Applied sciences

Archives of Electrical Engineering

Content

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2016 | vol. 65 | No 3 September |

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Abstract

The mathematical model of the five-phase squirrel-cage induction motor and the system of the dual five-phase voltage source inverter have been presented. The control methods and control systems of the field-oriented control of the five-phase induction motor with an open-end stator winding are described. The structures of the direct fieldoriented control system (DFOC) and the Indirect Field-oriented control system (IFOC) with PI controllers in outer and inner control loops are analyzed. A method of space vector modulation used to control the system of the dual five-phase voltage source inverter has been discussed. The results of simulation studies of the field-oriented control methods are presented. Comparative analysis of the simulation results was carried out.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jacek Listwan
Krzysztof Pieńkowski
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Abstract

The paper presents investigation results of the natural balancing phenomena in the flying-capacitor SEPIC converters. The SEPIC converters topologies can be reconfigured to the flying-capacitor topology. Owing to this modification the advantageous increase of frequency of the current in the chokes and the decrease of semiconductors voltages can be achieved which is shown in this paper. Similarly to other multilevel flying capacitor topologies the adequate voltage sharing of the flying capacitors is an important issue for safe operation of the converter. The paper focuses on the analysis of the flying capacitor voltages balancing in the converter by natural currents as well as by the application of the additional RLC balancing booster. The paper proves that the natural balancing can be achieved by the specific application of the balancing circuit in the flying-capacitor SEPIC topology and proves the specific differences in the balancing process by natural currents of converter and with the usage of the balancing circuit. An operation of the converter with the balancing circuit and the natural balancing ability is studied here.

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Authors and Affiliations

Adam Kawa
Robert Stala
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Abstract

The pole phase modulation (PPM) technique is an effective method to extend speed range and torque capabilities for an integrated starter and hybrid electric vehicles applications. In this paper, the five pole-phase combination types of a multiphase induction motor (IM) with 36 stator slots and 36 stator conductors are presented and compared quantitatively by using the time-stepping finite element method (TS-FEM). The 36 stator conductors of the proposed multiphase IM are fed by a 36 leg inverter and the current phase angle and amplitude of each stator conductor can be controlled independently. This paper focuses on the winding connection, the PPM technique and the performance comparative analysis of each pole-phase combination types of the proposed multiphase IM. The flux distribution, air-gap flux density, output torque, core losses and efficiency of five pole-phase combination types have been investigated.

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Authors and Affiliations

Huijuan Liu
Jun Wang
Zhenyang Zhang
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Abstract

This paper presents the modeling and simulation of a novel topology of quasi Z-Multilevel Inverter with stepped DC input. The proposed inverter incorporates a simple switching technique with reduced component count and is aimed at producing boosted multilevel output AC voltage. The inverter consists of two stages and the buck /boost operation is obtained by varying the shoot through period of the pulses obtained by maximum constant boost control with third harmonic injection. With all the advantages of the quasi Z-network, the proposed inverter eliminates the fly back diodes and capacitors present in a conventional Z-Multilevel Inverter. Further the stress on the devices is less which leads to reduction in component value and hence the cost. The novel stepped DC coupled Single Phase quasi Z-Multilevel Inverter is modeled and simulated in the MATLAB – SIMULINK environment and its performance is analyzed for varying input and switching conditions. The voltage and current waveforms across each stage of the inverter is analyzed and the results are presented for different levels of input.

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Authors and Affiliations

T. Meenakshi
N. Suthanthira Vanitha
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Abstract

Grounding electrode resistance non-linearly changes under impulse conditions due to soil ionisation phenomenon. Several models have been proposed to model soil ionisation for grounding electrodes applications. However, to date, there is yet an attempt made to compile all these works into a comprehensive review article. Therefore, this paper is written with the objective of summarizing all related works in this field as a one– stop reference. With reference to the literature, this paper is written to summarize the working principles of the soil ionisation models as well as the accuracy and performance analysis of the models. This paper, particularly highlights the deficiencies of the available models in terms of accuracy and performance. This knowledge will contribute to the development of a new accurate and efficient soil ionisation model.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mehrdad Mokhtari
Zulkurnain Abdul-Malek
Gevork B. Gharehpetian
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Abstract

This article presents the simulation of a BLDC motor and its closed control system in FPGA. The simulation is based on a mathematical model of the motor, including the electromagnetic torque, phase currents, back electromotive force, etc. In order to ensure calculation precision, the equations describing the motor were solved using a floating point representation of real numbers, and a small step of numerical calculations of 1 μs was assumed. The time step selection methodology has been discussed in detail. The motor model was executed with the use of Textual Programming Languages (with HDL codes).

