Applied sciences

Archives of Electrical Engineering

Content

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2019 | vol. 68 | No 1 |

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Abstract

In order to improve the efficiency and ensure the security of power supply used in a mine, this paper mainly studies the quasi-resonant flyback secondary power supply and analyzes its operational principles based on the requirements of soft-switching technology. In accordance with the maximum energy of a short-circuit and the request of maximum output voltage ripple, this paper calculates the spectrum value of the output filter capacitor and provides its design and procedures to determine the parameters of the main circuit of power supply. The correctness and availability of this theory are eventually validated by experiments.

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Authors and Affiliations

Shengnan Lu
Bin Wang
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Abstract

The loss of power and voltage can affect distribution networks that have a significant number of distributed power resources and electric vehicles. The present study focuses on a hybrid method to model multi-objective coordination optimisation problems for dis- tributed power generation and charging and discharging of electric vehicles in a distribution system. An improved simulated annealing based particle swarm optimisation (SAPSO) algorithm is employed to solve the proposed multi-objective optimisation problem with two objective functions including the minimal power loss index and minimal voltage deviation index. The proposed method is simulated on IEEE 33-node distribution systems and IEEE-118 nodes large scale distribution systems to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the technique. The simulation results indicate that the power loss and node voltage deviation are significantly reduced via the coordination optimisation of the power of distributed generations and charging and discharging power of electric vehicles.With the methodology supposed in this paper, thousands of EVs can be accessed to the distribution network in a slow charging mode.

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Authors and Affiliations

Huiling Tang
Jiekang Wu
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Abstract

Accurate demagnetization modelling is mandatory for a reliable design of rare-earth permanent magnet applications, such as e.g. synchronous machines. The magnetization of rare-earth permanent magnets requires high magnetizing fields. For technical reasons, it is not always possible to completely and homogeneously achieve the required field strength during a pulse magnetization, due to stray fields or eddy currents. Not sufficiently magnetized magnets lose remanence as well as coercivity and the demagnetization characteristic becomes strongly nonlinear. It is state of the art to treat demagnetization curves as linear. This paper presents an approach to model the nonlinear demagnetization in dependence on the magnetization field strength. Measurements of magnetization dependent demagnetization characteristics of rare-earth permanent magnets are compared to an analytical model description. The physical meaning of the model parameters and the influence on them by incomplete magnetization are discussed for different rare-earth permanent magnet materials. Basically, the analytic function is able to map the occurring magnetization dependent demagnetization behavior. However, if the magnetization is incomplete, the model parameters have a strong nonlinear behavior and can only be partially attributed to physical effects. As a benefit the model can represent nonlinear demagnetization using a few parameters only. The original analytical model is from literature but has been adapted for the incomplete magnetization. The discussed effect is not sufficiently accurate modelled in literature. The sparse data in literature has been supplemented with additional pulsed-field magnetometer measurements.

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Authors and Affiliations

Gregor Bavendiek
Fabian Müller
Jamshid Sabirov
Kay Hameyer
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Abstract

A brushless direct-current (BLDC) and permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) with permanent magnets are characterised by the highest operating parameters among all electric motors. High dynamics and the possibility of controlling their work improves the operating parameters of the drive system and reduces the operating costs of such a device. The high cost of these machines associated with the complexity of their construction is a serious barrier to increasing their range in small propulsion systems, where lower energy consumption does not give such spectacular financial profits. To reduce costs, manufacturers often limit the variety of manufactured engines so that by increasing the volume, the unit cost of the device can be minimised. This is often hindered by the implementation of projects deviating from standards where it is necessary to use drive systems of different power. The solution to this problem could be the use of two independent drive systems working in strict correlation to ensure sufficient operating parameters of the device. The article presents a method of controlling a drive system in which two propulsion systems with PMSM engines were used. These devices are communicated with each other by a serial bus, by means of which data necessary for the correct operation of motors connected by a drive belt are transmitted. Since these machines affect both the working machine and each other, it is necessary to optimise such a system so as to avoid excessive oscillation of the drive torque in the system.

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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Jakub Kolano
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Abstract

The study of the subdivision driving technology of a stepper motor and two types of typical acceleration and deceleration curves aims at optimizing the open-loop control performance of the stepper motor. The simulation model of a two-phase hybrid stepper motor open-loop control system is set up based on the mathematical model of the stepper motor, in order to let the stepper motor have the smaller stepper angle, two types of typical acceleration and a deceleration curve algorithm are designed for the real- time online calculation based on the subdivision driving technology. It respectively carries out the simulation analysis for their control effects. The simulation results show that the parabolic acceleration and deceleration curves have a larger maximum in-step rotation angle and the faster dynamic response ability in the same control period, and at the same time, the position tracking error of an intermediate process is smaller.

