This method is investigated to reduce the power required from the engines during initial acceleration. Assisted launch has the potential of reducing the required runway length, reducing noise near airports and improving overall aircraft efficiency through reducing engine thrust requirements. The research compares two possible linear motor topologies which may be efficaciously used for this application. The comparison is made on results from both analytical and finite element analysis (FEA).

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Luca Bertola
Tom Cox
Patrick Wheeler
Seamus Garvey
Herve Morvan
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The proposed paper discusses the design and characterization of a soft miniature Magneto-Rheological (MR) shock absorber. In particular, the final application considered for the insertion of the designed devices is a controllable variable stiffness sole for patients with foot neuropathy. Such application imposes particularly challenging constraints in terms of miniaturization (cross-sectional area ≤ 1.5 cm2, height ≤ 25 mm) and high sustainable loads (normal loads up to 60 N and shear stresses at the foot/device interface up to 80 kPa) while ensuring moderate to low level of power consumption. Initial design considerations are done to introduce and justify the chosen novel configuration of soft shock absorber embedding a MR valve as the core control element. Successively, the dimensioning of two different MR valves typologies is discussed. In particular, for each configuration two design scenarios are evaluated and consequently two sets of valves satisfying different specifications are manufactured. The obtained prototypes result in miniature modules (external diam. ≤ 15 mm, overall height ≤ 30 mm) with low power consumption (from a minimum of 63 mW to a max. of 110 mW) and able to sustain a load up to 65 N. Finally, experimental sessions are performed to test the behaviour of the realized shock absorbers and results are presented.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Daniel Grivon
Yoan Civet
Zoltan Pataky
Yves Perriard
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


This paper presents a numerical modeling method for AC losses in highly dynamic linear actuators with high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes. The AC losses and generated force of two actuators, with different placement of the cryostats, are compared. In these actuators, the main loss component in the superconducting tapes are hysteresis losses, which result from both the non-sinusoidal phase currents and movement of the permanent magnets. The modeling method, based on the H-formulation of the magnetic fields, takes into account permanent magnetization and movement of permanent magnets. Calculated losses as function of the peak phase current of both superconducting actuators are compared to those of an equivalent non-cryogenic actuator.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

B.J.H. de Bruyn
J.W. Jansen
E.A. Lomonova
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


It has been proposed that a novel maglev transport system uses both of the attractive force and thrust force of the Linear Induction Motor (LIM). In our proposal, these two forces will be controlled by two different frequency components. One of the frequency components is synchronous with the motor speed (fm). Another frequency component is drive frequency (fd). Our proposed system enables the independent and simultaneous control of the attractive and thrust force of LIM. Each value of the attractive and the thrust force generated by fm and fd must be identified in order to design that LIM control system. For these purpose, a disc-shaped LIM has been developed as an experimental equipment. The force profiles, especially around zero slip, have been analyzed under experimental conditions.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Toshimitsu Morizane
Keisuke Tsuruya
Noriyuki Kimura
Hideki Omori
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The free piston linear generator is a new range extender concept for the application in a full electric vehicle. The free piston engine driven linear generators can achieve high efficiency at part and full load which is suitable for the range extender application. This paper presents requirements for designing a linear generator deduced from a basic analysis of a free piston linear generator.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Un-Jae Seo
Björn Riemer
Rüdiger Appunn
Kay Hameyer
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


In this paper a cross-shaped isolator consisting of cuboidal magnets and a cylindrical isolator are compared by resonance frequency to volume ratio and shape. Both isolators are capable of obtaining a low resonance frequency, i.e. 0.15 Hz and 0.01 Hz for the cross and cylinder, respectively. The volume of both isolators is comparable, only the shape is different, resulting in a tall structure with a small footprint for the cross and a flat with a large diameter cylindrical structure. A sensitivity analysis shows that due to the large amount of magnets, the cross-shaped isolator is less sensitive to manufacturing tolerances.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

D.T.E.H. Van Casteren
J.J.H. Paulides
E.A. Lomonova
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


This paper focuses on the design and control of an active suspension system, where a tubular linear motor is integrated into a spring damper system of a vehicle. The spring takes up the weight of the vehicle. Therefore the electric linear motor can be designed very compact as it has to provide forces to adjust the damping characteristic only. Design and construction of the active suspension system, a control strategy and validation measurements at a test bench are presented.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Andreas Thul
Daniel Eggers
Björn Riemer
Kay Hameyer
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The drive train of a small scale magnetically levitated train reveals the principles of a mechatronic system and offers challenges related to design, construction and control. Therefore, it is used at the Institute of electrical Machines (IEM) of the RWTH Aachen University as a demonstrator for engineering solutions. Instead of being a part of a static predefined student laboratory, the small scale magnetically levitated train is part of dynamic individual student projects. This approach provides the advantage that the students are directly involved in the engineering process and gain motivation out of their personal ideas becoming reality.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Gregor Glehn
Rüdiger Appunn
Kay Hameyer
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