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Authors and Affiliations

Marcin Baszyński
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Abstract

The transformer-less grid connected inverters are gaining more popularity due to their high efficiency, very low ground leakage current and economic feasibility especially in photovoltaic systems. The major issue which surfaces these systems is that of common mode leakage current which arises due to the absence of an electrical transformer connected between the inverter and the utility grid. Several topologies have evolved to reduce the impact of common mode leakage current and a majority of them have succeeded in eliminating the impacts and have well kept them within the limits of grid standards. This paper compares and analyses the impact of the common mode leakage current for four popular inverter configurations through simulation of the topologies such as H5, H6, HERIC and FBZVR inverters.

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Authors and Affiliations

D. John Sundar
M. Senthil Kumaran
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Abstract

Current power grid and market development, characterized by large growth of distributed energy sources in recent years, especially in Europa, are according energy storage systems an increasingly larger field of implementation. Existing storage technologies, e.g. pumped-storage power plants, have to be upgraded and extended by new but not yet commercially viable technologies (e.g. batteries or adiabatic compressed air energy storage) that meet expected demands. Optimal sizing of storage systems and technically and economically optimal operating strategies are the major challenges to the integration of such systems in the future smart grid. This paper surveys firstly the literature on the latest niche applications. Then, potential new use case and operating scenarios for energy storage systems in smart grids, which have been field tested, are presented and discussed and subsequently assessed technically and economically.

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Authors and Affiliations

Przemysław Komarnicki
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Abstract

This research presents a new technique which includes the principle of a Bezier curve and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) together, in order to design the planar dipole antenna for the two different targets. This technique can improve the characteristics of the antennas by modifying copper textures on the antennas with a Bezier curve. However, the time to process an algorithm will be increased due to the expansion of the solution space in optimization process. So as to solve this problem, the suitable initial parameters need to be set. Therefore this research initialized parameters with reference antenna parameters (a reference antenna operates on 2.4 GHz for IEEE 802.11 b/g/n WLAN standards) which resulted in the proposed designs, rapidly converted into the goals. The goal of the first design is to reduce the size of the antenna. As a result, the first antenna is reduced in the substrate size from areas of 5850 mm2 to 2987 mm2(48.93% approximately) and can also operates at 2.4 GHz (2.37 GHz to 2.51 GHz). The antenna with dual band application is presented in the second design. The second antenna is operated at 2.4 GHz (2.40 GHz to 2.49 GHz) and 5 GHz (5.10 GHz to 5.45 GHz) for IEEE 802.11 a/b/g/n WLAN standards.

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Authors and Affiliations

Nuttaka Homsup
Winyou Silabut
Vuttichai Kesornpatumanum
Pravit Boonek
Waroth Kuhirun
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Abstract

This work presents a study on dynamics of a circuit with a non-linear coil, where loss in iron is also taken into account. A coil model is derived using a state space description. The work also includes the development of an application in C# for coil dynamics examination, where the implicit RADAU IIA method of various orders is applied for the purpose of solving non-linear differential equations modelling the non-linear coil with loss in iron.

