Applied sciences

Archives of Electrical Engineering


Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2010 | vol. 59 | No 1 - 2 September

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This paper deals with an observer design for a p-cell chopper. The goal is to reduce drastically the number of sensors in such system by using an observer in order to estimate all the capacitor voltages. Furthermore, considering an instantaneous model of a p-cell chopper, an interconnected observer is designed in order to estimate the capacitor voltages. This is realized by using only the load current measurement. Simulation results are given in order to illustrate the performance of such observer. To demonstrate the validity of our approach, experimental results based on Digital Signal Processor (DSP) are presented.

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Authors and Affiliations

Kamel Laidi
Khalifa Benmansour
Abdelaziz Ferdjouni
Ouahid Bouchhida
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Electrical circuits with state-feedbacks are addressed. It is shown that by suitable choice of the gain matrices of state-feedbacks it is possible to obtain the closed-loop system matrices with nilpotency indices equal to two and their state variables are linear functions of time. The considerations are illustrated by linear electrical circuits.

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Authors and Affiliations

Tadeusz Kaczorek
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Results of 3-D of discharge channel displacement simulation, acquired by means of the Fluent program during one current half-period of AC arc, indicate that the obtained images of the phenomenon are qualitatively similar to those, recorded with a high-speed digital camera, while the computer simulation enables much a more comprehensive analysis of the acquired data. In addition to selected arc simulation frames and corresponding distributions of mass velocity vectors and current density vectors on a plane, the distributions of temperature, current density and mass velocity values are presented on the axis of the electrode arrangement model. The composite motion (continuous and jumping) of discharge channels was analyzed, taking into account mass displacement and matter state changes.

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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Daszkiewicz
Witold Tarczyński
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In the paper modeling of main inductances for mathematical models of induction motors is applied to study the effects caused by a rotor eccentricity and saturation effects. All three possible types of eccentricity: static, dynamic and mixed are modeled. The most important parameters describing rotor eccentricity include self and mutual inductances of the windings. The structural changes of the permeance function as a result of eccentricity appearance and the Fourier spectra of inductances in occurrence of saturation for each case are determined in the paper. The presented algorithm can be used for the diagnostically specialized models of induction motors.

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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Węgiel
Konrad Weinreb
Maciej Sułowicz
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The paper presents the probabilistic model of fibrillation currents containing two components with different frequencies. An analysis was conducted of the threat of ventricular fibrillation which occurs in consequence of the electric shock with the highest permissible contact shocking voltage of the network frequency (50 Hz), taking into account the threat caused by the second component of the voltage which has the frequency higher than the network frequency. The sample results of calculations apply to the probability of the ventricular fibrillation in case of a shock caused by the highest permissible contact shocking voltage, for the defined time of shock duration, without and with the participation of an additional voltage component with higher frequency. The formula has been presented for the calculation of the highest permissible contact shock voltages with taking into account the voltage component of the frequency higher than the network frequency. The results of calculations indicate that a considerable reduction of the highest permissible contact shock voltage is necessary in order to compensate for a growth of the ventricular fibrillation threat caused by the presence of an additional component with the frequency other the network frequency. This applies in particular to the long shock duration times and low frequencies (up to 500 Hz) of an additional component of the shocking voltage.

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Authors and Affiliations

Włodzimierz Korniluk
Dariusz Sajewicz
Edward Anderson
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The paper describes high output induction motors driving large applications of heavy starting conditions. Heavy start is characterised by long accelerating time and occures in drives of hudge inertia torque, esspecially when performed at full load. The reliable operation of the motors depends on proper design and quality of rotor's cage. The aspects of thermal behaviour and electrodynamic forces have to be considered during the design of the motor for hard working conditions. In the paper the rotor with idle bars is investigated.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jakub Bernatt
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The paper presents an algorithm and software for the optimal design of permanent magnet brushless DC motors. Such motors are powered by DC voltage sources via semiconductor switches connected to the motor phase belts. The software is adjusted to the design of motors with NdFeB high energy density magnets. An attention has been given to issues important in the design of the motors, i.e., permanent magnet selection, structure of magnetic circuit, and armature windings. Particularly, precision of calculation of the permanent magnet operating point, visualization of selection process of the winding belts, and magnetic circuit dimensioning have been investigated. The authors have been trying to make the equations more specific and accurate than those presented in the literature. The user software interface allows changes in the magnetic circuit dimensions, and in the winding parameters. It is possible to examine simultaneously the influence of these changes on the calculation results. The software operates both with standard and inverted (outer rotor) motor structure. To perform optimization, a non-deterministic method based on the evolution strategy (ž + λ) - ES has been used.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mirosław Dąbrowski
Andrzej Rudeński
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This research presents a method for the simulation of the magneto-mechanical system dynamics taking motion and eddy currents into account. The major contribution of this work leans on the coupling the field-motion problem considering windings as the current forced massive conductors, modelling of the rotor motion composed of two conductive materials and the torque calculation employing the special optimal predictor combined with the modified Maxwell stress tensor method. The 3D model of the device is analysed by the time stepping finite element method. Mechanical motion of the rotor is determined by solving the second order motion equation. Both magnetic and mechanical equations are coupled in the iterative solving process. Presented method is verified by solving the TEAM Workshop Problem 30.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jakub Bernat
Sławomir Stępień

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ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.

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References in text must be numbered consecutively by Arabic numerals placed in square brackets. Please make sure that you use full names of journals i.e. Archives of Electrical Engineering. Please ensure that all references in the Reference list are cited in the text and vice versa.

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Examples of the ways in which references should be cited are given below:

Journal manuscript

[1] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of paper, Title of periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).


[1] Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).

[2] Idziak P., Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.

[3] Cardwell W., Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

Conference manuscript

[4] Author A., Title of conference paper, Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Country of Conf., pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).


[4] Popescu M., Staton D.A., Thermal aspects in power traction motors with permanent magnets, Proceedings of XXIII Symposium Electromagnetic Phenomena in Nonlinear Circuits, Pilsen, Czech Republic, pp. 35-36 (2016).

Book, book chapter and manual

[5] Author1 A., Author2 A.B., Title of book, Name of the publisher (YEAR).


[5] Zienkiewicz O., Taylor R.L., Finite Element method, McGraw-Hill Book Company (2000).


[6] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of patent, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).


[6] Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).


[7] Author A., Title of thesis, PhD Thesis, Department, University, City of Univ. (YEAR).


[7] Driesen J., Coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in electrical energy transducers, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Applied Science, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (2000).

For on electronic forms

[8] Author A., Title of article, in Title of Conference, record as it appears on the copyright page], © [applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record] (copyright year), doi: [DOI number].


[8] Kubo M., Yamamoto Y., Kondo T., Rajashekara K., Zhu B., Zero-sequence current suppression for open-end winding induction motor drive with resonant controller,in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), © APEC (2016), doi: 10.1109/APEC.2016.7468259


[9], accessed April 2010.


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The fee for the publication of an article in the AEE journal is 200 Euro.

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