This paper describes multiple electric field control methods for foil coils in high-voltage coreless linear actuators and their sensitivity to misalignment. The investigated field control methods consist of resistive, refractive, capacitive and geometrical solutions for mitigating electric stress at edges and corners of foil coils. These field control methods are evaluated using 2-D boundary element and finite element methods. A comparison is presented between the field control methods and their ability to mitigate electric stress in coreless linear actuators. Furthermore, the sensitivity to misalignment of the field control methods is investigated.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

T.A. van Beek
J.W. Jansen
E.A. Lomonova
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


In intra-enterprise logistics and automation of manufacturing processes general a rising productivity by high flexibility is required. Existing transportation systems exclusively use two-dimensional track sections, because they can be served with standard drives. Because of these simple structures the transport speed is limited and thereby also the throughput. In this paper now a modular transportation system is presented which could reach higher speeds with a direct drive and the use of centrifugal force compensating curves. Simultaneously the system also can change the altitude. All this succeeds with the integration of three-dimensional track sections. Therefore a two piped guiding system with a long stator linear motor was designed. To combine the linear motor with the three dimensional track special stator elements were developed which allow a bending of the stator to follow the route course. The current work deals with the implementation of a mechanical passive switch, which is operated by the electromagnetic forces of the linear motor. So no additional mechanical actors or a separate electromagnetic system are necessary.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Christoph Löffler
Wolf-Rüdiger Canders
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


This paper evaluates the performance of fractional-slot per pole winding configurations for tubular permanent magnet (PM) machines that can effectively eliminate the most undesirable space harmonics in a simple and cost-effective manner. The benefits of the proposed machine topology winding configurations are illustrated through comparison with 9-slot, 10-pole tubular PM machine developed for a free piston energy converter under the same specification and volumetric constraints. It has been shown that the proposed machine topology results in more than 7 times reduction in the eddy current loss in the mover magnets and supporting tube, and hence avoids potential problem of excessive mover temperature and risk of demagnetization.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Jiabin Wang
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The car access time is a key parameter, especially in a huge stereo-garage, where this one should be decreased as much as possible. This paper proposes a novel stereo-garage. Adopting the linear induction motors (LIMs), the system has a simple structure and rapid response capability. In the stereo-garage, several LIMs are installed below the crossbeam on a lifting platform, and several LIMs are fixed on the top of a moving frame. During the operation of LIMs, the moving frame moves forward and backward to reach the required parking place, whereas the crossbeam moves horizontally in order to take or store the vehicle rapidly. All these LIMs are the same and should be designed at a low frequency. The influences of key structure parameters and dynamic performances are investigated, based on FEM. The predicted results are validated by a prototype. Finally, the designed LIMs are successfully applied in two 8-layer stereo-garages.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Qinfen Lu
Yunyue Ye
Jianxin Shen

Instructions for authors

ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.

Manuscript submission:

All manuscripts should be submitted electronically on Editorial System.

Submission of paper to the Archives of Electrical Engineering is understood to imply that the article is original, unpublished and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. All articles will be reviewed. Since 2013, Authors wishing to use the facility of colour printing should consult the editors.


Microsoft Word is recommended as a standard word processor to prepare the paper to the AEE journal. If you use the LaTex format, please transfer your document to Microsoft Word and then use Template AEE.

While editing your paper, make sure that all the mathematical characters (symbols, identifiers, variables, vectors, axis marks, etc.) have the required shape, thickness, and slant kept throughout the whole article. The same appearance of a given mathematic character must be retained regardless of its place (text, equations, tables or figures).

The articles that don’t conform to the above will not be processed and published.

The reviewing process:

Each paper submitted for publication in Archives of Electrical Engineering is subjected to the following review procedure:

a) the paper is reviewed by the editor in chief or guest editor for general suitability for publication in AEE

b) if it is judged suitable two reviewers are selected and a double blind peer review process takes place

c) based on the recommendations of the reviewers, the editor then decides whether the paper should be accepted in its present form, revised or rejected

d) the author(s) is(are) informed by e-mail on the results of the reviewing procedure.