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Authors and Affiliations

Deode Zhang
Jingqi Wang
Lei Qian
Jun Yi
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Abstract

When the machine is at high speed, serious problems occur, such as high frequency loss, difficult thermal management, and the rotor structural strength insufficiency. In this paper, the performances of two high-speed permanent magnet generators (HSP- MGs) with different rotational speeds and the same torque are compared and analyzed. The two-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of the 117 kW, 60 000 rpm HSPMG is established. By comparing a calculation result and test data, the accuracy of the model is verified. On this basis, the 40 kW, 20 000 rpm HSPMG is designed and the FEM is established. The relationship between the voltage regulation sensitivity and power factor of the two HSPMGs is determined. The influence mechanism of the voltage regulation sensitivity is further revealed. In addition, the air-gap flux density is decomposed by the Fourier transform principle, and the influence degree of different harmonic orders on the HSPMG performance is determined. The method to reduce the harmonic content is further proposed. Finally, the method to improve the HSPMG overload capacity is obtained by studying the maximum power. The research showed that the HSPMG at low speed (20 000 rpm) has high sensitivity of the voltage regulation, while the HSPMG at high speed (60 000 rpm) is superior to the HSPMG at low speed in reducing the harmonic content and increasing the overload capacity.

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Authors and Affiliations

Hongbo Qiu
Yanqi Wei
Xi Fang Zhao
Cunxiang Yang
Ran Yi
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Abstract

The performance of the multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems can be improved by spatial modulation. By using spatial modulation, the transmitter can select the best transmit antenna based on the channel variations using channel state information (CSI). Also, the modulation helps the transmitter to select the best modulation level such that the system has the best performance in all situations. Hence, in this paper, two issues are considered including spatial modulation and information modulation selection. For the spatial modulation, an optimal solution for obtaining the probability of selecting antenna is calculated and then Huffman coding is used such that the transmitter can select the best transmit antenna to maximize the channel capacity. For the information modulation, a multi quadrature amplitude modulation (MQAM) strategy is used. In this modulation, the modulation size is changed based on the channel state variations; therefore, the best modu- lation index is used for transmitting data in all channel situations. In simulation results, the optimal method is compared with Huffman mapping. In addition, the effect of modulation on channel capacity and a bit error rate (BER) is shown.

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Authors and Affiliations

Bahar Ghaderi
Naser Parhizgar
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Abstract

The aim of this study is to design a control strategy for the angular rate (speed) of a DC motor by varying the terminal voltage. This paper describes various designs for the control of direct current (DC) motors. We derive a transfer function for the system and connect it to a controller as feedback, taking the applied voltage as the system input and the angular velocity as the output. Different strategies combining proportional, integral, and derivative controllers along with phase lag compensators and lead integral compensators are investigated alongside the linear quadratic regulator. For each controller transfer function, the step response, root locus, and Bode plot are analysed to ascertain the behaviour of the system, and the results are compared to identify the optimal strategy. It is found that the linear quadratic controller provides the best overall performance in terms of steady-state error, response time, and system stability. The purpose of the study that took place was to design the most appropriate controller for the steadiness of DC motors. Throughout this study, analytical means like tuning methods, loop control, and stability criteria were adopted. The reason for this was to suffice the preconditions and obligations. Furthermore, for the sake of verifying the legitimacy of the controller results, modelling by MATLAB and Simulink was practiced on every controller.

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Authors and Affiliations

M.R. Qader
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Abstract

The analysis of cogging torque, torque ripple and total harmonic distortion of a permanent magnet (PM) flux-switching machine having separate excitation stators is presented in this study. Further, the effect of unbalanced magnetic force (UMF) on the rotor of this machine is also investigated. A comparison of the analysed machine having different rotor pole configurations is also given. The analysis shows that the largest cogging torque, torque ripple as well as total harmonic distortion (THD) are obtained in the four-rotor-pole machine while the least of THD and torque ripple effects is seen in the thirteen-rotor-pole machine. Furthermore, the evaluation of the radial magnetic force of the machines having an odd number of rotor poles shows that the investigated machine having a five-rotor-pole number exhibits the highest value of UMF, while the smallest amount of UMF is obtained in an eleven-rotor-pole machine. Similarly, it is observed that the machines having an even number of rotor poles exhibit a negligible amount of UMF compared to the ones of the odd number of rotor poles.

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Authors and Affiliations

Chukwuemeka Chijioke Awah
Ogbonnaya Inya Okoro
Edward Chikuni
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Abstract

The arc suppression coil determines whether it can effectively extinguish the arc when it is grounded in the neutral non-effective grounding system. An artificial grounding test is an importantway to verify its performance. In this study, 13 substations with the 10 kV system in the Ningxia areawere selected and considered. Based on the artificial single-phase grounding test, the residual current, the compensation current and the off-resonance degree were measured in the arc suppression coil, and the performance of the arc suppression coil in the 10 kV system was verified. The experimental results show that the error of arc suppression coil automatic measurement is large, the off-resonance degree is large, the resistive component in the compensation current is excessive, the harmonic component exists in the compensating current and capacitive current. To solve these problems, this paper puts forward the corresponding countermeasures for reference.

