Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 1 March
| 7-15
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0002

Słowa kluczowe:
asynchronized machine
condenser
doubly-fed machine
reactive power
vector control

Asynchronized (doubly-fed) machines with two (three) excitating winding and reversing excitation system allow to control vector of magnetomotive force. This solution allows separating regulation of the electromagnetic torque (active power) and voltage (reactive power). This paper describes the experience in the development and operation of asynchronized turbogenerators and condensers.

3
On parameters determination of multi-port equivalent scheme for multi-winding traction transformers

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 1 March
| 17-27
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0003

Słowa kluczowe:
multi-winding transformer
equivalent scheme
multi-port circuit
traction transformers

This paper aims to present a new equivalent scheme of multi-windings traction transformers, based on multiport purely inductive circuit. The mathematical background of this equivalent scheme is described. The determination of the different scheme elements is made through a finite-elements calculation of both main and leakage inductances, for the case of a four-winding transformer. A procedure is defined, which allows to estimate the values of these elements from some measurements on the transformer at no-load and short-circuit operations. A specific strategy of short-circuit tests is described, allowing to determine all parameters in a rather simple way.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 1 March
| 29-35
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0004

Słowa kluczowe:
DC motor
diagnostic investigations
FFT
Bayes classifier

In this article results of diagnostic investigations of separately excited DC motor were presented. In diagnostics were applied a Fourier analysis method based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and a recognition method using Bayes classifier. In training process a set of the most important frequencies has been determined for which differences of corresponding signals in two states are the largest. Three categories of signals have been recognized in identification process: faultless state, state of the rotor broken one coil and state of the rotor shorted three coils

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 1 March
| 37-51
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0005

Słowa kluczowe:
PM machines
FEM analysis
experimental results
control strategy
field control capability
efficiency maps

The paper presents selected simulation and experimental results of a hybrid ECPMS-machine (Electric Controlled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine). This permanent magnets (PMs) excited machine offers an extended magnetic field control capability which makes it suitable for battery electric vehicle (BEV) drives. Rotor, stator and the additional direct current control coil of the machine are analyzed in detail. The control system and strategy, the diagram of power supply system and an equivalent circuit model of the ECPMS-machine are presented. Influence of the additional excitation on the performance parameters of the machine, such as: torque, efficiency, speed limits and back-EMF have also been discussed.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 1 March
| 53-66
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0006

Słowa kluczowe:
brushless DC motor
double stator winding
harmonics of back EMF

In this paper the mathematical model of the brushless DC motor (BLDCM) with a double 3-phase stator winding is analysed. Both the 3-phase windings are mutually displaced by 30 electrical degree. Special care has been sacrificed to influence of higher harmonics of induced electromotive forces (EMF) on electromagnetic torque and zero sequence voltages that may be used for sensorless control. The mathematical model has been presented in natural variables and, after transformation to symmetrical components, in a vector form. This allows, from one side, for formulating the equivalent circuit suitable for circuit oriented simulators (e.g.: Spice, SimPowerSystems of Simulink) and, from the other point of view, for analysis of higher harmonics influence on control possibilities. These considerations have been illustrated with some results of four quadrant operation obtainded due to simulation at automatic control.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 1 March
| 67-79
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0007

Słowa kluczowe:
induction motor
shorted turns
scalar control
vector control DFOC

This paper deals with detection of the stator windings shorted turns in an induction motor drive working under open (scalar) and closed loop (Direct Field Oriented DFO) control structures. In order to detect the early stage of stator winding fault, the analysis of symmetrical and principal components of stator voltages and currents is used. Experimental results obtained from a specially prepared induction motor are presented.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 1 March
| 81-88
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0008

Słowa kluczowe:
anisotropic properties
dynamo steel sheet
magnetization process
rotational magnetization

Magnetic measurements, carried out by means of the Epstein frame, have shown that most typical dynamo steel sheets have certain anisotropic properties. In numerical analysis, anisotropic properties are taken into account with the use of the special function of the grain distribution in the given dynamo sheet. For engineering purposes, it is desirable to assess the influence of these properties on the changes of the magnetic flux density in typical dynamo steel sheets, especially during the rotational magnetization. For this purpose, measurements of the flux density changes and field strength changes in the circular-shaped samples of two selected typical dynamo sheets were performed. These measurements were carried out for several values of the current flowing in windings which generated the axial or rotational magnetic field in the test dynamo sheet. The influence of the magnetic anisotropy on the magnetization process was briefly discussed for both types of the magnetization processes.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 1 March
| 89-105
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0009

Słowa kluczowe:
Dual Channel Switched Reluctance Motors
DCSRM
mathematical model
SRM