The papers are published on average within 3 months after acceptance.

Requirements for preparation of manuscripts:

The manuscript submitted for publication should have no less than 12 pages and no more than 16 pages. In the case of the manuscript longer than 16 pages, please contact the AEE Editorial Board before submitting your paper. The manuscripts, written in UK English, should be typed using Template AEE according to the following instructions and should include: a title page with the title of a manuscript, a short title; abstract; key words, text; list of references. A DOI number as well as received and revised data will be completed by Editor. When you open Template.doc, select "Print Layout" from the "View" menu in the menu bar (View > Print Layout). Then type over sections of Template.doc or cut and paste from another document and then use markup styles (Home > Styles). For example, the style at this point in the document is "main text").

All papers submitted for publication are assessed on the basis of the mutual anonymity rule as to the names of reviewers and authors. Authors' names and affiliations should not appear in the attached text/tables/figures.

If English is not your first language, ask an English-speaking colleague to proofread your manuscript. The manuscripts that fail to meet basic standards of literacy are likely to be immediately declined or after the language assessment, sent to the authors for linguistic improvement.

The manuscripts are published on average within 3 months after their acceptance.

Do not change the font sizes or line spacing to squeeze more text into a limited number of pages. Leave some open space around your figures.

The AEE journal publishes an ORCID for all authors. You will need a registered ORCID in order to submit your paper for peer review. ORCID registration is free and only takes a minute. Please note that ORCIDs will be added in the course of the author's proofreads.


The pages must be numbered consecutively. Articles should be divided into numbered sections, and if necessary subsections, preferably: Introduction, Material, Methods, Results, Conclusion and References. Any special characters (e.g. Greek, script, etc.) should be named in the margin where the character first occurs in the text. Names of species are to be accentuated with wavy underlining (italics). Equations should be numbered serially (1), (2), ... on the right side of the page. Footnotes should be avoided, if required, they should be used only for brief notes which do not fit well into the text. Figures and tables have to be included into the text. If table is typed on a separate page its position in the text should be marked. Abbreviations should be explained when they first appear in the text.


Please use the MathML editor as well as MathType editor to build an equation in your manuscript.


Equations should be typed within the text, centred, and should be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Their numbers should be typed in parentheses, flush right. Equations should be referred to in text, e.g. (1), except at the beginning of a sentence: "Equation (1) is ...". All symbols appearing in equations have to be defined in the text, before or just after the equation.

If the symbols are written in Times New Roman use italic fonts. Symbols of vectors and matrices should be written in bold fonts. Do not italicize Greek fonts and mathematical symbols like e.g.: the derivative symbol d, max, min, etc. The indices of symbols that are indices themselves should be written in a clear manner.

Note that the equation is centered using a center tab stop. Please keep the same font in the formulas and text.

Unit Symbols, Abbreviations:

Define abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the text, even after they have been defined in the abstract. Abbreviations such as IEEE, SI, MKS, CGS, sc, dc, and rms do not have to be defined. Do not use abbreviations in the title or heads unless they are unavoidable.

Si units are recommended for use in formulas, drawings and tables., for example the SI unit for magnetic field strength H is A/m. Apply the center dot to separate compound units.

Do not mix complete spellings and abbreviations of units: "Wb/m2" or "webers per square meter," not "webers/m2." Spell units when they appear in text: "...a few henries…", not "...a few H…".

Use a zero before decimal points: "0.25," not ".25." Use "cm3," not "cc."

Unit Symbols, SI Prefixes as well as Abbreviations should be writing in accordance with the IEEE standard

Tables, figures (illustrations) and captions:

The illustrations (line diagrams and photographs) should be suitable for direct reproduction. The lettering as well the details should have proportional dimensions to maintain their legibility after the usual reduction. All illustrations should be numbered consecutively (Fig. X). Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals.

All figures, figure captions, and tables in the text must be inserted into the correct places.

Figures, photos, tables or other parts of a manuscript that have previously appeared in another publication or are not the property of the authors must be properly acknowledged in the manuscript. Permission to republish these items must be obtained by the corresponding author from a person or institution holding the copyright, usually the publisher.

Authors are requested to send all drawings used in the article in additional files. Create a separate file for each image. Images should be submitted in a bitmap format (.jpeg) or/and in a vector format (.eps, .pdf or .cdr). Each file must be saved according to the number in the original article, e.g.: FIG1.JPG, FIG2.EPS, or FIG3.PDF. Bitmap illustrations must be “flattened”, which means no additional layers, for example, covering old descriptions.

