Nauki Techniczne

Archives of Civil Engineering

Zawartość

Archives of Civil Engineering | 2021 | vol. 67 | No 4 |

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Abstrakt

The paper presents an overview of shaping of cable-stayed bridges. Historical background, basic static sketches and overview of selected bridges are included. Selected natural solutions and interesting unrealized projects were presented. Basic ideas and most important principals are discussed. The examples and sketches were given an author’s comment. Static diagrams of two pylon structures with three variants of the arrangement of cables are presented. The details important for the structure were discussed and the consequences of choosing the variant were indicated. Mono-pylon structures in asymmetric and symmetrical arrangements are shown. the solutions are discussed and the details important for the structure are indicated. An overviewof multi-pylon structures is also presented, paying attention to important details. All the discussed static diagrams were enriched with realized examples. The advantages and disadvantages of individual structural solutions are presented. The main ideas allowing to achieve the goal in the implementation of non-standard suspended structures were also indicated.
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Bibliografia

[1] W. Podolny and J.B. Scalzi, “Construction and design of cable-stayed bridges”, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1976.
[2] M. Troitski, “Cable-stayed bridges”, BSP Professional Books, 1988.
[3] K. Roik, A. Gert, and U. Weyer, “Schrägseilbrücken”, Ernst & Sohn, Verlag für Architektur und Technische Wissenschaften, Berlin, 1986.
[4] F. Leonhardt, “Bridges”, Deutsche Verlag-Anstalt, 1984.
[5] H. Svensson, “Cable-stayed bridges”, 40 Years of Experience Wordlwide, Ernst and Sohn, 2012.
[6] J. Biliszczuk, “Cable-stayed bridges”, Design and Realization, Arkady, 2005.
[7] J. Szczygieł, “Reinforced and prestressed bridges”, WKiŁ, 1972.
[8] J. Biliszczuk, “Bridges in the history of Poland”, DWE, 2017.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Krzysztof Żółtowski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, ul. Gabriela Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
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Abstrakt

Environmental problems are considered a serious situation in modern construction. Reusing and recycling glass wastes is the only method to decrease waste produced. There is growing environmental compression to decrease glass waste and to reprocess as much as possible. In this investigational work, the effect of partially substituting crushed waste glass in concrete is considered. The study investigates crushed waste glass used as a partial replacement of fine aggregate for new concrete. recycled glass waste was partially replaced as 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30, 35, 40%, 45%, 45% and 50% and tested at 7, 14 and 28 days of curing at 20◦ for mechanical properties and compared with those of controlled mix. The compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural forces and static elasticity modulus of specimens with 20% waste glass content was 30%, 19.41%, 9.13% and 10.12%, respectively, which is higher than the controlled mix at 28 days. The outcomes displayed that the maximum rise in strength of concrete occurred when 20% replacement with glass crush. It is found that crushed waste glass can be used as fine aggregate replacement material in concrete production.
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Bibliografia

[1] S.S.C Alharishawi, H.Abd, and S.Abass, “Employment of recycled wood waste in lightweight concrete production”, Archives of Civil Engineering, vol. 4, no. 20, 2020, DOI: 10.24425/ace.2020.135244.
[2] A.M. Al-hafiz, S.S. Chiad and M.S. Farhan, “Flexural strength of reinforced concrete one-way opened slabs with and without strengthening”, Australian, Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 642–651, 2013.
[3] S.M. Omaran et al., “Integrating BIM and game engine for simulation interactive life cycle analysis visualization”, Computing in Civil Engineering, Visualization, Information Modeling, and Simulation. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 120–128, 2019.
[4] S.S. Chiad, “Shear stresses of hollow concrete beams”, Journal of Applied Sciences Research, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 2880–2889, 2013.
[5] I.B. Topçu and M. Canbaz, “Properties of concrete containing waste glass”, Cement and Concrete Research Journal, vol. 34, pp. 267–274, 2004.
[6] S.C.Kou and C.S. Poon, “Properties of self-compacting concrete prepared with recycled glass aggregate”, Cement and Concrete Composites Journal, vol. 31, pp. 107–113, 2009.
[7] L.M. Federico and S.E. Chidiac, “Waste glass as a supplementary cementitious material in concrete -critical review of treatment methods”, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 31, pp. 606–610, 2009.
[8] S.M. Palmquist, “Compressive behavior of concrete with recycled aggregates”, Doctoral dissertation, Tufts University, 2003.
[9] B. Karamanoglu, “Properties of mortar containing waste glass and limestone filler”, MS thesis, Gazimagusa, North Cyprus, 2007.
[10] B. Karamanoglu and Ö. Eren, “Properties of mortar containing waste glass and limestone filler”, 8th International Congress on advances in civil engineering, Gazimagusa, North Cyprus, pp. 171–180, 2008.
[11] N. Schwarz, H. Cam, and N. Neithalath, “Influence of a fine glass powder on the durability characteristics of concrete and its comparison to fly ash”, Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 486–496, 2008.
[12] A. Tagnit-Hamou et al., “Novel ultra-high-performance glass concrete”, Journal of ACI Concrete International, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 53–59, 2008.
[13] A. Tagnit-Hamou, “Alternative supplementary cementitious materials for advances concrete”, International Conference on Advances in Cement and Concrete Technology in Africa, Keynote Speaker, 2016.
[14] A. Tagnit-Hamou and A. Bengougam, “The use of glass powder as supplementary cementitious material”, Concrete International, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 56–61, 2012.
[15] A. Hussein, A. Yahia, and A. Tagnit-Hamou, “Statistical modeling of the effect of glass powder on concrete mechanical and transport properties”, ACI Materials Journal, p. 226, 2012.
[16] A. Niang, N. Roy, and A. Tagnit-Hamou, “Structural behavior of concrete incorporating glass powder used in reinforced concrete column”, Journal of Structural Engineering, Special Issue (Sustainable Building Structures B4014007), p. 141, 2012.
[17] A. Niang, N. Roy, and A. Tagnit-Hamou, “Reinforced concrete columns incorporating glass powder under concentric axial loading”, FIB Symposium, Tel-Aviv, Israel, April 2013. [18] A. Tagnit-Hamou et al., “Novel ultra-high-performance glass concrete”, Journal of ACI Concrete International, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 53–59, 2012.
[19] M. Mageswari and B. Vidivelli, “The use of sheet glass powder as fine aggregate replacement in concrete”, The Open Civil Engineering Journal, vol. 4, pp. 65–71, 2012.
[20] A. Sharma and A. Sangamnerkar, “Glass powder – A partial replacement for cement”, International Journal of Core Engineering and Management (IJCEM), Acropolis Institute of Technology and Research, Indore (MP), India, vol. 1, 2015.
[21] R. Sakale, S. Jain, and S. Singh, “Experimental investigation on strength of glass powder replacement by cement in concrete with different dosages”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 386–390, 2015.
[22] S.M. Hama and M.T. Nawar, “Beneficial role of glass wastes in concrete – a review”, Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development, vol. 22 (02 Part-5), pp.136–144, 2018. [23] A.A. Aliabdo, M. Abd Elmoaty, and A.Y. Aboshama, “Utilization of waste glass powder in the production of cement and concrete”, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 124, pp. 866–877, 2016.
[24] J.M. Ortega et al., “Influence of waste glass powder addition on the pore structure and service properties of cement mortars”, Sustainability, vol. 10, no. 3, p. 842, 2018.
[25] A. Omran and A. Tagnit-Hamou, “Performance of glass-powder concrete in field applications”, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 109, pp. 84–95, 2016.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Salam Salman Chiad Alharishawi
1
ORCID: ORCID
Nagham Rajaa
2
ORCID: ORCID
Aqeel Raheem Jabur
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Mustansiriyah University, College of Engineering, Environmental Engineering Department, Baghdad, Iraq
  2. Mustansiriyah University, College of Engineering, Highway and Transportation Engineering Department, Baghdad, Iraq
  3. Mustansiriyah University, College of Engineering, Civil Engineering Department, Baghdad, Iraq
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Abstrakt

Promoted by many cities to meet the commute needs of their residents (for work, education, etc.), urban rail transport is a spatially expanding system. The safety of rail passengers and road users is one of the most important factors to consider when designing the infrastructure and assessing the operation of the urban tram system. One of the unsolved issues in the functioning of tram transport are sections of tramways with large longitudinal slopes. The article presents an attempt to use risk management for assessing the operational safety of tramways located on road sections with large longitudinal gradients. This particular problem occurs on a tram route in Gdansk. It runs along a street (partly on an overpass) with a gradient above 5% and a small horizontal curve. Risk was assessed using TRANS-RISK, a risk management method. In the first stage, a risk analysis was carried out using the Bow–Tie methods and error trees. The main risks of serious accidents on the analysed section of the tramway were identified. Three sub-concepts were used to assess risk: individual, societal and collective. Although not generally used for assessments of urban transport infrastructure, the latter was found most useful for assessing the safety of the analysed infrastructure. The results of the analyses and assessments helped to formulate design and maintenance principles for tram infrastructure located on sections with steep gradients.
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Bibliografia

