A contactless energy transmission system is essential to supply onboard systems of electromagnetically levitated vehicles without physical contact to the guide rail. One of the possibilities to realise a contactless power supply (CPS) is by integrating the primary actuator into the guide rail of an electromagnetic guiding system (MGS). The secondary actuator is mounted on the elevator car. During the energy transmission, load dependent non-linear losses occur in the guide rail. The additional losses, which are caused by the leakage flux penetrating into the guide rail, cannot be modelled using the classical approach of iron losses in the equivalent circuit of a transformer, which is a constant parallel resistance to the mutual inductance. This paper introduces an approach for modelling the load dependent non-linear losses occurring in the guide rail using additional variable discrete circuit elements.
The application of renewable energy sources poses the problems connected with output volatility. In order to decrease this effect the energy storage technologies can be applied, particularly fuel cells connected with hydrogen storage. In this paper the application of SOFC system for a household in Poland is proposed. Economic and technical analysis is performed. It was found that the proposed installation is profitable after 25 years of operation when compared with conventional solution - heat pumps and gas-fired boilers.
The aim of this paper is to derive an analytical equations for the temperature dependent optimum winding size of inductors conducting high frequency ac sinusoidal currents. Derived analytical equations are useful designing tool for research and development engineers because windings made of foil, square-wire, and solid-round-wire windings are considered. Temperature dependent Dowell’s equation for the ac-to-dc winding resistance ratio is given and approximated. Thermally dependent analytical equations for the optimum foil thickness, as well as valley thickness and diameter of the square-wire and solid-round-wire windings are derived from approximated thermally dependent ac-to-dc winding resistance ratios. Minimum winding ac resistance of the foil winding and local minimum of the winding ac resistance of the solid-round-wire winding are verified with Maxwell 3D Finite Element Method simulations.
The coupling of the propagating stress wave with the eddy current model is presented. The applied stress produces magnetization in the sample that can be measured outside the sample by measuring the resulting magnetic flux density. The stress and flux density measurements are made on a mechanically excited steel bar. The problem is modelled with the finite element method for both the propagating wave and the eddy current. Three aspects are considered: eddy current model using magnetization from the measurements, coupled wave and eddy current models, and coupled different dimensions in the wave model. The measured stress can be reproduced from the measured flux density by modelling. The coupled models work both for stress and flux couplings as well as for the different dimensionality couplings.
The study presents a calculation method of the voltage induced by power-line sagged conductor in an inductively coupled overhead circuit of arbitrary configuration isolated from ground. The method bases on the solution utilizing the magnetic vector potential for modeling 3D magnetic fields produced by sagging conductors of catenary electric power lines. It is assumed that the equation of the catenary exactly describes the line sag and the influence of currents induced in the earth on the distribution of power line magnetic field is neglected. The method derived is illustrated by exemplary calculations and the results obtained are partially compared with results computed by optional approach.
An approach to power system state estimation using a particle filter has been proposed in the paper. Two problems have been taken into account during research, namely bad measurements data and a network structure modification with rapid changes of the state variables. For each case the modification of the algorithm has been proposed. It has also been observed that anti-zero bias modification has a very positive influence on the obtained results (few orders of magnitude, in comparison to the standard particle filter), and additional calculations are quite symbolic. In the second problem, used modification also improved estimation quality of the state variables. The obtained results have been compared to the extended Kalman filter method.
The new topology of three-winding welding transformer is proposed. Each secondary winding is connected in parallel through the separate bridge rectifier to the welding arc. The main feature of the proposed device is parallel working of two secondary windings with different rated voltage. The advantage is nonlinear transformation ratio of current that provides unprecedented power efficiency. The self- and mutual leakage inductances, which are important in power conversion, are calculated by 2D FEA model. The operational current of the device is modelled numerically via P-Spice simulator. The proposed topology is up to 30% more power effective than conventional welding transformer provided that the leakage inductances of primary and secondary windings are correctly fitted. This transformer is used for manual arc welding.
This paper presents a load equivalent conductance based control method for a shunt active power filter. The principle of energy balance in the circuit, which means between supplying source - active filter - load, is used to obtain the control formula. The natural inertia of the active filter action is exploited, so no PI regulators are needed. The active filter can compensate for non-active current and, additionally, can stabilise the supplying source active power. In a case of generating loads energy harvesting is possible. The presented method is useful as well for voltage-source as current-source inverter based active filters, and for DC system as well as for AC single- or three-phase one.