Photographs, colour, and greyscale figures should be at least at a resolution of 400 dpi.

All colour figures should be generated in the RGB or CMYK colour space, while greyscale images in the greyscale colour space.

When preparing your figures/graphics etc., we suggest the use of the Arial 8 point font for axis numbers and Arial 9 point font for axis names. Figures/graphics etc. can be prepared in one of two proposed ways - see Template AEE.

Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals. Use 9 point Times New Roman for the title of the table and 9 point Times New Roman for the filling of the table (9 in the case of symbols with subscripts).

AEE journal allows an author to publish color figures in e-version at no charge, and automatically convert them to grayscale for print versions. Authors wishing to use the facility of color printing should consult the editors.


A conclusion might elaborate on the importance of the work or suggest applications and extensions. Although a conclusion may review the main points of the manuscript, do not replicate the abstract as the conclusion.


References in text must be numbered consecutively by Arabic numerals placed in square brackets. Please make sure that you use full names of journals i.e. Archives of Electrical Engineering. Please ensure that all references in the Reference list are cited in the text and vice versa.

Please provide name(s) and initials of author(s), the title of the manuscript, editors (if any), the title of the journal or book, a volume number, the page range, and finally the year of publication in brackets.

You can use the rules presented on the site: IEEE standard.

Examples of the ways in which references should be cited are given below:

Journal manuscript

[1] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of paper, Title of periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).


[1] Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).

[2] Idziak P., Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.

[3] Cardwell W., Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

Conference manuscript

[4] Author A., Title of conference paper, Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Country of Conf., pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).


[4] Popescu M., Staton D.A., Thermal aspects in power traction motors with permanent magnets, Proceedings of XXIII Symposium Electromagnetic Phenomena in Nonlinear Circuits, Pilsen, Czech Republic, pp. 35-36 (2016).

Book, book chapter and manual

[5] Author1 A., Author2 A.B., Title of book, Name of the publisher (YEAR).


[5] Zienkiewicz O., Taylor R.L., Finite Element method, McGraw-Hill Book Company (2000).


[6] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of patent, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).


[6] Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).


[7] Author A., Title of thesis, PhD Thesis, Department, University, City of Univ. (YEAR).


[7] Driesen J., Coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in electrical energy transducers, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Applied Science, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (2000).

For on electronic forms

[8] Author A., Title of article, in Title of Conference, record as it appears on the copyright page], © [applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record] (copyright year), doi: [DOI number].


[8] Kubo M., Yamamoto Y., Kondo T., Rajashekara K., Zhu B., Zero-sequence current suppression for open-end winding induction motor drive with resonant controller,in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), © APEC (2016), doi: 10.1109/APEC.2016.7468259


[9], accessed April 2010.


Authors will receive proofs for correction, which should be returned promptly. All joint contributions must indicate the name and address of the authors to whom proofs should be sent.

Fees for printing the papers in Archives of Electrical Engineering:

AEE is published in Open Access, which means that all articles are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication free of charge for the readers. Authors will be asked to a declaration that they are ready to cover the costs of printing their article.

The fee for the publication of an article in the AEE journal is 200 Euro.

Abstracting & Indexing:

Archives of Electrical Engineering is covered by the following services:

  • Arianta
  • Baidu Scholar
  • BazTech
  • Celdes
  • CNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastucture)
  • DOAJ
  • EBSCO - TOC Premie
  • EBSCO (relevant databases)
  • EBSCO Discovery Service
  • Elsevier - Compendex
  • Elsevier - Engineering Village
  • Elsevier - SCOPUS
  • Genamics JournalSeek
  • Google Scholar
  • ICI Journals Master List
  • Inspec
  • J-Gate
  • Naviga (Softweco)
  • POL-Index
  • Primo Central (ExLibris)
  • ProQuest - Advanced Technologies Database with Aerospace
  • ProQuest - Electronics and Communications Abstracts
  • ProQuest - Engineering Journals
  • ProQuest - High Tech Research Database
  • ProQuest - Illustrata: Technology
  • ProQuest - SciTech Journals
  • ProQuest - Technology Journals
  • ProQuest - Technology Research Database
  • SCImago (SJR)
  • Summon (Serials Solutions/ProQuest)
  • TDOne (TDNet)
  • TEMA Technik und Management
  • Thomson Reuters - Emerging Sources Citation Index
  • Ulrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb
  • WorldCat (OCLC)

Preparation of manuscript for Archives of Electrical Engineering (AEE)

AEE License to publish

This page uses 'cookies'. Learn more