[1] Accident Investigation Board, “Collision of trams on Mäkelänkatu in Helsinki, Finland, on 13 June”, Raport B2/2008R, June 2008.
[2] N. Candappa, B. Corben, and J. Yuen, “Addressing the conflict potential between motor vehicles and trams at cut-through locations”, Monash University Accident Research Centre, Clayton Campus, Victoria, Australia, Report no. 317, 2013.
[3] L. Collis, “Cross-industry working group on freight derailment bowtie risk analysis report”, RSBB – Rail Safety and Standards Board, Report no. RSSB/P1500134/RSK/RPT/00001 Rev 1.0, 2016.
[4] Department for Transport, “Derailment of a tram at Pomona, Manchester 17 January 2007”, The Rail Accident Investigation Branch, Report 09/2008, UK, 2008.
[5] V. De Labonnefonm and J.M. Passelaigue, “Analysis of reported events – year 2012 – evolution 2004–2012”, Tram Division, Ministère de l’Écologie, de l’Énergie, Paris, 2014.
[6] S. Dindar et al., “Derailment-based fault tree analysis on risk management of railway turnout systems”, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 245, no. 4, 2017. DOI: 10.1088/1757- 899X/245/4/042020.
[7] “Największa katastrofa tramwajowa w historii Polski wydarzyła się w Szczecinie, 48 rocznica”, Gazeta Wyborcza. pl, 07 grudzien 2015.
[8] K. Jamroz, et al., “Trans-Risk – An integrated method for risk management in transport”, Journal of KONBiN, vol. 1, no. 13, 2010. DOI: 10.2478/v10040-008-0149-9.
[9] K. Jamroz, “Metoda zarz˛adzania ryzykiem w inzynierii drogowej” (in Polish), “Method of risk management in highway engineering”, Wydawnictwo Politechnika Gdanskiej, Gdansk, Poland, 2011.
[10] K. Jamroz, et al., “Analiza i ocena bezpieczenstwa ruchu tramwajowego na estakadzie tramwajowej w ulicy Rakoczego w Gdansku”, Raport, Politechnika Gdanska, Fundacja Rozwoju Inzynierii Lądowej, Gdansk 2015.
[11] K. Jamroz, et al., “Audyt bezpieczenstwa ruchu tramwajowego w Gdansku w ramach zadania, Dokumentacja dla przyszłych projektów”, Raport, Fundacja Rozwoju Inzynierii L˛adowej, Transprojekt Gdanski, TRAFIK, Gdansk 2017.
[12] A Kadzinski, “Studium wybranych aspektów niezawodnosci systemów oraz obiektów pojazdów szynowych”, Politechnika Poznanska, Rozprawy nr 511, Poznan 2013.
[13] A. Kobaszynska-Twardowska, “Zarządzanie ryzykiem zagrozeń na przejazdach kolejowych”, Praca doktorska, WydziałMaszyn Roboczych i Transportu, Politechnika Poznanska, Poznan 2017.
[14] A. Kobaszynska-Twardowska, et al., “Methodology of research on drivers at level crossings”, 12th International Road Safety Conference GAMBIT 2018, Gdansk, Poland MATEC Web of Conferences, vol. 231, 2018. DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/201823101011.
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[17] L. Menetrieux, “Tram accidents’ analysis – France”, STRMTG, French Guided Transport Technical Service –Ministère de l’Écologie, de l’Énergie, Paris 2011.
[18] RAIB, “Rail accident report: Overturning of a tram at Sandilands junction”, Croydon 9 December 2016. Report 18/2017, December 2017.
[19] NSW Government: Transport Roads and Traffic Authority, “Railway crossing safety series. Evaluate: Applying the railway crossing cause consequence bow tie models”, RTA/Pub. 11.377, Roads and Traffic Authority of New South Wales, Australia, 2011.
[20] J. Szmaglinski, S. Grulkowski, and K. Birr, “Identification of safety hazards and their sources in tram transport”, 12th International Road Safety Conference GAMBIT 2018, Gdansk, Poland MATEC Web of Conferences, vol. 231, 2018. DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/201823105008.
[21] V. Trbojevic, “Risk criteria in EU. Advances in safety and reliability”, Taylor and Francis Group, London 2005.
[22] X. Liu, P.L.Ch. Barkan, and M.R. Saat, “Analysis of derailments by accident cause: evaluating railroad track upgrades to reduce transportation risk”, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, no. 2261, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., pp. 178–185, 2011. DOI: 10.3141/2261-21.
[23] A. Kahlouche and R. Chaib, “Analysis of the tram safety: case study of Algeria”, Procedia Engineering, vol. 178, pp. 401–408, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2017.01.076.
[24] M. Schmitz, Ch. Hessel, and U. Stahlberg, “Operation of autonomous tramways”, Verband Deutscher Verkehrsunternehmen e. V.(VDV), Position paper, Cologne, Germany, August 2019.
[25] M. Teixeira, J. Baptista, and C. Gaïvoto, “Operation and safety of tramways in interaction with public space”, COST – European Cooperation in Science and Technology, TU1103 Action final report, September 2015.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Kazimierz Jamroz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sławomir Grulkowski
1
Krystian Birr
1
ORCID: ORCID
Łukasz Jeliński
1
ORCID: ORCID
Marcin Budzyński
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
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Abstrakt

One of the basic requirements of the paradigm of sustainable architecture is the use of materials and building systems characterized by low embodied energy. The aim of this paper is to examine the problem of rational design for lower embodied energy of building components and details. To raise the suitable competence of building professionals and stakeholders, the paper recommends some ways of approach to these issues. The reduction in the quantity of applied materials, so called dematerialization, the use of low energy materials for construction, reduced maintenance works, less frequent exchange of components and materials during the building operation, and their higher durability lead to better results in this regard. Some exemplary practical applications of such approach to design of contemporary buildings using the state-of-the art technologies, which strive to be in line with the requirements for sustainability, as well as some other being contradictory to them, have been covered in this paper.
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Bibliografia

[1] A. Stephan, A.Athanassiadis, “Quantifying and mapping embodied environmental requirements of urban building stocks”, Building and Environment, vol. 114, pp. 187–202, 2017.
[2] L. Oberfrancová, J. Legény, and R. Špacek, “Critical thinking in teaching sustainable architecture”, World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education, vol. 17, no. 2, 2019.
[3] M. Hegger, M. Fuchs, T. Stark, M. Zeumer, “Energy manual”, Sustainable Architecture, Birkhauser, Basel, 2008.
[4] P.J. Davies, S. Emmitt, and S.K. Firth, “Delivering improved initial embodied energy efficiency during construction”, Sustainable Cities and Society, vol. 14, pp. 267–279, 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.scs.2014.09.010.
[5] M.K. Dixit, “Life cycle recurrent embodied energy calculation of buildings: A review”, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 209. pp. 731–754, 2019.
[6] M.K. Dixit, “Life cycle embodied energy analysis of residential buildings: A review of literature to investigate embodied energy parameters”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 79, pp. 390–413, 2017.
[7] S. El Khouli, V. John, and M. Zeumer, “Sustainable construction techniques. From structural design to interior fit-out: assessing and improving the environmental impact of buildings”, Edition Detail Green Books, Munich, Germany, 2015.
[8] A. Stephan, Ch.A. Jensen, and R.H. Crawford, “Improving the life cycle energy performance of apartment units through façade design”, Procedia Engineering, vol. 196, pp. 1003–1010, 2016.
[9] A. Rauf, “The effect of building and material service life on building life cycle embodied energy”, The University of Melbourne, pp. 140–148, 2017.
[10] A.M. Moncaster and J.Y. Song, “A comparative review of existing data and methodologies for calculating embodied energy and carbon of buildings”, International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development, vol. 3, no. 1, 2017.
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[12] R.M. Eufrasio, “The hidden energy of buildings and construction materials”, Zero Carbon Yorkshire BUILDINGS/ AECB, Yorkshire, 2019.
[13] International Energy Agency Evaluation of Embodied Energy and CO2eq for Building Construction (Annex 57), Subtask 2: A Literature Review, August 2016.
[14] R.H. Crawford and A. Stephan, “A comprehensive framework for assessing the life-cycle energy of building construction assemblies”, Architectural Science Review, vol. 53, p. 296, 2017.
[15] A. Stephan, “Towards a comprehensive energy assessment of residential buildings. A multi-scale life cycle energy analysis framework”, PhD. Thesis, Brussels School of Engineering, The University of Melbourne, 2013.
[16] L. Qarout, “Reducing the environmental impacts of building materials: Embodied energy analysis of a highperformance building”, PH.D. Thesis, University ofWisconsin Milwaukee, UWM Digital Commons, May 2017.
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[18] G.P. Hammond and C.I. Jones, “Embodied energy and carbon in construction materials”, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Energy, vol. 161, no. 2, pp. 87–98, 2008, DOI: 10.1680/ener.2008.161.2.87.
[19] T. Woolley, “Low impact building. housing using renewable materials”, Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, 2013.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Waclaw Celadyn
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture, ul. Podchorążych 1, 30-084 Cracow, Poland
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Abstrakt

In order to study the dynamic splitting tensile properties of new and old concrete after high temperature treatment, the effects of different impact velocities and temperatures on failure modes, dynamic splitting strength and energy absorption of new and old concrete were analyzed by impact dynamic splitting tensile test use of variable cross-section Φ 74 mm split Hopkinson pressure bar apparatus. The results show that: Impact velocity and temperature not only affect the dynamic splitting strength of new and old concrete bonding specimens, but also affect the failure modes and degree of breakage. The dynamic splitting strength of new and old concrete increases with the increase of impact velocity, but the increase rate decreased with the increase of temperature. The dynamic splitting strength first increases slowly and then decreases dramatically with the increase of temperature. In the dynamic splitting test of new and old concrete, the energy absorption increases with the increase of impact velocity and decreases with the increase of temperature.
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Bibliografia