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Authors and Affiliations

Hui Ni
Pei Ding
Yunlong Ma
Shaogui Ai
Feiyue Ma
Qingping Zhang
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Abstract

This paper demonstrates that if a linear dependence of arc dissipated power on power supplied is introduced at an initial stage of analysis, then, with some simplifying assumptions, the classical Mayr model is obtained. Similarly, if this dependence is taken into account in a model with residual conductance, the modified Mayr model is obtained. The study takes into consideration the local phenomenon of sudden voltage drop accompanying linear current decrease occurring in the circuit breaker. To account for this phenomenon, the Dirac delta function and its approximation by a Gaussian function, representing power or enthalpy disturbances, are introduced to the power balance equation. It is demonstrated that both variants yield the same effect, leading to identical differential equations. Macromodels of the circuit-breaker arc are created and connected with the power source circuit with lin- early decreasing current. The results obtained were found to be consistent with experimental data available in the literature. The models presented are based on a fairly uncomplicated 1st order differential equation and offer a straightforward physical interpretation of the phenomena in question.

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Authors and Affiliations

Antoni Sawicki
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Abstract

A transformer is an important part of power transmission and transformation equipment. Once a fault occurs, it may cause a large-scale power outage. The safety of the transformer is related to the safe and stable operation of the power system. Aiming at the problem that the diagnosis result of transformer fault diagnosis method is not ideal and the model is unstable, a transformer fault diagnosis model based on improved particle swarm optimization online sequence extreme learning machine (IPSO-OS-ELM) algorithm is proposed. The improved particle swarmoptimization algorithm is applied to the transformer fault diagnosis model based on the OS-ELM, and the problems of randomly selecting parameters in the hidden layer of the OS-ELM and its network output not stable enough, are solved by optimization. Finally, the effectiveness of the improved fault diagnosis model in improving the accuracy is verified by simulation experiments.

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Authors and Affiliations

Yuancheng Li
Longqiang Ma
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Abstract

The accurate prediction of iron losses has become a prominent problem in electromagnetic machine design. The basis of all iron loss models is found in the spatial field-locus of the magnetic flux density (B) and magnetic field (H). In this paper the behavior of the measured BH-field-loci is considered in FEM simulation. For this purpose, a vector hysteresis model is parameterized based on the global measurements, which then can be used to reproduce the measurement system and obtain more detailed insights on the device and its local field distribution. The IEM has designed a rotary loss tester for electrical steel, which can apply arbitrary BH-field-loci occurring during electrical machine operation. Despite its simplicity, the proposed pragmatic analytical model for vector hysteresis provides very promising results.

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Authors and Affiliations

Fabian Müller
Gregor Bavendiek
Benedikt Schauerte
Kay Hameyer
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Abstract

The main purpose of the paper is to present a method which allows taking into account the anisotropic properties of dynamo steel sheets. An additional aim is to briefly present anisotropic properties of these sheets which are caused by occurrences of some textures. In order to take into account textures occurring in dynamo sheets, a certain sheet sample is divided into elementary segments. Two matrix equations, describing changes of the magnetic field, are transformed to one non-linear algebraic equation in which the field strength components are unknown. In this transformation the flux densities assigned to individual elementary segments are replaced by functions of flux densities of easy magnetization axes of all textures occurring in the given dynamo sheet. The procedure presented in the paper allows determining one non-linear matrix equation of the magnetic field distribution; in this equation all textures occurring in a dynamo sheet are included. Information about textures occurring in typical dynamo sheets may be used in various approaches regarding the inclusion of anisotropic properties of these sheets, but above all, the presented method can be helpful in calculations of the magnetic field distribution in anisotropic dynamo sheets.

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Authors and Affiliations

Witold Mazgaj
Zbigniew Szular
Michał Sierżęga
Paweł Szczurek
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Abstract

The paper presents a numerical model of the novel design of the axial magnetic bearing with six cylindrical poles. The motivation behind this idea was to eliminate vibrations in rotating machinery due to the axial load. Common conception of such a bearing provides a single component of the electromagnetic force, which is not enough to reduce transverse and lateral vibrations of the armature. The proposed design allows for avoiding wobbling of the disc with the use of a few axial force components that are able to actively compensate the axial load and stabilise the disc in a balanced position. Before a real device is manufactured, a virtual prototype should be prepared. The accurate numerical model will provide essential knowledge about the performance of the axial magnetic bearing.

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Authors and Affiliations

Bartłomiej Marian Sikora
Adam Krzysztof Pilat
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Abstract

An algorithm of determination of mechanical stresses and deformations of the magnetic circuit shape, caused by forces of magnetic origin, is presented in this paper. The mechanical stresses cause changes of magnetizing characteristics of the magnetic circuit. The mutual coupling of magnetic and mechanical fields was taken into account in the algorithm worked out. A computational experiment showed that it was possible to include the interaction of both fields into one numerical model. The elaborated algorithm, taking into account the impact of mechanical stresses on magnetic parameters of construction materials, can be used in both the 2D and the 3D type field-model.

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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Idziak
Krzysztof Kowalski

Instructions for authors

ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.

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