Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 2 June
| 177-187
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0015

Słowa kluczowe:
contactless energy transmission
electromagnetic guiding system
equivalent circuit model
ferromagnetic material at high frequency
magnetically levitated elevator
modelling of non-linear losses

A contactless energy transmission system is essential to supply onboard systems of electromagnetically levitated vehicles without physical contact to the guide rail. One of the possibilities to realise a contactless power supply (CPS) is by integrating the primary actuator into the guide rail of an electromagnetic guiding system (MGS). The secondary actuator is mounted on the elevator car. During the energy transmission, load dependent non-linear losses occur in the guide rail. The additional losses, which are caused by the leakage flux penetrating into the guide rail, cannot be modelled using the classical approach of iron losses in the equivalent circuit of a transformer, which is a constant parallel resistance to the mutual inductance. This paper introduces an approach for modelling the load dependent non-linear losses occurring in the guide rail using additional variable discrete circuit elements.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 2 June
| 189-196
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0016

Słowa kluczowe:
hydrogen
fuel cells
energy storage

The application of renewable energy sources poses the problems connected with output volatility. In order to decrease this effect the energy storage technologies can be applied, particularly fuel cells connected with hydrogen storage. In this paper the application of SOFC system for a household in Poland is proposed. Economic and technical analysis is performed. It was found that the proposed installation is profitable after 25 years of operation when compared with conventional solution - heat pumps and gas-fired boilers.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 2 June
| 197-214
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0017

Słowa kluczowe:
Dowell’s equation
eddy currents
FEM
inductors
optimization
proximity effect
skin effect
thermal effects
winding losses

The aim of this paper is to derive an analytical equations for the temperature dependent optimum winding size of inductors conducting high frequency ac sinusoidal currents. Derived analytical equations are useful designing tool for research and development engineers because windings made of foil, square-wire, and solid-round-wire windings are considered. Temperature dependent Dowell’s equation for the ac-to-dc winding resistance ratio is given and approximated. Thermally dependent analytical equations for the optimum foil thickness, as well as valley thickness and diameter of the square-wire and solid-round-wire windings are derived from approximated thermally dependent ac-to-dc winding resistance ratios. Minimum winding ac resistance of the foil winding and local minimum of the winding ac resistance of the solid-round-wire winding are verified with Maxwell 3D Finite Element Method simulations.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 2 June
| 215-226
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0018

Słowa kluczowe:
coupled model
eddy currents
finite element method
magnetostriction
stress wave

The coupling of the propagating stress wave with the eddy current model is presented. The applied stress produces magnetization in the sample that can be measured outside the sample by measuring the resulting magnetic flux density. The stress and flux density measurements are made on a mechanically excited steel bar. The problem is modelled with the finite element method for both the propagating wave and the eddy current. Three aspects are considered: eddy current model using magnetization from the measurements, coupled wave and eddy current models, and coupled different dimensions in the wave model. The measured stress can be reproduced from the measured flux density by modelling. The coupled models work both for stress and flux couplings as well as for the different dimensionality couplings.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 2 June
| 227-236
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0019

Słowa kluczowe:
power line
catenary
vector potential
overhead circuit
induced voltage
mutual inductance

The study presents a calculation method of the voltage induced by power-line sagged conductor in an inductively coupled overhead circuit of arbitrary configuration isolated from ground. The method bases on the solution utilizing the magnetic vector potential for modeling 3D magnetic fields produced by sagging conductors of catenary electric power lines. It is assumed that the equation of the catenary exactly describes the line sag and the influence of currents induced in the earth on the distribution of power line magnetic field is neglected. The method derived is illustrated by exemplary calculations and the results obtained are partially compared with results computed by optional approach.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 2 June
| 237-248
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0020

Słowa kluczowe:
bad data
branch disconnection measurement errors
particle filter
power system
state estimation