[1] Z.Y. Bu, W.Y. Wu, “Inter shear transfer of unbounded prestressing precast segmental bridge column dry joints”, Engineering Structures, vol. 154, no. 1, pp. 52–65, 2018, DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2017.10.048.
[2] Zhi-fang Zhao et al., “Experimental study on adhesive tensile performance of young on old concrete”, Journal of Building Stucture, vol. 22, no.2, pp. 51–56, 2001.
[3] Zhi-fang Zhao, Guo-fan Zhao, and Cheng-kui Huang, “Research on adhesive bending behavior of young on old concrete”, China Civil Engineering Journal, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 67–72, 2000.
[4] Li-na Jin et al., “Experimental study of shear performance of new-to-old concrete interface”, Journal of Experimental Menchanics, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 611–619, 2014.
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[7] H.H. Hussein, “Interfacial properties of ultrahigh-performance concrete and high-strength concrete bridge connections”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, vol. 28, no.5, pp. 1943–5533, 2016, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE) MT.1943-5533.0001456.
[8] A.T. Bassam et al., “Mechanical and permeability properties of the interface between normal concrete substrate and ultra high performance fiber concrete overlay”, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 36, pp. 538–548, November 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.06.013.
[9] M.A. Carbonell Munoz, “Bond performance between ultrahigh-performance concrete and normal-strength concrete”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1943–5533, 2014, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE) MT.1943-5533.0000890.
[10] Ju-hui Zhang and Yue Li, “Research summary on factors about influencing strength of interfacebetween new and old concrete”, Concrete, vol. 10, pp. 156–162, 2017.
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[14] Li-wen Wang et al, “Dynamic behavior for steel-fiber reinforced reactive powder concrete after exposure in high temperature”, Journal of Building Materials, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 620–625, 2010.
[15] Yu-tao Wang et al., “Static and dynamic mechanical properties of concrete after high temperature treatment”, Journal of vibration and shock, vol. 33, no. 20, pp. 16–19, 2014.
[16] Yuan-ming He et al, “Impact tests on dynamic behavior of concrete at elevated temperatures”, Engineering mechanics, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 200–208, 2012.
[17] Zhi-fang Zhao, Yue-hai Yu, and Guo-fan Zhao, “Measurement method of the interfacial roughness of young on old concrete”, Building Structure, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 26–29, 2000.
[18] M. Pankow, C. Attard, and A.M. Waas, “Specimen size and shape effect in split hopkinson pressure bar testing”, The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 689–698, 2009.
[19] Hai Cao, Qin-yong Ma, “Dynamic splitting tensile performance of post pouring concrete adhered on precast concrete”, Journal of Building Materials, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 150–152, 2018.
[20] Li-li Wang, “Foundation of stress waves”, 2nd ed, Beijing, National Defense Industry Press, pp. 5–64, 2010.


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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Hai Cao
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Huangshan University, School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, HuangShan 245041,China
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Abstrakt

This paper presents a 3D finite element analysis of the effect caused by a blast inside a reinforced concrete tunnel. The simulated explosion was caused by the crash of a heavy vehicle transporting inflammable material (LPG). The finite element technique was used to analyze the structural problems on the tunnel reinforced concrete structure considering the fire action and the subsequent explosion (blast) effect, incorporating appropriate material models.
Through FEM software the tunnel behavior was described with regard to structural safety. Indeed, tunnels must be designed to withstand damage factors, so it is desirable that if such an explosion did occur, the tunnel should be able to return to service in safety as soon as possible with minor repairs. Therefore, following the presented analysis, the most important factors influencing the dynamic response and the damage of the structure could be identified. The simulation involved aspects of thermal analysis and structural problems and the tensions in the structure generated by the effect of temperature caused by the fire and by the blast overpressure were analyzed. Following this approach, the most important factors influencing the dynamic response and damage of structure can be identified and appropriate preventive measures can be designated.
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Bibliografia

[1] F. Cirianni, G. Leonardi, and F. Scopelliti, “A methodology for assessing the seismic vulnerability of highway systems”, in: AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1020, no. 1, American Institute of Physics, pp. 864–871, 2008, DOI: 10.1063/1.2963925.
[2] J. Liu, Q. Yan, and J.Wu, “Analysis of blast wave propagation inside tunnel”, Transactions of Tianjin University, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 358–362, 2008, DOI: 10.1007/s12209-008-0061-3.
[3] A. Van den Berg, and J. Weerheijm, “Blast phenomena in urban tunnel systems”, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 598–603, 2006, DOI: 10.1016/j.jlp.2006.03.001.
[4] D.B. Chang and C.S. Young, “Probabilistic estimates of vulnerability to explosive overpressures and impulses”, Journal of Physical Security, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 10–29, 2010.
[5] M. Buonsanti, G. Leonardi, and F. Scopelliti, “3-D Simulation of shock waves generated by dense explosive in shell structures”, Procedia Engineering, vol. 10, pp. 1554–1559, 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2011.04.259.
[6] M. Buonsanti and G. Leonardi, “3-D simulation of tunnel structures under blast loading”, Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 128–134, 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.acme.2012.09.002.
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[12] M.G. Van Geem, J. Gajda, and K. Dombrowski, “Thermal properties of commercially available high-strength concretes”, Cement, Concrete and Aggregates, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 38–54, 1997, DOI: 10.1520/cca10020j.
[13] V. Kodur and M. Sultan, “Effect of temperature on thermal properties of high-strength concrete”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 101–107, 2003, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0899-1561(2003)15:2(101).
[14] V.K. Kodur, M. Dwaikat, and M. Dwaikat, “High-temperature properties of concrete for fire resistance modeling of structures”, ACI Materials Journal, vol. 105, no. 5, p. 517, 2008.
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[16] V. Kodur, “Properties of concrete at elevated temperatures”, International Scholarly Research Notices, vol. 2014, 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/468510.
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[20] T. Jankowiak and T. Lodygowski, “Identification of parameters of concrete damage plasticity constitutive model”, Foundations of civil and environmental engineering, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 53–69, 2005.
[21] J.S. Tyau, “Finite element modeling of reinforced concrete using 3-dimensional solid elements with discrete rebar”, (Master of Science), Brigham Young University, 2009.
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[24] N. Wahid, T. Stratford, and L. Bisby, “Calibration of concrete damage plasticity model parameters for high temperature modelling of reinforced concrete flat slabs in fire”, Applications of Structural Fire Engineering, Singapore, 2019.
[25] A.S. Genikomsou and M.A. Polak, “Finite element analysis of punching shear of concrete slabs using damaged plasticity model in ABAQUS”, Engineering Structures, vol. 98, pp. 38–48, 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct. 2015.04.016.
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[27] M. Masellis, “Fire disaster in a motorway tunnel”, Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 233–240, 1997.
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[29] S. Brambilla and D. Manca, “The viareggio LPG railway accident: event reconstruction and modelling”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 182, no. 1–3, pp. 346–357, 2010, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.06.039.
[30] H. Ingason, Y.Z. Li, and A. Lönnermark, “Runehamar tunnel fire tests”, Fire Safety Journal, vol. 71, pp. 134–149, 2015.
[31] Instituut TNO voor Bouwmaterialen en Bouwconstructies, Rapport betreffende de beproeving van het gedrag van twee isolatiematerialenter bescherming van tunnels tegen brand (Rapport B-80-33). Delft, The Netherlands, 1980.
[32] B. Hemmatian, E. Planas, and J. Casal, “Fire as a primary event of accident domino sequences: the case of BLEVE”, Reliability Engineering and System Safety, vol. 139, pp. 141–148, 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.ress.2015. 03.021.
[33] K.J. Root, “Development and verification of a confined discretized solid flame model for calculating heat flux on concrete tunnel liners”, 2018.
[34] H.R.Weibull, “Pressures recorded in partially closed chambers at explosion of TNT charges”, NYASA, vol. 152, no. 1, pp. 357–361, 1968, DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1968.tb11987.x.
[35] D.R. Curran, “Underground storage of ammunition: experiments concerning accidental detonation in an underground chamber”, Norwegian Defence Construction Service, 1966.
[36] A.C. Smith and M.J. Sapko, “Detonation wave propagation in underground mine entries”, Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa, vol. 58, pp. 20–25, 2005.
[37] M. Silvestrini, B. Genova, and F. Leon Trujillo, “Energy concentration factor. A simple concept for the prediction of blast propagation in partially confined geometries”, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 449–454, 2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.jlp.2009.02.018.
[38] Center for chemical process safety, Guidelines for Evaluating the Characteristics of Vapor Cloud Explosions, Flash Fires and BLEVEs. American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 1994.
[39] J. Casal and J. M. Salla, “Using liquid superheating energy for a quick estimation of overpressure in BLEVEs and similar explosions”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 137, no. 3, pp. 1321–1327, 2006, DOI: 10.1016/ j.jhazmat.2006.05.001.
[40] B. Genova, M. Silvestrini, and F. L. Trujillo, “Evaluation of the blast-wave overpressure and fragments initial velocity for a BLEVE event via empirical correlations derived by a simplified model of released energy”, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 110–117, 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.jlp.2007.11.004.
[41] S. Koneshwaran, “Blast response and sensitivity analysis of segmental tunnel”, PhD Thesis, Queensland University of Technology, 2014.
[42] R. Tiwari, T. Chakraborty, and V. Matsagar, “Dynamic analysis of underground tunnels subjected to internal blast loading”, World Congress of Computational Mechanics (WCCM XI), Barcelona. 2014.
[43] S. Koneshwaran, D. Thambiratnam, and C. Gallage, “Performance of buried tunnels subjected to surface blast incorporating fluid-structure interaction”, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 2015, DOI: 10.1061/ (ASCE)CF.1943-5509.0000585.
[44] M. Zaid and R. Sadique, “The response of rock tunnel when subjected to blast loading: finite element analysis”, Engineering Reports, 2021.
[45] D. Hyde, “CONWEP, Conventional Weapons Effects Program”, US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS, 1992.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Giovanni Leonardi
1
ORCID: ORCID
Rocco Palamara
1
ORCID: ORCID
Federica Suraci
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Civil, Energy, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Reggio Calabria, Via Graziella, Reggio Calabria, Italy