The paper is a presentation of an analysis concerning performance of a 12/8 dual-channel switched reluctance motor (DCSRM). Formulas constituting a base for a non-linear mathematical model of DCSRM are presented. Simulation and laboratory tests were carried out for the motor operating in the dual-channel and single-channel mode. The results of the field theory-based calculations are presented in the form of fluxes in individual phases expressed as functions of currents and a rotor position angle. The results of the computer simulations are shown as the static characteristics of fluxes and the torque as well as voltage, current, and torque waveforms. The results of the laboratory tests are also presented.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 1 March
| 107-117
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0010

Słowa kluczowe:
hybrid excitation
magnetic equivalent circuit
synchronous machine

Lately, there has been increased interest in hybrid excitation electrical machines. Hybrid excitation is a construction that combines permanent magnet excitation with wound field excitation. Within the general classification, these machines can be classified as modified synchronous machines or inductor machines. These machines may be applied as motors and generators. The complexity of electromagnetic phenomena which occur as a result of coupling of magnetic fluxes of separate excitation systems with perpendicular magnetic axis is a motivation to formulate various mathematical models of these machines. The presented paper discusses the construction of a unipolar hybrid excitation synchronous machine. The magnetic equivalent circuit model including nonlinear magnetization curves is presented. Based on this model, it is possible to determine the multi-parameter relationships between the induced voltage and magnetomotive force in the excitation winding. Particular attention has been paid to the analysis of the impact of additional stator and rotor yokes on above relationship. Induced voltage determines the remaining operating parameters of the machine, both in the motor and generator mode of operation. The analysis of chosen correlations results in an identification of the effective control range of electromotive force of the machine.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 1 March
| 119-127
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0011

Słowa kluczowe:
3D field analysis
temperature calculation
eddy current losses
measurement tests

The calculations results of the temperature distribution in a 3-phase transformer with modular amorphous core are presented. They were performed for two frequency values which were higher than the power system one. For the 3D field analyses the Finite Element Method (FEM) was used. The calculated temperature at the points of the core surface has been verified using an infrared camera.

12
Multi-harmonic approach to determine load dependent local flux variations in power transformer cores

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 1 March
| 129-138
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0012

Słowa kluczowe:
flux distribution
local flux variations
multi-harmonic FEM
nonlinear FEM
power transformer

This paper presents a methodology for the calculation of the flux distribution in power transformer cores considering nonlinear material, with reduced computational effort. The calculation is based on a weak coupled multi-harmonic approach. The methodology can be applied to 2D and 3D Finite Element models. The decrease of the computational effort for the proposed approach is >90% compared to a time-stepping method at comparable accuracy. Furthermore, the approach offers a possibility for parallelisation to reduce the overall simulation time. The speed up of the parallelised simulations is nearly linear. The methodology is applied to a single-phase and a three-phase power transformer. Exemplary, the flux distribution for a capacitive load case is determined and the differences in the flux distribution obtained by a 2D and 3D FE model are pointed out. Deviations are significant, due to the fact, that the 2D FE model underestimates the stray fluxes. It is shown, that a 3D FE model of the transformer is required, if the nonlinearity of the core material has to be taken into account.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 1 March
| 139-155
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0013

Słowa kluczowe:
hybrid power system
optimal sizing
cost analysis
renewable energy sources
net present cost
levelised cost of energy
HOMER

This paper presents the optimal sizing of PV/Wind/Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Energy System for energizing a Small Scale Industrial Application or a village domestic load of 200 kW. HOMER software is used for simulation of the complete system. The solar radiation data and wind speed data used in this paper are for the place of Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India which is located 11.0183° N longitude and 76.9725° E latitude. The optimized sizes of components of Hybrid Power System (HPS) are found based on Levelised Cost of Energy (LCE) and total Net Present Cost (NPC). The results are presented and compared for five different combinations of HPS components. Suggestions are also presented to choose the low cost system which produces energy at low LCE.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 1 March
| 157-172
| DOI: 10.1515/aee-2015-0014

Słowa kluczowe:
transformer
three-phase
modeling
EMTP
microwaves
power supply

This original paper deals with a new approach for the study of behavior in nonlinear regime of a new three-phase high voltage power supply for magnetrons, used for the microwave generators in industrial applications. The design of this system is composed of a new three-phase leakage flux transformer supplying by phase a cell, composed of a capacitor and a diode, which multiplies the voltage and stabilizes the current. Each cell. in turn, supplies a single magnetron. An equivalent model of this transformer is developed taking into account the saturation phenomenon and the stabilization process of each magnetron. Each inductance of the model is characterized by a non linear relation between flux and current. This model was tested by EMTP software near the nominal state. The theoretical results were compared to experimental measurements with a good agreement. Relative to the current device, the new systemprovides gains of size, volume, cost of implementation and maintenance which make it more economical.

**ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE)** (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.

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[2] Idziak P., *Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor*, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.

[3] Cardwell W., *Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor*, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

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[6] Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).

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Preparation of manuscript for Archives of Electrical Engineering (AEE)