Applied sciences

Archives of Electrical Engineering

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Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2021 | vol. 70 | No 4 |

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Abstract

Existing scientific studies devoted to the design of eddy-current probes with a priori given configuration of the electromagnetic excitation field, which provide a uniform eddy current density distribution, consider a wide class of such, but are limited to the case when the probe is stationary relative to the testing object. Therefore, the actual problem is the synthesis of moving tangential eddy current probes with a frame excitation system that provides a uniform eddy current density distribution in the testing object, the solution of which is proposed in this study.
A mathematical method for nonlinear surrogate synthesis of excitation systems for frame moving tangential surface eddy current probes, which implements a uniform eddy current density distribution of the testing zone object, is proposed. A metamodel of the volumetric structure of the excitation system of the frame tangential eddy current probe, applied in the process of surrogate optimal parametric synthesis, has been created. The examples of nonlinear synthesis of excitation systems using modern metaheuristic stochastic algorithms for finding the global extremum are considered. The numerical results of the obtained solutions of the problems are presented. The efficiency of the synthesized structures of excitation systems in comparison with classical analogs is shown on the graphs of the eddy current density distribution on the object surface in the testing zone.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Volodymyr Yakovych Halchenko
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ruslana Volodymyrivna Trembovetska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Volodymyr Volodymyrovych Tychkov
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Cherkasy State Technological University, Ukraine
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Abstract

DC motors have wide acceptance in industries due to their high efficiency, low costs, and flexibility. The paper presents the unique design concept of a multi-objective optimized proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller and Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) based controllers for effective speed control of the DC motor system. The study aims to optimize PID parameters for speed control of a DC motor, emphasizing minimizing both settling time (Ts ) and % overshoot (% OS) of the closed-loop response. The PID controller is designed using the Ziegler Nichols (ZN) method primarily subjected to Taguchi-grey relational analysis to handle multiple quality characteristics. Here, the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array is defined to find the process parameters that affect Ts and %OS. The analysis of variance shows that the most significant factor affecting Ts and %OS is the derivative gain term. The result also demonstrates that the proposed Taguchi-GRA optimized controller reduces Ts and %OS drastically compared to the ZN-tuned PID controller. This study also uses MRAC schemes using the MIT rule, Lyapunov rule, and a modified MIT rule. The DC motor speed tracking performance is analyzed by varying the adaptation gain and reference signal amplitude. The results also revealed that the proposed MRAC schemes provide desired closed-loop performance in real-time in the presence of disturbance and varying plant parameters. The study provides additional insights into using a modified MIT rule and the Lyapunov rule in protecting the response from signal amplitude dependence and the assurance of a stable adaptive controller, respectively.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mary Ann George
1
ORCID: ORCID
Dattaguru V. Kamat
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Manipal – 576104, Udupi District, Karnataka State, India
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Abstract

The artificial bee colony (ABC) intelligence algorithm is widely applied to solve multi-variable function optimization problems. In order to accurately identify the parameters of the surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous motor (SPMSM), this paper proposes an improved ABC optimization method based on vector control to solve the multi-parameter identification problem of the PMSM. Because of the shortcomings of the existing parameter identification algorithms, such as high computational complexity and data saturation, the ABC algorithm is applied for the multi-parameter identification of the PMSM for the first time. In order to further improve the search speed of the ABC algorithm and avoid falling into the local optimum, Euclidean distance is introduced into the ABC algorithm to search more efficiently in the feasible region. Applying the improved algorithm to multi-parameter identification of the PMSM, this method only needs to sample the stator current and voltage signals of the motor. Combined with the fitness function, the online identification of the PMSM can be achieved. The simulation and experimental results show that the ABC algorithm can quickly identify the motor stator resistance, inductance and flux linkage. In addition, the ABC algorithm improved by Euclidean distance has faster convergence speed and smaller steady-state error for the identification results of stator resistance, inductance and flux linkage.
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Authors and Affiliations

Chunli Wu
1
ORCID: ORCID
Shuai Jiang
1
Chunyuan Bian
1

  1. College of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, China
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Abstract

The topology of low-voltage distribution systems changes with the load or the on/off position of the circuit switch. This will affect power flows, losses, and so on. This paper submits a new method to identify the topology of a low-voltage feeder using the injection high-frequency signal. An inductor can block the high-frequency signal. It can change the propagation direction of the injected high-frequency signal to make it propagate unidirectionally along the low-voltage feeder. By injecting a 5 MHz sinusoidal signal from the upstream direction of the low-voltage feeder, all the line segments and devices on the feeder can be identified. The wavelength of the high-frequency signal is short. The wavelength of the 5 MHz signal is 60 meters. Through the delay of different observation points on the feeder, the length of the line section can be roughly calculated. The highfrequency signal has an obvious reflection on the feeder. Using this feature, we can roughly calculate the length of the line segment. The correctness of the method is demonstrated by MATLAB simulation verification.
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Authors and Affiliations