Abstrakt

The present paper presents results of a study on hemp-lime composite – a novel building material which is gaining attention thanks to its pro-ecological values, as well as interesting hygrothermal characteristics. The thermal conductivity and vapour permeability tests were performed on composites which varied in terms of composition and density as a result of use of various binders, different proportions of ingredients in a mixture and different compaction level during manufacturing with the use of the tamping method. The results obtained, indicating low thermal conductivity and very high vapor permeability, were tabulated with results of compressive strength obtained in the previous study on the same types of composites. The conclusions emphasise supreme importance of apparent density on properties of material, rather than binder composition – which exerts a significant effect only on compressive strength. The results of the performed tests were applied for determination of external walls’ construction, which were subjected to analysis of risk of interstitial water vapor condensation according to Glaser method. For locations in all Polish climatic zones, no condensation or only a small amount thereof, in which case it does not accumulate in subsequent years, was found.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Michał Gołębiewski
1
Barbara Pietruszka
2

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture, ul. Koszykowa 55, 00-659 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Building Research Institute, Department of Thermal Physics, Acoustics and Environment, ul. Ksawerów 21, 00-656 Warsaw, Poland
Pobierz PDF Pobierz RIS Pobierz Bibtex

Abstrakt

The paper presents the assessment of reliability depending on the reinforcement cover thickness for elements subject to bending. Based on the experimental tests of 12 reinforced concrete beams subjected to four-point bending the numerical model was validated. In the next steps this numerical model was used for the Monte Carlo simulation. During the analyses the failure probability and the reliability index were determined by two methods – using probabilistic method –FORMand fully probabilistic method Monte Carlo with the use of variance reduction techniques by Latin hypercube sampling (LHS). The random character of input data – compressive strength of concrete, yield strength of steel and effective depth of reinforcement were assumed in the analysis. Non-parametric Spearman rank correlation method was used to estimate the statistical relationship between random variables. Analyses have shown a significant influence of the random character of effective depth on reliability index and the failure probability of bending elements.
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Bibliografia

[1] ATENA, Program Documentation, Prague, 2014.
[2] L. Buda-Ozóg, “Diagnostics of technical condition of concrete elements using dynamic methods”, PhD thesis, Rzeszow University of Technology, Poland 2008 (in Polish).
[3] L. Buda-Ozóg, K. Sienkowska, and I. Skrzypczak, “Reliability of beams subjected to torsion designed using STM”, Archives of Civil Engineering, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 555–573, 2020. DOI: 10.24425/ace.2020.134413.
[4] C. Cornell, “A probability based structural code”, American Concrete Institute Journal, no. 66, pp. 974–985, 1969.
[5] EN 1990, Eurocode – Basis of structural design. Brussels: CEN, 2002.
[6] FREET, Program Documentation, Prague 2011.
[7] GUNB reports on construction disasters from 1995 to 2009, conference materials “Construction failures”, Szczecin, 2011 (in Polish).
[8] D. Huntington and C. Lyrintzis, “Improvements to and limitations of Latin hypercube sampling. Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics”, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 245–253, 1997.
[9] ISO 13822, Bases for design of structures – Assessment of existing structures. Geneve, Switzerland: ISO TC98/SC2, 2010.
[10] ISO 2394, General principles on reliability for structures, 2010.
[11] A.S. Nowak and K.R. Collins, “Reliability of Structures”, McGraw-Hill, p. 338, New York, 2000.
[12] Probabilistic Model Code, JCSS working material, http://www.jcss.ethz.ch/ (online), 2012.
[13] SARA, Program Documentation, Prague, 2015.
[14] I. Skrzypczak, L. Buda-Ozóg, and M. Słowik, “Projektowanie elementów żelbetowych z założoną niezawodnością”, Czasopismo Inżynierii Lądowej, Środowiska i Architektury, vol. 61, no 3/II, pp. 503–510, 2014, DOI: 10.7862/rb.2014.116.
[15] A.C.W.M. Vrouwenvelder and N. Scholten, “Assessment criteria for existing structures”, Structural Engineering International, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 62–65, 2010.
[16] K. Winkelman, “Obliczanie niezawodności konstrukcji inżynierskich metodami symulacyjnymi oraz metodą powierzchni odpowiedzi”, PhD thesis, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, 2013.
[17] S. Wolinski, “Probabilistyczne podstawy współczesnych norm projektowania”, Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Rzeszowskiej, vol. 58, pp. 269–288, 2011.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Katarzyna Sieńkowska
1
Lidia Buda-Ożóg
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Rzeszów University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture, Powstancow Warszawy 12, 35-859 Rzeszów, Poland

Abstrakt

This paper presents the Extended Force Density Method which allows for form-finding of cable nets under self-weight. Formulation of the method is based on the curved catenary cable element which assures high accuracy of the results and enables solving wide range of problems. Essential rules of the Force Density Method (FDM) are summarized in the paper. Some well-known formula describing behaviour of a catenary cable element under self-weight are given.Next the improved variant ofFDMwith all the theoretical and numerical details is introduced. Iterative procedure for solving nonlinear equations is described. Finally a simple verification example proves correctness of methods assumptions. Two further analyses of parameters crucial for correct use of Extended Force Density Method (EFDM) are presented in order to indicate their initial values for other numerical examples. Accuracy of the results are also investigated. A computer program UC-Form was developed in order to perform the calculations and graphically present the results. Some examples of use of EFDM are presented in details in Part II – Examples of application.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Izabela Wójcik-Grząba
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland

Abstrakt

The article presents the results of experimental studies of the influence of granite dust on the properties and durability of concrete. The use of industrial waste – granite dust, in the processing of granite into crushed stone, at the same time allows the rational use of natural resources and solve environmental problems. The possibility of improving the construction and technical properties of concrete filled with granite dust is considered. Experimental-statistical models of technological and physical-mechanical properties of concretes are presented and analyzed, ways of their improvement are shown. The complex of strength properties, water absorption, frost resistance, and durability of such concrete have been studied. The studied concrete are characterized by a more intensive set of strength and obtaining mixtures of “sticky” consistency. Due to the partial replacement of sand by granite dust, the microstructure of the cement matrix is compacted, which is the main reason for reducing porosity and increasing the durability of structures based on the proposed concrete.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Grzegorz Prokopski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Andriy Huts
1
ORCID: ORCID
Vitaliy Marchuk
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Rzeszów University of Technology, The Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture, Poznanska 2, 35-084 Rzeszów, Poland
  2. National University of Water and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Building and Architecture, Chornovola 49, 33-000 Rivne, Ukraine

Abstrakt

The article presents detailed guidelines for the nonlinear modelling of wood–CFRP beams with full cross-section using the Finite Element Method (FEM). Reviewing the literature has shown that behaviour of such composites is a current research topic, undertaken by many scientists. Complex numerical models made in the Simulia ABAQUS software are the basis for modelling recommendations. Properties of the materials consider the orthotropy and plasticity of wood and CFRP tapes, and the stiffness of adhesive layers with delamination. Results of laboratory experiments, got for a statistically significant number of specimens, confirm the model assumptions. This research paper provides a rich source of knowledge and experiences for scientists and engineers, who deal with mechanics of wood–CFRP composites. The uniqueness of the presentation lies in the detailed description of the complex numerical model. Specification comprises the steps necessary to do complete and successful calculations. The model is suitable for analysing the behaviour of wood–CFRP composites in different reinforcement configurations.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Bartosz Kawecki
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Lublin University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ul. Nadbystrzycka 40, 20-618 Lublin, Poland

