Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2010 | vol. 59 | No 3 - 4 December
| 113-120
| DOI: 10.2478/s10171-010-0009-9

Słowa kluczowe:
numerical modelling
asynchronous motors
diagnostics
object oriented programming tools

Description of program tools simplifying simulation applications building
for physical phenomenons described by differential equations in state
equations form modeling is presented in the paper. A method for using
prepared libraries for squirrel-cage motors including any motor damages
modeling had been described. For that purpose, squirrel-cage motor
mathematical model in natural coordinates system had been presented.
Presented solutions provide also supply sources (inverters) modeling,
including their microprocessor implementation and other phenomenons, that
assume state equation structure step changes, depending on variable
limitations and time value.

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2
WAMS - based control of series FACTS devices installed in tie-lines of interconnected power system

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2010 | vol. 59 | No 3 - 4 December
| 121-140
| DOI: 10.2478/s10171-010-0010-3

Słowa kluczowe:
power system control
transient stability
FACTS
WAMS

This paper addresses the state-variable stabilising control of the power
system using such series FACTS devices as TCPAR installed in the tie-line
connecting control areas in an interconnected power system. This
stabilising control is activated in the transient state and is
supplementary with respect to the main steady-state control designed for
power flow regulation. Stabilising control laws, proposed in this paper,
have been derived for a linear multi-machine system model using direct
Lyapunov method with the aim to maximise the rate of energy dissipation
during power swings and therefore maximisation their damping. The proposed
control strategy is executed by a multi-loop controller with frequency
deviations in all control areas used as the input signals. Validity of the
proposed state-variable control has been confirmed by modal analysis and
by computer simulation for a multi-machine test system.

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Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2010 | vol. 59 | No 3 - 4 December
| 141-152
| DOI: 10.2478/s10171-010-0011-2

In this paper, the power factor correction system consisted of: bridge
converter, parallel resonant circuit, high frequency transformer, diode
rectifier and LFCF filter is presented. This system is controlled by a
pulse density modulation method and the principle of its operation is
based on the boost technique. The modeling approach is illustrated by an
example using AC/HF/DC converter. Verification of the derived model is
provided, which demonstrated the validity of the proposed approach.

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Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2010 | vol. 59 | No 3 - 4 December
| 153-167
| DOI: 10.2478/s10171-010-0012-1

Słowa kluczowe:
safety management process
expert system
Bayesian network
total probability
protection reliability states
appearance of touch and electric shock states
risk analysis and assessment

The article describes a shock safety modeling method for low-voltage
electric devices, based on using a Bayesian network. This method allows
for taking into account all possible combinations of the reliability and
unreliability states for the shock protection elements under concern. The
developed method allows for investigating electric shock incidents,
analysing and assessing shock risks, as well as for determining criteria
of dimensioning shock protection means, also with respect to reliability
of the particular shock protection elements. Dependencies for determining
and analysing the probability of appearance of reliability states of
protection as well as an electric shock risk are presented in the article.

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Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2010 | vol. 59 | No 3 - 4 December
| 169-176
| DOI: 10.2478/s10171-010-0013-0

Słowa kluczowe:
magnetic laminations
power losses
PWM voltage

Author presents an analytical method of calculation of unit power losses
in magnetic laminations used in electrical machines and transformers. The
idea of this method, based on the solution of Maxwell's equations in the
lamination material, was described by the author in the previous work [3],
taking into account approximation of constitutive static hysteresis loop
by elliptic form of the function B = f(H) depending on magnetic
saturation. In the previous formula for new isotropic and anisotropic
materials it is needed to introduce so called "anomaly coefficient"
deduced from the comparison of measured and calculated value of power
losses in arbitrary excitation frequency for assumed induction. The method
was tested by comparison with the results of experiments presented in
commercial catalogues [1, 2]. Assuming superposition of harmonic power
losses it is possible to enlarge this method for the estimation of
overloss coefficient in dynamo sheet during axial magnetization with
nonsinusoidal flux generated e.g. by PWM voltage supply.

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Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2010 | vol. 59 | No 3 - 4 December
| 177-188
| DOI: 10.2478/s10171-010-0014-z

Słowa kluczowe:
lightning
corona sheath
return stroke model
continuity equation

A role of radial corona current in a lightning discharge is discussed in
the paper. It is shown that the corona current concept previously
introduced by Cooray for lightning return stroke models of
distributed-current-source (DCS) type, and later, by Maslowski and Rakov
for lumped-current-source (LCS) type models enables to show duality
between these two types of models. Further, it is demonstrated that the
corona current is useful during consideration of dynamics of the
lightning-channel corona sheath. As an example of application of presented
approach a relaxation model of charge motion in the corona sheath is
analysed together with plots which show the rate of expansion and
shrinkage of the lightning corona sheath on both microsecond and
millisecond time scales.

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Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2010 | vol. 59 | No 3 - 4 December
| 189-201
| DOI: 10.2478/s10171-010-0015-y

Słowa kluczowe:
co-simulation
electrical drives
electromagnetic systems
mathematical modelling
finite element method

This work presents the co-simulation approach to the analysis of control
systems containing detailed models of electromagnetic and
electromechanical converters. In this method of analysis the attention is
paid to the whole system and not only to its electromagnetic part. The
latter is described by equations resulted from the two-dimensional finite
element discretisation of the Maxwell equations, and is coupled weakly
with the remaining part of the system. The simulation is carried out in
Matlab/Simulink environment wherein the coupling is realised through the
S-function. Example results regarding simulation of the operation of the
control system of an electrical machine and the operation of a power
electronic converter are presented and compared with available reference
data.

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Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2010 | vol. 59 | No 3 - 4 December
| 203-216
| DOI: 10.2478/s10171-010-0016-x

Słowa kluczowe:
inverse system
linear system
positive system
reachability
stability

The concept of inverse systems for standard and positive linear systems
is introduced. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of
the positive inverse system for continuous-time and discrete-time linear
systems are established. It is shown that: 1) The inverse system of
continuous-time linear system is asymptotically stable if and only if the
standard system is asymptotically stable. 2) The inverse system of
discrete-time linear system is asymptotically stable if and only if the
standard system is unstable. 3) The inverse system of continuous-time and
discrete-time linear systems are reachable if and only if the standard
systems are reachable. The considerations are illustrated by numerical
examples.

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