Haotian Ge
1
Bingyin Xu
1
Xinhui Zhang
1
Yongjian Bi
1

  1. Shandong University of Technology, China
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Abstract

Since wind power generation has strong randomness and is difficult to predict, a class of combined prediction methods based on empiricalwavelet transform(EWT) and soft margin multiple kernel learning (SMMKL) is proposed in this paper. As a new approach to build adaptive wavelets, the main idea is to extract the different modes of signals by designing an appropriate wavelet filter bank. The SMMKL method effectively avoids the disadvantage of the hard margin MKL method of selecting only a few base kernels and discarding other useful basis kernels when solving for the objective function. Firstly, the EWT method is used to decompose the time series data. Secondly, different SMMKL forecasting models are constructed for the sub-sequences formed by each mode component signal. The training processes of the forecasting model are respectively implemented by two different methods, i.e., the hinge loss soft margin MKL and the square hinge loss soft margin MKL. Simultaneously, the ultimate forecasting results can be obtained by the superposition of the corresponding forecasting model. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, it was applied to an actual wind speed data set from National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for short-term wind power single-step or multi-step time series indirectly forecasting. Compared with a radial basic function (RBF) kernelbased support vector machine (SVM), using SimpleMKL under the same condition, the experimental results show that the proposed EWT-SMMKL methods based on two different algorithms have higher forecasting accuracy, and the combined models show effectiveness.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jun Li
1
Liancai Ma
1

  1. Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
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Abstract

This paper describes modifications of the Mayr and Cassie models of the electric arc. They include the phenomena of increased heat dissipation and non-zero residual conductance when the current passes through zero. The modified models are combined into a new hybrid model connecting them in parallel and activated by a weight function. Two cases of functional dependence of models on current intensity and instantaneous conductance are considered. Mathematical models in differential and integral forms are presented. On their basis, computer macromodels are created and simulations of processes in circuits with arc models are performed. The families of static and dynamic arc voltage and current characteristics are presented.
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Authors and Affiliations

Antoni Sawicki
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Association of Polish Electrical Engineers (NOT-SEP), Czestochowa Division, Poland
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Abstract

The wet flashover voltage of medium voltage insulators made of a silicone rubber is 8% lower than the wet flashover voltage of a porcelain insulator with an identical profile. These surprising results, obtained in 2012, were confirmed again in 2019. The flashover development on the composite insulator is very short (less than 30 ms). On the other hand, on the porcelain insulator, the flashover develops longer (1–3 seconds). The Koppelmann equation was modified, and the Obenaus model to calculate the flashover voltage of insulators under the artificial rain was presented. Attention was paid to the importance of insulator diameters and the phenomenon of water cascades.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krystian Leonard Chrzan
1
Henryk Marek Brzeziński
2

  1. Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland
  2. Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Electrical Engineering, Poland
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Abstract

The paper presents the results of simulations and experiments in the field of control of the low damping and time delay oscillating system. This system includes a quadcopter hovering at a very low altitude, and the altitude is controlled. The time delay is introduced mainly by the remote control device. In order to handle the quadcopter at low altitudes, a proportional-integral controller with a negative proportional coefficient is used. Such an approach can provide good results in the case of an oscillating, low damped system. This method of steering, which uses a typical radio control transmitter, can be used on any commercially available leisure drone. Feedback is provided by a camera and algorithms of computer vision. The presented results were obtained experimentally using free flight – without a harness. Different types of controllers are used to control horizontal shift and altitude.
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Authors and Affiliations

Konrad Urbański
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute of Robotics and Machine Intelligence, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3A str., 60-965 Poznan, Poland
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Abstract

The most extensively employed strategy to control the AC output of power electronic inverters is the pulse width modulation (PWM) strategy. Since three decades modulation hypothesis continues to draw considerable attention and interest of researchers with the aim to reduce harmonic distortion and increased output magnitude for a given switching frequency. Among different PWM techniques space vector modulation (SVM) is very popular. However, as the number of output levels of the multilevel inverter (MLI) increases, the implementation of SVM becomes more difficult, because as the number of levels increases the total number of switches in the inverter increases which will increase the total number of switching states, which will result in increased computational complexity and increased storage requirements of switching states and switching pulse durations. The present work aims at reducing the complexity of implementing the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM)technique in multilevel inverters by using a generalized integer factor approach (IFA). The performance of the IFA is tested on a three-level inverter-fed induction motor for conventional PWM (CPWM) which is a continuous SVPWM method employing a 0127 sequence and discontinuous PWM (DPWM) methods viz, DPWMMIN using 012 sequences and DPWMMAX using a 721 sequence.
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Authors and Affiliations