Abstrakt

Aluminum-glass partition systems are used as building facades but also as glazed internal walls designated to form various internal partitions with glass doors. These partitions are designated to create fire compartments as well as separate and soundproof the zones created, without visually limiting the built up area. System fireproof partitions manufactured in fire resistance classes EI 30 to EI 180 constitute an important product in the offer of domestic and foreign manufacturers in terms of fire safety. The internal and external fireproof partitions are generally designed conformant to deterministic criteria, i.e. the structure of the partition is determined by the formal requirements listed in the legal regulations pertaining to basic requirements which should be satisfied by buildings and their parts. The fireproofing qualities of system aluminum-glass partitions are controlled in laboratories and documented in technical approvals. Partitions designed according to the deterministic criteria may be verified by the fire reliability analysis of the designed structure using the known simple and complex models of the reliability theory. In this paper the reliability formulae for simple and mixed mathematical models of non-renewable objects, which have been applied to model the fire reliability of partitions made by Aluprof, a domestic maker of aluminum-glass systems, under catalog numbers MB-78EI and MB-118EI, have been juxtaposed. The results of calculations allowed for preparing design recommendations, verifying the deterministic criteria for design of fire resistant partitions. In particular the fire reliability analysis prompts for abandoning the design of expensive aluminum-glass partitions made of multi-layered glass having multiple fire resistant layers.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Marian Gwóźdź
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Bielsko-Biala (ATH), Institute of Building Industry, ul. Willowa 2, 43-309 Bielsko-Biała, Poland

Abstrakt

Construction is one of the industrial sectors responsible for the use of large quantities of natural raw materials. This fact makes it necessary to look for new technologies of producing construction materials based as much as possible on waste materials. Such a solution could have positive effects on the environment and reduce construction costs. This paper presents the results of a study on the deformability of a mix made from anthropogenic waste combined with a hydraulic binder. The presented mixes consist of unburnt coal mining slates (mine waste), shredded rubber waste, silica fly ash and CEM I 42.5 R cement. Samples with two different contents of shredded rubber waste 0% and 10% were made from the mixtures and subjected to destructive compressive strength testing. The strength testwas combined with sample deformation measurement performed with the Aramis 3D Video Correlation System. The results presented show the effect of the shredded rubber waste content on the deformability of the sample.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Konrad Walotek
1
ORCID: ORCID
Joanna Bzówka
1
ORCID: ORCID
Adrian Ciołczyk
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Akademicka 5, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland

Abstrakt

Distracted driving is a significant factor affecting road safety and it can occur as a result of using mobile phones while driving. The aim of the current research is to present the prevalence of mobile phone use by Polish car drivers, based on the roadside and online survey. The field study showed that 11.6% of 1867 drivers were using mobile phones while being in motion and 26.1% of 203 drivers when stopped in front of traffic lights. While moving, 8.9% were manipulating the device by hand and 2.6% – holding it to ear. During the stop, 14.2% of the observed motorists were manipulating it, 3.0% – holding it to the ear, and 8.9% – talking through a hands-free or headset. To determine how many people generally use mobile phones while driving (not only during momentary observation), a questionnaire was also carried out. The vast majority of 252 surveyed drivers (82.9%) admitted to using mobile phones while driving, and an equally large proportion considered this behavior as dangerous for transport safety (81.3%). Most of the motorists reported using cell phones: rarely (44.4%), both when stopped and being in motion (58.9%), in a built-up area (63.6%), holding it in hand (43.5%) and in order to chat or write messages (81.8%). The majority of drivers using cell phones while driving were male and in the 25–44 or 18–24 age group. None of the respondents caused an accident due to the use of these devices, but 1.6% were guilty of a collision caused by this reason.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Paulina Szrywer
1
ORCID: ORCID
Joanna Wachnicka
1
ORCID: ORCID
Wojciech Kustra
1
ORCID: ORCID
Orazio Pellegrino
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Technology, Department of Highway and Transportation Engineering, ul. Gabriela Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk
  2. University of Messina, Department of Engineering, Contrada di Dio – Villaggio Sant’Agata, Messina, Italy

Abstrakt

The constant increase in the population of cities affects the development of housing. Investors, in their activities related to the profit from the sale of flats, focus on the completion of residential buildings, which must be timely and in accordance with the budget assumptions. Therefore, there is a problem concerning the correct planning of the costs and duration of an investment. The aim of the conducted research was to determine the shape and course of the cost curves for construction projects related to the construction of residential buildings. Based on the analysis of the authors’ own studies carried out in a homogeneous research group of 11 residence buildings, an original attempt was made to determine the area of the curve, which indicates the area of correct planning of cumulative costs and the forecasting of their deviations in the financial outlays of construction projects. By knowing the planned cost and duration of a construction project, and by using the proposed 6th degree polynomial, it is possible to determine the planned monthly work and expenditure amounts, and thus correctly plan the investment costs over time. It was proven that the planned work and expenditure advancement of the housing construction sector is greater in the first stage of its implementation when compared to the actual state. The determined 6th degree polynomials describe the regularity that shows that for half of the planned duration of works, the planned work and expenditure advancement is approx. 46%, while the actual advancement is approx. 35%.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Mariusz Szóstak
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Building Engineering, 27 Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego St., 50-370 Wrocław

Abstrakt

The primary aim of this paper is to study the optimization of rigid frame bridge parameters. With a three-span continuous rigid frame bridge as the engineering background, finite element models were established. Then an index about bridge force condition was proposed to calculate the optimal side-to-mid span ratio with different side-to-mid span ratio parameters. Based on the ratio, the values of the girder depth at the pier and the bottom curve degree of the box-girder were taken as parameters in their common ranges for further optimization. A comprehensive multi-objective evaluation index correlated with the mid-span section stress, the mid-span deflection, and the concrete consumption was proposed to do fine optimization through the genetic algorithm method. The result of this study shows that the genetic algorithm is an effective method for bridge optimization and could provide better girder design parameter combinations for the comprehensive performance, and the optimal result could be obtained in the continuous parameter definition domains. It also shows that a larger girder depth at the pier to span ratio and a smaller curve degree in their common ranges should be taken for the bridge’s comprehensive performance.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Yao Lu
1
Dejian Li
1
Che Yao
1
Zhen Li
1

  1. Central South University, School of Civil Engineering, 68 South Shaoshan Road, Railway Campus CSU, 410075, Changsha, China

Abstrakt

This research aimed to investigate the water vapour transmission properties of chosen EPDM membranes applied in façade and window systems under laboratory tests. The applied procedure included in national and international standards utilized for the laboratory tests of water vapour transmission properties of EPDMmembrane is described. Two main types (outside and inside types) ofEPDMmembranes are laboratory tested. The authors indicated that the EPDM membranes should differ in surface factures. Nevertheless, some manufacturers mark EPDM membranes on each roll (on the package only) without different permanent denotations on the EPDM membranes surfaces. This form of denotations can cause using problems – using the wrong types of the EPDM aprons in building partitions, because when the package is removed there is impossible to visually identify the type of EPDM membrane (outside or inside type) from the texture of the membrane surface. The experimental results of laboratory tests indicated using the wrong type of EPDM membrane in the inside aprons in building partitions in the investigated façade window system. The designed proportion of the sd values (the resistance to movement of water vapour) of inside and out-side EPDM façade membranes should be designed equally to about 3.0 (recommended value 4) to provide proper diffusion properties of partitions around windows in façade systems. The paper can provide scientists, engineers, and designers an experimental basis in the field of the EPDM membranes water vapour transmission properties applied to façades and windows systems.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Andrzej Ambroziak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sławomir Dobrowolski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, St.Gabriela Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland

Abstrakt

Duration of construction projects can be reduced by harmonizing construction processes: adjusting productivity rates of specialized crews and enabling the crews to work in parallel as in a production line. This is achievable in the case of projects whose scope can be divided into units where a similar type of work needs to be conducted in the same sequence. A number of repetitive project scheduling methods have been developed to assist the planner in minimizing the execution time and smoothing resource profiles. However, the workflow, especially in construction, is subject to disturbance, and the actual process durations are likely to vary from the as-scheduled ones. The inherent variability of process durations results not only in delays of a particular process in a particular unit but also in the propagation of disruptions throughout the initially well-harmonized schedule. To counteract the negative effects of process duration variability, a number of proactive scheduling methods have been developed. They consist in some form of predicting the conditions to occur in the course of the project and implementing a strategy to mitigate disturbance propagation. This paper puts forward a method of scheduling repetitive heterogeneous processes. The method aims to reduce idle time of crews. It is based on allocating time buffers in the form of breaks between processes conducted within units. The merits of the method are illustrated by an example and assessed in the course of a simulation experiment.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Piotr Jaśkowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sławomir Biruk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Michał Krzemiński
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Lublin University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Nadbystrzycka str.40, 20-618 Lublin, Poland
  2. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Armii Ludowej str. 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland

Abstrakt

Research and development of energy-efficient materials have been essential for sustainable infrastructure growth. A considerable amount of money is being spent on various energy stabilization techniques worldwide to attain thermal comfort in buildings. Thus, lowering the energy demand through green materials is vital to save energy and the environment. In this paper, a new form of Structural Insulated Panel (SIP) has been developed and referred to as Ferro Cellular Lightweight Concrete Insulated Panel (FCIP). Comparative thermal efficiency and acoustic performance of FCIP and brick masonry walls have been tested experimentally. The thermal results show that FCIP allows just 2 deg C rise in the internal temperature of the room chamber in two hours, whereas the brick masonry allows 9.5 deg C rise in the internal temperature of the room chamber for the same period. Similarly, the acoustic results show that FCIP has 0.85 sound absorption coefficient compared to 0.2 for brick masonry wall. Further, the cost-benefit analysis was conducted based on the electricity consumption results of a building produced by the eQuest energy simulation program. The outcome shows that the building’s lifetime running cost gets reduced to 50% when FCIP replaces the concrete/brick masonry envelope.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

M. Yasir Khan
1
ORCID: ORCID
Abdul Baqi
1
ORCID: ORCID
Rehan Sadique
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India