An approach to power system state estimation using a particle filter has been proposed in the paper. Two problems have been taken into account during research, namely bad measurements data and a network structure modification with rapid changes of the state variables. For each case the modification of the algorithm has been proposed. It has also been observed that anti-zero bias modification has a very positive influence on the obtained results (few orders of magnitude, in comparison to the standard particle filter), and additional calculations are quite symbolic. In the second problem, used modification also improved estimation quality of the state variables. The obtained results have been compared to the extended Kalman filter method.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 2 June
| 249-257
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0021

Słowa kluczowe:
Arc welding
double-bridge rectifier
leakage inductance
three-winding transformer
transformer equivalent circuit

The new topology of three-winding welding transformer is proposed. Each secondary winding is connected in parallel through the separate bridge rectifier to the welding arc. The main feature of the proposed device is parallel working of two secondary windings with different rated voltage. The advantage is nonlinear transformation ratio of current that provides unprecedented power efficiency. The self- and mutual leakage inductances, which are important in power conversion, are calculated by 2D FEA model. The operational current of the device is modelled numerically via P-Spice simulator. The proposed topology is up to 30% more power effective than conventional welding transformer provided that the leakage inductances of primary and secondary windings are correctly fitted. This transformer is used for manual arc welding.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 2 June
| 259-275
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0022

Słowa kluczowe:
shunt active power filter
active current
indirect control method
instantaneous compensation
load equivalent conductance
energy flow control

This paper presents a load equivalent conductance based control method for a shunt active power filter. The principle of energy balance in the circuit, which means between supplying source - active filter - load, is used to obtain the control formula. The natural inertia of the active filter action is exploited, so no PI regulators are needed. The active filter can compensate for non-active current and, additionally, can stabilise the supplying source active power. In a case of generating loads energy harvesting is possible. The presented method is useful as well for voltage-source as current-source inverter based active filters, and for DC system as well as for AC single- or three-phase one.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 2 June
| 277-289
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0023

Słowa kluczowe:
Hamiltonian model
simplicial approximation
reluctance machine
triangulation refinement

The paper presents an algorithm for the construction of an approximation of a highly nonlinear current-flux characteristic of a synchronous reluctance machine. Such an approximation is required in a Hamiltonian model of an electric machine and the constructed approximation is suited to be used in such a model. It employs a simplicial approximation based on irregular points sets in the spaces of currents and fluxes. The sets are constructed by the iterative insertion of new points. Initially the sets contain an arbitrarily small number of elements. The insertion is based on an approximation error calculation. Based on the sets containing possibly small number of elements, the proposed procedure leads to smooth and precise approximation. Due to the nonlinearity of the approximated characteristics, ambiguities can occur. A method for the triangulation refinement of the sets of currents and fluxes that eliminates them is also presented. In the paper, a reluctance machine model using the constructed approximation is described and compared with a model using the approximation based on regular sets.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 2 June
| 291-314
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0024

Słowa kluczowe:
hybrid system
photovoltaic
FLC
permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG)
ANN-GA

In this paper, dynamic response improvement of the grid connected hybrid system comprising of the wind power generation system (WPGS) and the photovoltaic (PV) are investigated under some critical circumstances. In order to maximize the output of solar arrays, a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique is presented. In this paper, an intelligent control technique using the artificial neural network (ANN) and the genetic algorithm (GA) are proposed to control the MPPT for a PV system under varying irradiation and temperature conditions. The ANN-GA control method is compared with the perturb and observe (P&O), the incremental conductance (IC) and the fuzzy logic methods. In other words, the data is optimized by GA and then, these optimum values are used in ANN. The results are indicated the ANN-GA is better and more reliable method in comparison with the conventional algorithms. The allocation of a pitch angle strategy based on the fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and comparison with conventional PI controller in high rated wind speed areas are carried out. Moreover, the pitch angle based on FLC with the wind speed and active power as the inputs can have faster response that lead to smoother power curves, improving the dynamic performance of the wind turbine and prevent the mechanical fatigues of the generator.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 2 June
| 315-331
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0025