Suresh Kumar Anisetty
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sri Gowri Kolli
2
ORCID: ORCID
Nagaraja Rao S.
3
ORCID: ORCID
Manjunatha B.M.
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sesi Kiran P.
1
ORCID: ORCID
Niteesh Kumar K.
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. RGM College of Engineering and Technology (Autonomous), Nandyal, A.P., India
  2. G. Pulla Reddy Engineering College (Autonomous), Kurnool, A.P., India
  3. M.S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences, Bangalore, India
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Abstract

Detecting high impedance faults (HIFs) is one of the challenging issues for electrical engineers. This type of fault occurs often when one of the overhead conductors is downed and makes contact with the ground, causing a high-voltage conductor to be within the reach of personnel. As the wavelet transform (WT) technique is a powerful tool for transient analysis of fault signals and gives information both on the time domain and frequency domain, this technique has been considered for an unconventional fault like high impedance fault. This paper presents a new technique that utilizes the features of energy contents in detail coefficients (D4 and D5) from the extracted current signal using a discrete wavelet transform in the multiresolution analysis (MRA). The adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is utilized as a machine learning technique to discriminate HIF from other transient phenomena such as capacitor or load switching, the new protection designed scheme is fully analyzed using MATLAB feeding practical fault data. Simulation studies reveal that the proposed protection is able to detect HIFs in a distribution network with high reliability and can successfully differentiate high impedance faults from other transients.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mohammed Yahya Suliman
1
Mahmood Taha Alkhayyat
1

  1. Northern Technical University, Iraq
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Abstract

The article provides an overview of Brain Computer Interface (BCI) solutions for intelligent buildings. A significant topic from the smart cities point of view. That solution could be implemented as one of the human-building interfaces. The authors presented an analysis of the use of BCI in specific building systems. The article presents an analysis of BCI solutions in the context of controlling devices/systems included in the Building Management System (BMS). The Article confirms the possibility of using this method of communication between the user and the building’s central unit. Despite many confirmations of repeatable device inspections, the article presents the challenges faced by the commercialization of the solution in buildings.
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Authors and Affiliations

Bartłomiej Kawa
1
ORCID: ORCID
Piotr Borkowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Michał Rodak
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Lodz University of Technology, Poland
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Abstract

In order to realize selective isolation of fault lines in multi-terminal high voltage DC (MT-HVDC) grids, it is necessary to ensure that the sound lines can still transmit power normally after the grounding fault occurs in a DC power network. If the fault line needs to be cut before the converter is blocked, a DC circuit breaker (DCCB) with large switching capacity is often required. At present, the extreme fault over-current and the high cost of DCCBs have become the prominent contradiction in MT-HVDC projects. Reducing the breaking stress of power electronic devices of the circuit breaker and controlling its cutting-off time are the major difficulties in this research field. In this paper, a topology of a hybrid DCCB with an inductive current limiting device is proposed. By analyzing its working principle, the calculation method of key parameters is given, and a four-terminal HVDC grid is built in a PSCAD/EMTDC platform for fault simulation. The results show that compared with the traditional circuit breaker, this topology can effectively limit the rising speed and maximum current of fault current when the system fails, and quickly remove the fault line, so as to meet the suppression requirement of the HVDC system for fault current.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sihua Wang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Lei Zhao
1
Lijun Zhou
2

  1. College of Automation and Electrical Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, China
  2. Lanzhou Jiaotong University, China
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Abstract

The output of renewable energy is strongly uncertain and random, and the distribution of voltage and reactive power in regional power grids is changed with the access to large-scale renewable energy. In order to quantitatively evaluate the influence of renewable energy access on voltage and reactive power operation, a novel combinational evaluation method of voltage and reactive power in regional power grids containing renewable energy is proposed. Firstly, the actual operation data of renewable energy and load demand are clustered based on the K-means algorithm, and several typical scenarios are divided. Then, the entropy weight method (EWM) and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) are combined to evaluate the voltage qualified rate, voltage fluctuation, power factor qualified rate and reactive power reserve in typical scenarios. Besides, the evaluation results are used as the training samples for back-propagation (BP) neural networks. The proposed combinational evaluation method can calculate the weight coefficient of the indexes adaptively with the change of samples, which simplifies the calculation process of the indexes’ weight. At last, the case simulation of an actual regional power grid is provided, and the historical data of one year is taken as the sample for training, evaluating and analyzing. And finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified based on the comparison with the existing method. The evaluated results could provide reference and guidance to the operation analysis and planning of renewable energy.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yuqi Ji
1
ORCID: ORCID
Xuehan Chen
1
Han Xiao
2
Shaoyu Shi
2
Jing Kang
2
Jialin Wang
2
Shaofeng Zhang
2