Abstrakt

In the paper the problem of strengthening of flat slabs against punching shear was discussed. Selected methods verified on the basis of experimental tests such as increasing size of the support, applying post-installed shear reinforcement or increasing the main reinforcement by installing additional steel flat bars, were presented. The previous studies demonstrated, that the last method allows for an increase in punching shear resistance of up to 90%, depending on the longitudinal reinforcement ratio. The example of the application of such strengthening technique in the real structure was described. The use of steel flat bars located in the vicinity of the columns and additionally anchored to the slab made possible to compensate for the load capacity deficiencies that occurred due to execution errors (lowering of the main reinforcement within the support zones).
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Tadeusz Urban
1
ORCID: ORCID
Michał Gołdyn
1
ORCID: ORCID
Łukasz Krawczyk
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Lodz University of Technology, Department of Concrete Structures, al. Politechniki 6, 93-590 Łódz, Poland

Abstrakt

This paper presents laboratory analyses of the influence of an acidic environment, salinity and temperature change are able to exert on the geomechanical properties of the opoka-rocks. This rock material, deriving from four sites in East–Central Poland, was found to be variously resistant to factors like the destructive action of water-soluble salts and the effects of an acidic environment, on account of the actuallydiverse nature of the rocks in question. Ultimately, the work offered a basis for a distinction to be drawn between the light opoka-rocks present at the Annopol and KazimierzWielki sites, and the heavy opoka-rocks from Bochotnica and Krasnobród, in terms of both textural and physical-mechanical features. The heavy opoka-rocks from Krasnobród proved least resistant to an acidic environment, which left strength reduced significantly. This kind of rock also experiences both an increase in porosity and absorbability and a decrease in weight. Furthermore, the influence of an acidic environment on aesthetic features of the examined rocks was in all cases negative, salts formed a patina on surfaces that obscured original structural and textural features. None of the tested types of rock presented resistance to the crystallization pressure such salt is able to exert.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Agnieszka Pękala
1
ORCID: ORCID
Filip Puch
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Rzeszów University of Technology, Faculty of Civil, Environmental Engineering and Architecture, Al.Powstanców Warszawy 6, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland
  2. Rzeszów University of Technology, Faculty of Civil, Environmental Engineering and Architecture, ul. Poznanska 2, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

Abstrakt

One of major design problems associated with shallow tunnelling in urbanized areas is the prediction of ground displacements caused by the construction process. Advanced tunnelling techniques such as shield tunnelling using Earth Pressure Balance Tunnel Boring Machines (EPB-TBMs) allow for significant reductions of settlements observed at the ground surface in comparison to tunnelling methods used in the past. The predictions of these displacements are often based on semi-empirical methods and prior experience. In addition to relative simplicity of such methods, their robustness and decades of validation in many tunnelling projects make them attractive for practical use. The tunnelling-induced settlement trough at the ground surface can be described by inversed Gaussian distribution function. It requires only the assumption of two parameters, namely: expected volume loss (VL) and the distance to the point of inflection (iy ), which is dependent on the empirical trough width parameter (K) and the tunnelling depth (z0). The values of those parameters have a strongly empirical nature; they should be established based on comparable experience obtained from full scale tunnelling projects with similar technique and at similar ground conditions. The paper presents the problem of variability of those parameters and discusses the need for its assessment. As volume loss is strongly related to the tunnelling technique, the study focuses on EPB-TBM tunnelling as the most commonly implemented one in recent years. Variability of parameters observed for different ground conditions in different countries is summarized. Finally, preliminary assessment of variability of settlements observed in Warsaw region is presented.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Witold Bogusz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tomasz Godlewski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Anna Siemińska-Lewandowska
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Building Research Institute, Filtrowa 1, 00-611 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland

Abstrakt

In order to study the change in performance of the Suifenhe cable-stayed bridge in China over 12 years, cable force, elevation, static and dynamic load tests were conducted in 2006 and 2018, respectively. In this paper, theoretical data, obtained through finite element model analysis, were compared with the measured load test data for changes in static and dynamic performances. A comparison between 2006 and 2018 shows that additional dead load deflection exists in the main span after 12 years of operation. And that the cable force due to dead load of the full-scale cable-stayed bridge decreases and redistributes, which have adverse effects on the safety of bridge structure after long-term operations. Therefore, on-site inspection, static and dynamic load tests are reco mmended for cable-stayed bridges over 10-years old to test their static and dynamic performance. Moreover, cable force adjustments are to be conducted whenever necessary for the cable-stayed bridge used swivel construction.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Meng Liu
1
ORCID: ORCID
Quansheng Sun
1
ORCID: ORCID
Haitao Yu
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jianxi Yang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tongzhou Zhang
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. School of Civil Engineering, Northeast Forestry University, 150040 Harbin, China

Abstrakt

The concept of sustainability requires that waste-modified materials also demonstrate adequate sustainability. This paper examines the effect of modifying cement concrete with waste lime dust on the course of concrete carbonation. The waste dust comes from the dedusting of aggregate for use in HMA – Hot Mixture Asphalt. The aim of the study was to examine whether the partial replacement of sand with waste powder would have a negative effect on the potential durability of a reinforced concrete element made of this concrete. To determine the extent of carbonation, an experimental plan was prepared including the execution of concretes with varying levels of substitution and a variable water/cement ratio. In order to identify long term influence the test was performed as indicated in EN 12390-12, but with the test time extended to 560 days. The results obtained were statistically analysed and the predicted maximum extent of carbonation depending on the level of substitution and the water/cement ratio was determined. The analysis indicates that it is possible to substitute sand with waste limestone dust without having a negative impact on the extent of carbonation, and thus on the durability of the reinforced concrete structure.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Maja Kępniak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Piotr Woyciechowski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland

Abstrakt

An enormous number of structures and roads are put on expansive subgrade soils and may be exposed to the swelling and shrinkage risk. To prevent the expanding weight of the subgrade layer under loaded pavement, one of the following strategies may be utilized are geogrid layer. Reinforced pavement layers have been propagated in the field of civil engineering because of their profoundly adaptable and diversified use. In this study, axisymmetric models of pavement layers have been created by 2-D Plaxis software and all of these models included geogrid layers at various positions concentrated to research the impact of geogrid on the critical pavement responses. Geogrid was placed at the bottom of asphalt layer, bottom of base layer, tope and middle of the subgrade layer. All models are loaded with incremental contact pressure between 50 and 600 kPa. Analysis processes have been made for all models and the obtained investigation results show a significant effect on pavement behavior when the a geogrid layer was used under various tire pressures. Also, there is an increase in the bearing capacity of a model that includes geogrid at the top and middle of the subgrade layer by about 35% and the resistance of the asphalt layer to deformation and cracking failure was improved.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ghadah Ghassan Masood
1
ORCID: ORCID
Hadeel Ammar Mohammed
1
ORCID: ORCID
Hanan Adnan Hassan Afaj
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mohammed Yousif Fattah
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Lecturer, Highway and Transportation Department, Engineering College, Mustansiriyah University, Iraq, Baghdad
  2. Civil Engineering Department, University of Technology, Iraq

Abstrakt

The article draws attention to certain aspects of calculating the width of cracks and stresses in composite elements under bending, in which the slab is located in the tension zone. If semi-rigid joints are used in the element, in which the beam is attached to the column by bolts, two types of areas should be distinct in which the reinforcement stresses will be calculated in a different way. The method of calculating stresses in reinforcement will depend on the type of a used joint or on the distance of the considered cross-section from the semi-rigid joint. In order to distinguish the method of calculating stresses in the paper, two areas were introduced: specifically area B and area D. Area B will be the area where the principle of flat sections can be applied, and stresses in the reinforcement are determined using the classical theory by adding the component responsible for the tension stiffening phenomenon. Area D is the area in the vicinity of the semi-rigid joint, where the principle of flat sections cannot be applied. To calculate stresses, consider the balance of joints using the available models of the semi-rigid joint, in particular the spring model. The paper presents the formulas for calculating stresses in the D area for two types semi-rigid joints: joint with a flush end-plate with 2 rows of bolts are used and joint with an extended end-plate with 3 rows of bolts are used.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Marcin Niedośpiał
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland

Abstrakt

Bicycle lanes are lanes marked on a road and dedicated for exclusive use for cyclists.. Because they combine bike and motor traffic they provide directness and flow. However, a shared use of streets could result in bicycle-car accidents. Following up on the good practice Western countries have in planning cycle infrastructure, Gdansk has recently introduced bike lanes on a few streets. The aim of the research was to assess the attractiveness and safety of bike lanes as a relatively new and rare solution in Gdansk. The attractiveness was assessed using the multi-criteria method. The data for the assessment came from surveys and fieldwork (inventory, observation of cyclist behaviour, traffic counts). Additionally, safety information was supplemented with police statistics on collisions and accidents. The results show that the level of bike lane usage is rather high (more than 70%). However, 80% of the respondents do not find them as attractive as separated bike paths. The advantages indicated by bike lane users included speed, surface quality, and comfort. Those who avoiding bike lanes have pointed to insufficient sense of safety. The main problems were identified such as speed and volume of motor traffic, width of bicycle lane, surface quality and parking places located next to bike lanes. The conclusions from the research are consistent with the literature. The findings could improve the attractiveness and safety of bike lanes in Gdansk if implemented by bike infrastructure planners and designers.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Romanika Okraszewska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Karolina Kijewska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Joanna Wachnicka
1
ORCID: ORCID
Miroslava Mikusova
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Gdansk University of Technology, Department of Highway and Transportation Engineering, ul. Gabriela Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
  2. University of Zilina, Department of Road and Urban Transport Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina, Slovakia