Słowa kluczowe:
LTV
parametric section
LTV connection
parallel connection
cascade connection

Effective algorithms of constructing models of generalized parametric sections of the n-th order consisting of cascade and parallel elementary LTV section connections are presented in this paper. Moreover, the methods of impulse responses determination have been shown.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 2 June
| 333-346
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0026

Słowa kluczowe:
condition-based maintenance
winding deformation
leakage inductance
partial least squares regression

The detection of transformer winding deformation caused by short-circuit current is of great significance to the realization of condition based maintenance. Considering the influence of environment and measurement errors, an online deformation detection method is proposed based on the analysis of leakage inductance changes. First, the operation expressions are derived on the basis of the equivalent circuit and the leakage inductance parameters are identified by the partial least squares regression algorithm. Second, the amount of the leakage inductance samples in a detection time window is determined using the Monte Carlo simulation thought, and then the samples in the confidence interval are obtained. Last, a criteria is built by the mean value changes of the leakage inductance samples and the winding deformation is detected. The online detection method considers the random fluctuation characteristics of the leakage inductance samples, adjust the threshold value automatically, and can quantify the change range to assess the severity. Based on the field data, the distribution of the leakage inductance samples is analyzed to obey the normal function approximately. Three deformation experiments are done by different sub-winding connections and the detection results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

**ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE)** (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.

**Manuscript submission: **

All manuscripts should be submitted electronically on Editorial System.

Submission of paper to the *Archives of Electrical Engineering* is understood to imply that the article is original, unpublished and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. All articles will be reviewed. Since 2013, Authors wishing to use the facility of colour printing should consult the editors.

**Template: **

Microsoft Word is recommended as a standard word processor to prepare the paper to the AEE journal. If you use the LaTex format, please transfer your document to Microsoft Word and then use Template AEE.

While editing your paper, make sure that all the mathematical characters (symbols, identifiers, variables, vectors, axis marks, etc.) have the required shape, thickness, and slant kept throughout the whole article. The same appearance of a given mathematic character must be retained regardless of its place (text, equations, tables or figures).

The articles that don’t conform to the above will not be processed and published.

**The reviewing process:**

Each paper submitted for publication in Archives of Electrical Engineering is subjected to the following review procedure:

a) the paper is reviewed by the editor in chief or guest editor for general suitability for publication in AEE

b) if it is judged suitable two reviewers are selected and a double blind peer review process takes place

c) based on the recommendations of the reviewers, the editor then decides whether the paper should be accepted in its present form, revised or rejected

d) the author(s) is(are) informed by e-mail on the results of the reviewing procedure.

The papers are published on average within 3 months after acceptance.

**Requirements for preparation of manuscripts:**

The manuscript submitted for publication should have no less than 12 pages and no more than 16 pages. In the case of the manuscript longer than 16 pages, please contact the AEE Editorial Board before submitting your paper. The manuscripts, written in UK English, should be typed using Template AEE according to the following instructions and should include: a title page with the title of a manuscript, a short title; abstract; key words, text; list of references. A DOI number as well as received and revised data will be completed by Editor. When you open Template.doc, select "Print Layout" from the "View" menu in the menu bar (View > Print Layout). Then type over sections of Template.doc or cut and paste from another document and then use markup styles (Home > Styles). For example, the style at this point in the document is "main text").

All papers submitted for publication are assessed on the basis of the mutual anonymity rule as to the names of reviewers and authors. Authors' names and affiliations should not appear in the attached text/tables/figures.

If English is not your first language, ask an English-speaking colleague to proofread your manuscript. The manuscripts that fail to meet basic standards of literacy are likely to be immediately declined or after the language assessment, sent to the authors for linguistic improvement.

The manuscripts are published on average within 3 months after their acceptance.

__Do not change the font sizes or line spacing to squeeze more text into a limited number of pages. Leave some open space around your figures. __

The AEE journal publishes an ORCID for all authors. You will need a registered ORCID in order to submit your paper for peer review. ORCID registration is free and only takes a minute. Please note that ORCIDs will be added in the course of the author's proofreads.