  1. Zhengzhou University of Light Industry College of Electrical and Information Engineering, China
  2. Sanmenxia Power Supply Company of State Grid Henan Electric Power Company, China
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Abstract

The aim of this work is to study the influence of closed loop control on diagnostic indices of both broken bar and mixed air-gap eccentricity fault indices of the squirrel cage induction motor drive. The present work is focused on the direct stator current isd signal analysis, which is independent of torque load when the induction motor is controlled by an indirect control field. The fault signatures are on the line extracted from the direct stator current signal using the discrete Fourier transformation (DFT). The formula of the measured direct stator current at both conditions is determined by the transfer function of the current loop. The obtained results show that the current loop corresponds to a low pass filter and can reduce the magnitude of diagnostic indicators which lead to wrong evaluation of the fault. Simulation and experiments were carried out in order to confirm the theoretical analysis.
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Authors and Affiliations

Nourelhouda Bouabid
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mohamed-Amine Moussa
1
Yassine Maouche
1
Abdelmalek Khezzar
1

  1. Departement d’electrotechnique, Laboratoire d’electrotechnique de Constantine, Universite Constantine 1, 25000 Constantine, Algeria
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Abstract

Physical machine systems are represented in the form of differential equations. These differential equations may be of the higher order and difficult to analyses. Therefore, it is necessary to convert the higher-order to lower order which replicates approximately similar properties of the higher-order system (HOS). This article presents a novel approach to reducing the higher-order model. The approach is based on the hunting demeanor of the hawk and escaping of the prey. The proposed method unifies the Harris hawk algorithm and the moment matching technique. The method is applied on single input single output (SISO), multi-input multi-output (MIMO) linear time–invariant (LTI) systems. The proposed method is justified by examining the result. The results are compared using the step response characteristics and response error indices. The response indices are integral square error, integral absolute error, integral time absolute error. The step response characteristics such as rise time, peak, peak time, settling time of the proposed reduced order follows 97%–100% of the original system characteristics.
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Authors and Affiliations

Aswant Kumar Sharma
1
Dhanesh Kumar Sambariya
1

  1. Department of Electrical Engineering, Rajasthan Technical University, Rawath Bhata Road 324010, Kota, India
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Abstract

The paper presents an evaluation of MV/LV power transformer damage risk due to the impact of ambient temperature at their operation location. It features a presentation of the method of evaluating the power structures’ reliability in the conditions of the structures’ variable durability and exposure values. Based on perennial observations of ambient temperature and failure rate of MV/LV transformers, it was demonstrated that temperature is a factor that causes damage or is jointly responsible for the damage caused in all of the devices’ other failures.
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Łukasz Chojnacki
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Power Engineering, Power Electronics and Electrical Machines, Kielce University of Technology, Poland
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Abstract

Most of the existing statistical forecasting methods utilize the historical values of wind power to provide wind power generation prediction. However, several factors including wind speed, nacelle position, pitch angle, and ambient temperature can also be used to predict wind power generation. In this study, a wind farm including 6 turbines (capacity of 3.5 MW per turbine) with a height of 114 meters, 132-meter rotor diameter is considered. The time-series data is collected at 10-minute intervals from the SCADA system. One period from January 04th, 2021 to January 08th, 2021 measured from the wind turbine generator 06 is investigated. One period from January 01st, 2021 to January 31st, 2021 collected from the wind turbine generator 02 is investigated. Therefore, the primary objective of this paper is to propose a combined method for wind power generation forecasting. Firstly, response surface methodology is proposed as an alternative wind power forecasting method. This methodology can provide wind power prediction by considering the relationship between wind power and input factors. Secondly, the conventional statistical forecasting methods consisting of autoregressive integrated moving average and exponential smoothing methods are used to predict wind power time series. Thirdly, response surface methodology is combined with autoregressive integrated moving average or exponential smoothing methods in wind power forecasting. Finally, the two above periods are performed in order to demonstrate the efficiency of the combined methods in terms of mean absolute percent error and directional statistics in this study.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tuan-Ho Le
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Quy Nhon University, Quy Nhon, Binh Dinh Province, 820000, Vietnam

Instructions for authors

ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.

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