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Authors and Affiliations

Joanna Kolańska-Płuska
Barbara Grochowicz
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Abstract

The paper contains selected results of research on the Domestic Power System (DPS) as an unmanned factory. Models of the DPS system of the MISO type, obtained as a result of identification for 14 inputs and 4 outputs were presented. Particular attention was given to the identification and the assessment of the DPS development based on the systems and control theory. The obtained models of the DPS development were analyzed and discussed. The studies were obtained model of the development of the DPS, and on the basis of is knowledge of the structural and parametrical changes of system development. The model can be used to analyze the design and development of the system from the point of view of the growth of internal organization system and the transition to higher levels of control.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jerzy Tchórzewski
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Abstract

The influence of wrong information about transition and measurement models on estimation quality has been presented in the paper. Two methods of a particle filter, with and without the Population Monte Carlo modification, and also the extended and unscented Kalman filters methods have been compared. A small 5-bus power system has been used in simulations, which have been performed based on one data set, and this data set has been chosen from among 100 different – to draw the most general conclusions. Based on the obtained results it has been found that for the particle filter methods the implementation of the slightly higher standard deviation than the true value, usually increases the estimation quality. For the Kalman filters methods it has been concluded that optimal values of variances are equal to the true values.

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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Kozierski
Dariusz Horla
Marcin Lis
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Abstract

This paper describes an algorithm for finding steady states in AC machines for the cases of their two-periodic nature. The algorithm enables to specify the steady-state solution identified directly in time domain despite of the fact that two-periodic waveforms are not repeated in any finite time interval. The basis for such an algorithm is a discrete differential operator that specifies the temporary values of the derivative of the twoperiodic function in the selected set of points on the basis of the values of that function in the same set of points. It allows to develop algebraic equations defining the steady state solution reached in a chosen point set for the nonlinear differential equations describing the AC machines when electrical and mechanical equations should be solved together. That set of those values allows determining the steady state solution at any time instant up to infinity. The algorithm described in this paper is competitive with respect to the one known in literature an approach based on the harmonic balance method operated in frequency domain.

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Authors and Affiliations

Tadeusz J. Sobczyk
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Abstract

Commonly, the Park model is used to calculate transients or steady-state operations of synchronous machines. The expanded Park theory derives the Park equations from the phase-domain model of the synchronous machine by the use of transformations. Thereby, several hypothesis are made, which are under investigation in this article in respect to the main inductances of two different types of synchronous machines. It is shown, that the derivation of the Park equations from the phase-domain model does not lead to constant inductances, as it is usually assumed for these equations. Nevertheless the Park model is the most common analytic model of synchronous machines. Therefore, in the second part of this article a method using the evolution strategy is shown to obtain the parameters of the Park model.

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Authors and Affiliations

Christoph Schmuelling
Christian Kreischer
Marek Gołebiowski
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Abstract

In the paper, methodologies for the magnetic field simulation in an axial flux permanent magnet coreless (AFPMC) motor have been proposed and discussed. Two approaches have been considered and investigated, both based on representing the 3D field distribution by superimposing axisymmetric 2D patterns. The first of studied approaches applies directly to the Biot-Savart law while the second uses a 2D axisymmetric finite element method. The selected results of magnetic field distributions and electromagnetic torque characteristics for the considered AFPMC motor have been presented and compared with results obtained using the commercial FEM package 'Maxwell'. The elaborated algorithms have been incorporated into the design routines allowing multi-parameter optimisation of the considered motor construction.

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Authors and Affiliations

Rafał M. Wojciechowski
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Abstract

This paper presents the implementation of a thermal camera for the quantitative estimation of power losses in a high frequency planar transformer (100 kHz/ 5600 VA). The methodology is based on the observation of the transient temperature rise and determination of the power losses by means of curves representing the derivative of temperature as a function of power losses dissipated in the transformer. First, the thermal calibration characteristics had to be obtained from a simple experiment, where power losses are generated by DC current in the ferrite core and windings. Next, experimental investigations focused on the determination of the transformer power losses for a short circuit and no load, with a resistive load and with the rectifier as a load were carried out. Finally, to verify the obtained results, analytical calculations based on Dowell’s and modified Steinmetz’s equations were additionally made, which showed a good convergence. The proposed method is easy to implement and can be used as an alternative to the calorimetric method which is time-consuming and requires a complicated measurement setup.

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Authors and Affiliations

Roman Barlik
Mieczysław Nowak
Piotr Grzejszczak
Mariusz Zdanowski

Instructions for authors

ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.

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