The paper presents an algorithm for the construction of an approximation of a highly nonlinear current-flux characteristic of a synchronous reluctance machine. Such an approximation is required in a Hamiltonian model of an electric machine and the constructed approximation is suited to be used in such a model. It employs a simplicial approximation based on irregular points sets in the spaces of currents and fluxes. The sets are constructed by the iterative insertion of new points. Initially the sets contain an arbitrarily small number of elements. The insertion is based on an approximation error calculation. Based on the sets containing possibly small number of elements, the proposed procedure leads to smooth and precise approximation. Due to the nonlinearity of the approximated characteristics, ambiguities can occur. A method for the triangulation refinement of the sets of currents and fluxes that eliminates them is also presented. In the paper, a reluctance machine model using the constructed approximation is described and compared with a model using the approximation based on regular sets.
In this paper, dynamic response improvement of the grid connected hybrid system comprising of the wind power generation system (WPGS) and the photovoltaic (PV) are investigated under some critical circumstances. In order to maximize the output of solar arrays, a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique is presented. In this paper, an intelligent control technique using the artificial neural network (ANN) and the genetic algorithm (GA) are proposed to control the MPPT for a PV system under varying irradiation and temperature conditions. The ANN-GA control method is compared with the perturb and observe (P&O), the incremental conductance (IC) and the fuzzy logic methods. In other words, the data is optimized by GA and then, these optimum values are used in ANN. The results are indicated the ANN-GA is better and more reliable method in comparison with the conventional algorithms. The allocation of a pitch angle strategy based on the fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and comparison with conventional PI controller in high rated wind speed areas are carried out. Moreover, the pitch angle based on FLC with the wind speed and active power as the inputs can have faster response that lead to smoother power curves, improving the dynamic performance of the wind turbine and prevent the mechanical fatigues of the generator.
Effective algorithms of constructing models of generalized parametric sections of the n-th order consisting of cascade and parallel elementary LTV section connections are presented in this paper. Moreover, the methods of impulse responses determination have been shown.
The detection of transformer winding deformation caused by short-circuit current is of great significance to the realization of condition based maintenance. Considering the influence of environment and measurement errors, an online deformation detection method is proposed based on the analysis of leakage inductance changes. First, the operation expressions are derived on the basis of the equivalent circuit and the leakage inductance parameters are identified by the partial least squares regression algorithm. Second, the amount of the leakage inductance samples in a detection time window is determined using the Monte Carlo simulation thought, and then the samples in the confidence interval are obtained. Last, a criteria is built by the mean value changes of the leakage inductance samples and the winding deformation is detected. The online detection method considers the random fluctuation characteristics of the leakage inductance samples, adjust the threshold value automatically, and can quantify the change range to assess the severity. Based on the field data, the distribution of the leakage inductance samples is analyzed to obey the normal function approximately. Three deformation experiments are done by different sub-winding connections and the detection results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.
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Examples of the ways in which references should be cited are given below:
 Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of paper, Title of periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).
 Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).
 Idziak P., Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.
 Cardwell W., Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.
 Author A., Title of conference paper, Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Country of Conf., pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).
 Popescu M., Staton D.A., Thermal aspects in power traction motors with permanent magnets, Proceedings of XXIII Symposium Electromagnetic Phenomena in Nonlinear Circuits, Pilsen, Czech Republic, pp. 35-36 (2016).
Book, book chapter and manual
 Author1 A., Author2 A.B., Title of book, Name of the publisher (YEAR).
 Zienkiewicz O., Taylor R.L., Finite Element method, McGraw-Hill Book Company (2000).
 Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of patent, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).
 Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).
 Author A., Title of thesis, PhD Thesis, Department, University, City of Univ. (YEAR).
 Driesen J., Coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in electrical energy transducers, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Applied Science, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (2000).
For on electronic forms
 Author A., Title of article, in Title of Conference, record as it appears on the copyright page], © [applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record] (copyright year), doi: [DOI number].
 Kubo M., Yamamoto Y., Kondo T., Rajashekara K., Zhu B., Zero-sequence current suppression for open-end winding induction motor drive with resonant controller,in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), © APEC (2016), doi: 10.1109/APEC.2016.7468259
 http://www.aee.put.poznan.pl, accessed April 2010.
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