**Text: **

The pages must be numbered consecutively. Articles should be divided into numbered sections, and if necessary subsections, preferably: Introduction, Material, Methods, Results, Conclusion and References. Any special characters (e.g. Greek, script, etc.) should be named in the margin where the character first occurs in the text. Names of species are to be accentuated with wavy underlining (italics). Equations should be numbered serially (1), (2), ... on the right side of the page. Footnotes should be avoided, if required, they should be used only for brief notes which do not fit well into the text. Figures and tables have to be included into the text. If table is typed on a separate page its position in the text should be marked. Abbreviations should be explained when they first appear in the text.

**Math: **

Please use the *MathML *editor as well as *MathType* editor to build an equation in your manuscript.

**Equations: **

Equations should be typed within the text, centred, and should be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Their numbers should be typed in parentheses, flush right. Equations should be referred to in text, e.g. (1), except at the beginning of a sentence: "Equation (1) is ...". All symbols appearing in equations have to be defined in the text, before or just after the equation.

If the symbols are written in Times New Roman use *italic fonts*. Symbols of **vectors** and **matrices** should be written in **bold** **fonts**. Do not italicize Greek fonts and mathematical symbols like e.g.: the derivative symbol d, max, min, etc. The indices of symbols that are indices themselves should be written in a clear manner.

Note that the equation is centered using a center tab stop. Please keep the same font in the formulas and text.

**Unit Symbols, Abbreviations: **

Define abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the text, even after they have been defined in the abstract. Abbreviations such as IEEE, SI, MKS, CGS, sc, dc, and rms do not have to be defined. Do not use abbreviations in the title or heads unless they are unavoidable.

Si units are recommended for use in formulas, drawings and tables., for example the SI unit for magnetic field strength *H* is A/m. Apply the center dot to separate compound units.

Do not mix complete spellings and abbreviations of units: "Wb/m2" or "webers per square meter," not "webers/m2." Spell units when they appear in text: "...a few henries…", not "...a few H…".

Use a zero before decimal points: "0.25," not ".25." Use "cm3," not "cc."

__Unit Symbols, SI Prefixes as well as Abbreviations should be writing in accordance with the__ IEEE standard

**Tables, figures (illustrations) and captions: **

The illustrations (line diagrams and photographs) should be suitable for direct reproduction. The lettering as well the details should have proportional dimensions to maintain their legibility after the usual reduction. All illustrations should be numbered consecutively (Fig. X). Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals.

All figures, figure captions, and tables in the text must be inserted into the correct places.

Figures, photos, tables or other parts of a manuscript that have previously appeared in another publication or are not the property of the authors must be properly acknowledged in the manuscript. Permission to republish these items must be obtained by the corresponding author from a person or institution holding the copyright, usually the publisher.

Authors are requested to send figures (diagrams, line drawings and photographic images) in separate computer files. JPG, PNG or TIF are the recommended file formats. Photographs, colour and greyscale figures should be at least at a resolution of 400dpi. Linear, including tables should be at a minimum of 600dpi.

All colour figures should be generated in the RGB or CMYK colour space, while greyscale images in the greyscale colour space.

When preparing your figures/graphics etc., we suggest the use of the Arial 8 point font for axis numbers and Arial 9 point font for axis names. Figures/graphics etc. can be prepared in one of two proposed ways - see Template AEE.

Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals. Use 9 point Times New Roman for the title of the table and 9 point Times New Roman for the filling of the table (9 in the case of symbols with subscripts).

AEE journal allows an author to publish color figures in e-version at no charge, and automatically convert them to grayscale for print versions. Authors wishing to use the facility of color printing should consult the editors.

**Conclusions: **

A conclusion might elaborate on the importance of the work or suggest applications and extensions. Although a conclusion may review the main points of the manuscript, do not replicate the abstract as the conclusion.

**References: **

References in text must be numbered consecutively by Arabic numerals placed in square brackets. Please make sure that you use full names of journals i.e. Archives of Electrical Engineering. Please ensure that all references in the Reference list are cited in the text and vice versa.

Please provide name(s) and initials of author(s), the title of the manuscript, editors (if any), the title of the journal or book, a volume number, the page range, and finally the year of publication in brackets.

__You can use the rules presented on the site:__ IEEE standard.

__Examples of the ways in which references should be cited are given below:__

**Journal manuscript**

[1] Author1 A., Author2 A., *Title of paper*, Title of periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).

*example*

[1] Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., *Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines*, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).

[2] Idziak P., *Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor*, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.

[3] Cardwell W., *Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor*, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

**Conference manuscript**

[4] Author A., *Title of conference paper*, Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Country of Conf., pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).

*example*

[4] Popescu M., Staton D.A., *Thermal aspects in power traction motors with permanent magnets*, Proceedings of XXIII Symposium Electromagnetic Phenomena in Nonlinear Circuits, Pilsen, Czech Republic, pp. 35-36 (2016).

*Book, book chapter and manual*

[5] Author1 A., Author2 A.B., *Title of book*, Name of the publisher (YEAR).

*example*

[5] Zienkiewicz O., Taylor R.L., *Finite Element method*, McGraw-Hill Book Company (2000).

**Patent **

[6] Author1 A., Author2 A., *Title of patent*, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).

*example*

[6] Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).

**Thesis**

[7] Author A., *Title of thesis*, PhD Thesis, Department, University, City of Univ. (YEAR).

*example*

[7] Driesen J., *Coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in electrical energy transducers*, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Applied Science, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (2000).

**For on electronic forms**

[8] Author A.,* Title of article*, in Title of Conference, record as it appears on the copyright page], © [applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record] (copyright year), doi: [DOI number].

*example*

[8] Kubo M., Yamamoto Y., Kondo T., Rajashekara K., Zhu B., *Zero-sequence current suppression for open-end winding induction motor drive with resonant controller,*in IEE*E* Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), © APEC (2016), doi: 10.1109/APEC.2016.7468259

**Website**

[9] http://www.aee.put.poznan.pl, accessed April 2010.

**Proofs**:

Authors will receive proofs for correction, which should be returned promptly. All joint contributions must indicate the name and address of the authors to whom proofs should be sent.

**Fees for printing the papers in Archives of Electrical Engineering: **

AEE is published in Open Access, which means that all articles are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication free of charge for the readers. Authors will be asked to a declaration that they are ready to cover the costs of printing their article.

__The fee for the publication of an article in the AEE journal is 200 Euro. __

**Abstracting & Indexing: **

Archives of Electrical Engineering is covered by the following services:

- Arianta
- Baidu Scholar
- BazTech
- Celdes
- CNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastucture)
- CNPIEC
- DOAJ
- EBSCO - TOC Premie
- EBSCO (relevant databases)
- EBSCO Discovery Service
- Elsevier - Compendex
- Elsevier - Engineering Village
- Elsevier - SCOPUS
- Genamics JournalSeek
- Google Scholar
- ICI Journals Master List
- Inspec
- J-Gate
- Naviga (Softweco)
- POL-Index
- Primo Central (ExLibris)
- ProQuest - Advanced Technologies Database with Aerospace
- ProQuest - Electronics and Communications Abstracts
- ProQuest - Engineering Journals
- ProQuest - High Tech Research Database
- ProQuest - Illustrata: Technology
- ProQuest - SciTech Journals
- ProQuest - Technology Journals
- ProQuest - Technology Research Database
- SCImago (SJR)
- Summon (Serials Solutions/ProQuest)
- TDOne (TDNet)
- TEMA Technik und Management
- Thomson Reuters - Emerging Sources Citation Index
- Ulrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb
- WorldCat (OCLC)

Preparation of manuscript for Archives of Electrical Engineering (AEE)