Abstrakt

Buildings in Poland are still constructed using technologies and methods created decades ago, even though many new technologies can be applied. Such an approach in the construction process is not sufficient to ensure the sustainable development of the world. Therefore, there is a great need for implementing new, innovative technical, economic, and social solutions. Innovation can be considered as any change that is beneficial for the entity that introduces it. The challenges that the construction sector faces nowadays are mostly related to the concept of sustainable development. The main trends in innovations are the shift towards more resource- and energy-efficientways of construction aswell as implementing the principles of the circular economy. In this article, we present innovative technologies applied in the construction sector that meet the requirements of sustainable development. Also, we propose a method for assessing the environmental impact of innovative technologies currently used in the construction sector. As the proposed methods are primarily based on expert knowledge, it was necessary to determine the risk of making a wrong decision to apply innovative technology in practice based on an assessment made by a person with appropriate competencies.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Arkadiusz Węglarz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Paweł Gilewski
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Building Services, Hydro and Environmental Engineering, ul. Nowowiejska 20, 00-653 Warsaw, Poland

Abstrakt

Using a lower-cost laser scanner for generating accuracy in 3D point-cloud has been a concern because of economic issues; therefore, this study aims to create a 3D point cloud of a target object using a low-cost 2D laser scanner, Hokuyo UTM 30LX. The experiment was carried out in November 2019 with 16 single scans from 8 different viewpoints to capture the surface information of a structure object with many intricate details. The device was attached to a rail, and it could move with stable velocity thanks to an adjustable speed motor. The corresponding 16 point-clouds were generated by using the R language. Then, they were combined one by one to make a completed 3D point cloud in the united coordinate system. The resulted point cloud consisted of 1.4 million points with high accuracy (RMSE = 1:5 cm) is suitable for visualizing and assessing the target object thanks to high dense point-cloud data. Both small details and characters on the object surface can be recognized directly from the point cloud. This result confirms the ability of generated the accuracy point cloud from the low-cost 2D laser scanner Hokuyo UTM 30LX for 3D visualizing or indirectly evaluating the current situation of the target object.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Anh Thu Thi Phan
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ngoc Thi Huynh
2 3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Geomatics Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet Street, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
  2. Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh City, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
  3. Department of Bridge and Highway Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, HoChi Minh City University of Technology, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet Street, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Abstrakt

This paper regards the minimum weight problem of spatial systems, known in the literature as Rozvany–Prager archgrids. Their architectural role is to transmit a load of fixed intensity to the line of supports located at the boundary of a given plane domain. The system consists of arches spaced apart from one another, hence the mechanics of such a system is that of a gridwork shell and not a shell continuum. Mathematically, description of an archgrid falls into the class of Michell frames. Therefore, in our approach, we make use of the plastic design paradigm – it states that optimal bar structure is at the verge of plastic failure, with bars uniformly stressed to the limit value in compression, or tension. In the case of archgrid optimization, only compression is allowed and this limitation introduces an additional design constraint. The main goal of this paper is computational, thus the general variational framework of the optimization problem is reformulated in the discrete setting, involving the methods of linear algebra. Numerics of the discrete approach to Rozvany–Prager archgrids is considered from the novel perspective based on second-order cone programming (SOCP). Procedures used for solving the examples are coded in MATLAB combined with MOSEK optimization toolbox for SOCP routines.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Grzegorz Dzierżanowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Krzysztof Hetmański
1

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland

Abstrakt

Waste or additional costs in infrastructure projects such as jetty projects are often caused by rework. Besides having an impact on costs, rework is also a very significant contributor to waste or adding time which causes delays in the completion schedule of the project. A lot of research on rework has been carried out on both building and road construction projects, but there is no jetty construction project. This study aims to develop improvement scenarios to minimize the emergence of rework on pier infrastructure projects by modelling and simulating cost performance. The research variables were obtained based on the results of a literature study by asking for opinions from experts who are compatible in their scope. The initial model used the causal loop diagram form which was later developed into a Stock Flow Diagram, after which a repair simulation was carried out using the dynamic system method to determine the effect on cost performance. From the research results obtained 14 factors that affect the cost and time performance on the jetty project, the implementation of a dynamic system can provide the optimum solution with the ability to reduce the percentage of the number of reworks by 24.12% for 12 months.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Agung Prihantoro
1
ORCID: ORCID
Albert Eddy Husin
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universitas Mercu Buana, Department of Civil Engineering, Jakarta Barat 11650, Indonesia

Abstrakt

In green concept hospital work, several provisions must be obeyed so that all processes, including material selection, project implementation, and building operations, must refer to green principles. Green building planning and construction costs higher than conventional by 10–20%. By using theValue Engineering (VE) method and combined with the Lifecycle Cost Analysis (LCCA), the researcher applies the green hospital concept to a project which is a case study but is still cost-effective even lower than the original Bill of Quantity. To see the strong influence of effectiveness on the hospital project, the researcher distributed a questionnaire to stakeholders. The results of the questionnaire were processed and analyzed using the Statistics Products and Solution Services (SPSS) tool. VE is implemented after first creating a Function Analysis System Technique (FAST) diagram, before and after adding functions for certain work items. It turns out that the use of the VE and LCCA methods is very influential in improving cost performance. From the calculation of the VE method, the resulting costs are up to 2.62% of the initial cost and LCCA shows the payback period of the Solar Power Plant with time = 9:64 years 9 years 7 months. The novelty of this research is the selection materials and the green concept of working methods is still cost efficient and the installation of Photovoltaics (PV) on the roof of Hospital reaches a payback period which is feasible for new investment.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ali Imron
1
ORCID: ORCID
Albert Eddy Husin
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universitas Mercu Buana, Department of Civil Engineering, Jakarta Barat 11650, Indonesia

Abstrakt

The problem of the proper functioning of Park-and-Ride facilities seems to be of key importance for ensuring appropriate transport in cities in which the intensity of road traffic is systematically increasing, together with the increase of environmental pollution (air pollution, noise etc.). The attractiveness of a car park of this kind seems obvious – instead of a burdensome journey in one’s own car, one changes the vehicle to fast municipal public transport or another means of transport (a bike, a scooter), or reaches the destination on foot. This results in benefits – above all in terms of comfort (shortening the time of the journey), health advantages etc. As has been proven by experiments, facilities of this kind are an expensive investment, the location of which (e.g. stand-alone) does not always ensure full utilization. The concept presented in the article assumes the possibility of a gradual extension of the multistorey car park following the increase of the demand. The article attempted to demonstrate that one of the sources of increasing attractiveness is the appropriate location (guaranteeing easy commute to the car park), the possibilities to continue the journey in an attractive way, then increasing the attractiveness through the possibility to use various services (shopping, the gym, the swimming pool, cinema, restaurants) and thirdly: the plan of launching the car park and its utilization in the life cycle should ensure the possibility of flexible reacting to changes of the demand (the experiences of the ongoing pandemic indicate that there is no guarantee of ensuring systematic demand increase). An element which also seems significant is the limitation of costs in the initial stage of investments of this kind with the possibility of gradual extension following the change of user habits.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Jerzy Paslawski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tomasz Rudnicki
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Poznan University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Transport Engineering, 5 Piotrowo St., 60-965 Poznan, Poland
  2. Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy, Military University of Technology in Warsaw,2 Gen. S. Kaliskiego St., 01-476 Warsaw, Poland

Abstrakt

The paper presents the original concept of description and analysis of buildings (wall and floor structures), corresponding to the natural components of construction, quasi finite elements (QWSFS). This concept constitutes one of the component of the developed, interactive model of deep foundation buildings. The presented modelling method enables a significant reduction of the number of unknowns, which in the case of interaction building – subsoil, gives a possibility of including the factual geometry and building development stiffness into the FEM model. Therefore the true representation of static operation of the objects can be analysed. The paper gives basic assumptions to the construction of the QWSF-superelements as well as the results of numerical tests conducted. The potential of using the developed modelling concept in the analysis of the structural elements and deep foundation problems, in a three-dimensional system: subsoil – new building – potential neighbouring building development (at each stage of erection of investment, using a structural statics stage analysis) was presented.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Czesław Miedziałowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Leonas Ustinovichius
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Bialystok University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering And Environmental Sciences, Wiejska 45E, 15-351 Bialystok
  2. Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Civil Engineering Faculty, Vilnius, Lithuania

Abstrakt

The present paper describes an experimental methodology of identification of dynamic characteristics of a track structure, consisting in determination of a track decay rate (TDR) in the field tests that were conducted by the authors on the railway line section inWarsaw. The proposed methodology of measurements, parameters determination and presentation of the results is based on the measurement methods described in EN 15461 [1], which are aimed at determination of TDR. The values of TDR determined in the impulse tests in one-third octave bands are compared with the limiting values specified in EN ISO 3095 [2] and Technical Specifications for Interoperability (TSI) [3]. Based on the obtained experimental data, the analysed railway line is classified as a structure that does not generate excessive level of rolling noise from the vibrations induced by the moving rolling stock on structural elements of the track – particularly on rails. The results obtained in this study are promising from the point of view of future development of effective solutions used for protection of people and environment against noise generated by the railway traffic.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Cezary Kraśkiewicz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Przemysław Mossakowski
1
Artur Zbiciak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Anna Al Sabouni-Zawadzka
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland

Abstrakt

The presence of soft soil of river and organic genesis in the basement of road embankments creates problems related to their high deformability. Difficult to assess water permeability, affecting the course of the consolidation and settlement process, requires field studies, such as dilatometer tests. In engineering practice, there are many factors that can affect the basement consolidation process, but they are not simply applied to theoretical models. In many cases, only the observational method allows the selected computational approach to be applied to a specific engineering problem. For this reason, it is one of the approaches strongly emphasized by Eurocode 7. The article presents an example of the application of a temporary load from heavy construction traffic to the consolidation of soft soil under service roads with verification of the subsoil parameters using the dilatometer tests. A horizontal layer of weak soil, loaded with a vertical external load caused by temporary traffic, was assumed for the calculations. For such an arrangement, the classical solution of uniaxial Terzaghi’s consolidation with the water flow in the vertical direction was applied. A computational analysis of the consolidation time and maximum settlement values was performed.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Grzegorz Bartnik
1
ORCID: ORCID
Rafał Kuszyk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Małgorzata Superczyńska
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland

Abstrakt

The article presents the tender procedure used to select the best – according to the investor’s requirements – variant of the offer for the General Contractor of a development investment. The subject of the contract was the comprehensive construction of a complex of single-family, semi-detached buildings with a traditional brick structure. In the opinion of the authors of the article, a well-thought-out selection of an appropriate contractor is one of the most important elements of the investment process, because it has a direct impact on the fluency of the construction stage and the future use of the investment, during the warranty period. In addition, a diligently conducted tender procedure allows to minimize the risk of selecting an unprofessional contractor and thus allows to counteract many possible problems and conflicts during the implementation of the subject of the contract. At the stage of the tender procedure, four variants of offers for the comprehensive implementation of the construction of a complex of single-family semi-detached buildings of the following criteria: price (C1), lead time (C2), form of payment (C3), liquidity (C4), experience (C5) and resources (C6). In this article, the authors presented in details the calculation procedure using the ideal point method. Conducting a multi-criteria assessment of variants, based on the selected methods, also clearly verified the strengths and weaknesses of all tenderers, enabling the selection of the best one in the light of the adopted assessment criteria.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Mariola Książek-Nowak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Marek Ozimek
2

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Kiloutou Polska Sp. z. o. o., ul. Rokicinska 142 Z, 92-412 Łódz, Poland

Abstrakt

To understand the contributory factors to rear-end accident severity on mountainous expressways, a total of 1039 rear-end accidents, occurring on G5 Jingkun Expressway from Hechizhai to Qipanguan in Shaanxi, China over the period of 2012 to 2017, were collected, and a non-parametric Classification and Regression Tree (CART) model was used to explore the relationship between severity outcomes and driver factors, vehicle characteristics, roadway geometry and environmental conditions. Then the random forest model was introduced to examine the accuracy of variable selection and rank their importance. The results show that driver’s risky driving behaviours, vehicle type, radius of curve, angle of deflection, type of vertical curve, time, season, and weather are significantly associated with rear-end accident severity. Speeding and driving while drunk and fatigued are more prone to result in severe consequences for such accidents and driving while fatigued is found to have the highest fatality probability, especially during the night period (18:00–24:00). The involvement of heavy trucks increases the injury probability significantly, but decreases the fatality probability. In addition, adverse weather and sharp curve with radius less than 1000mare the most risk combination of factors. These findings can help agencies more effectively establish stricter regulations, adopt technical measures and strengthen safety education to ensure driver’s driving safety on mountainous expressways for today and tomorrow.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Yonggang Wang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Xianyu Luo
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Chang’an University, College of Transportation Engineering, Middle Section of South 2 Ring Rd., Xi’an 710064, Shaanxi, China

Abstrakt

The introduction of new road pavement materials causes the need to verify whether the existing pavement design methods enable correct incorporation of their properties. In the case of asphalt pavements, the origins of contemporary methods may be traced back to the mid-20th century, when solely unmodified binders were used. The introduction of highly SBS-modified binders in 2009 significantly changed the behaviour of the asphalt mixtures and the entire pavement structure. Asphalt courses are now characterised by very high flexibility, elasticity and fatigue resistance, with simultaneous high resistance to rutting. The aim of the article is to present the effect of the use of asphalt mixtures with HiMA (Highly Modified Asphalt) binders in different variants of flexible pavement structures – including one, two or three courses containing HiMA. Fatigue life calculations were performed using the “Similarity Method”, which enables estimation of the fatigue life of the structure based on its relationship with the results of laboratory fatigue tests. The layer system with HiMA in the asphalt base course proved the most advantageous, combining excellent fatigue properties of the mixture containing HiMA with greater stiffness of the wearing and binder courses containing classic binders. The other aspect taken into account in the calculations was the effect of changing the mixture in the asphalt base course from AC 22 to AC 16. This change proved advantageous in all the analysed structures. The deflections and critical strains decreased, while pavement life, determined by fatigue and permanent deformation criteria, increased.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Krzysztof Błażejowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Magdalena Złotowska
2
ORCID: ORCID
Roman Nagórski
2
ORCID: ORCID
Paweł Tutka
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. ORLEN Asfalt sp. z o.o., R&D Dept., ul. Łukasiewicza 39, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland

Abstrakt

The current fatigue evaluation procedures in Europe and North American bridge codes do not account for the degree of uncertainty in load and resistance models. However, the variability of cycling loading and material properties have a significant influence on fatigue safety verification. A fatigue verification is contingent on the accumulated load cycles and the fatigue category; which, in turn, depends on member type and its connections. Assessment of structural safety can be evaluated more completely using probabilistic methods that provide fatigue prediction in terms of the probability of crack initiation. This method provides more information about the expected performance of a structural component; therefore, the structure can be used in service for a significantly longer time. In this article, the comparison of fatigue evaluation is presented using Eurocode, North American Standard – AREMA, and the new approach using the probabilistic method. These methods are demonstrated on the riveted built-up beams of the steel deck plate girder (DPG) railway bridge using data from field monitoring.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Anna Maria Rakoczy
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Road and Bridge Research Institute, ul. Instytutowa 1., 03-302 Warsaw, Poland

Abstrakt

The interest in prefabricated building modules is constantly growing due to the increasing possibilities of analysing extensive data sets in computers and the popularity of BIM technology. The ability to manage the position, size and properties of many different elements make it easy to create and evaluate complete modular models at the design stage. Benefits of prefabrication include, among the others, decreased cost, minimisation of environmental impact, and reduced labour on-site. However, making structures and buildings suitable for prefabrication puts additional responsibility on the designer, who needs to choose the modular system, partition the structure and prepare detailed schedules. The article refers to digital control over modular design in the context of the increasing complexity of structures. It focuses on methods and tools that either reduce the designer’s labour or provide him with information that can be used to optimise the structure in terms of efficiency or cost. The article organises the existing trends and presents three experiments on algorithmic control of modular structures to outline the differences in computational methods suitable for particular technologies: masonry, steel, glass and timber construction. The research illustrated in the article was undertaken in response to the need to develop construction technologies in line with the sustainable development trend.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Krzysztof Nazar
1
Jan Słyk
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture, ul. Koszykowa 55, 00-659 Warsaw, Poland

Zasady etyki publikacyjnej

ETHICS POLICY

”Archives of Civil Engineering” respects and promotes the principles of publishing ethics. Being guided by COPE’s Guidelines ( https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines) we ensure that all participants of the publishing process comply with these rules, the journal pays special attention to:

Editor Responsibilities
1. Qualifying individual manuscripts for publication only on the basis of: (a) compliance with the guidelines provided to the authors, (b) substantive value, (c) originality, (d) transparency of presentation
2. Deciding whether the paper fulfills all requirements i.e. formal and scientific and which articles submitted to the journal should be published. In making these decisions, the editor may be guided by the policies of the journal’s editorial board as well as by legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism.
3. Evaluating manuscripts for intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author(s).
4. Ensuring scientific accuracy and complying with the principle of authorship; making sure that individual authors who contribute to the publication accept its form after the scientific editing
5. Providing a fair and appropriate peer review process.
6. Withdrawing manuscripts from publication, if any information about its unreliability appeared, also as a result of unintentional errors, features of plagiarism or violation of the rules of publishing ethics were identified.
7. Requiring all contributors to disclose relevant competing interests and publish corrections if competing interests are revealed after publication. If needed, other appropriate action should be taken, such as the publication of a retraction or expression of concern.
8. Maintaining the integrity of the academic record, precludes business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards, and is always willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed.
9. Not disclosing any information about a manuscript under consideration to anyone other than the author(s), reviewers and potential reviewers, and in some instances the editorial board members, as appropriate.

Reviewer Responsibilities
1. Cooperating with the scientific editor and / or editorial office and the authors in the field of improving the reviewed material;
2. Being objective and expressing the views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments.
3. Assessing of the entrusted works in a careful and objective manner, if possible with an assessment of their scientific reliability and with appropriate justification of the comments submitted;
4. identifying relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors
5. calling to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published data of which they have personal knowledge
6. Maintaining the principle of fair play, excluding personal criticism of the author (s)
7. Maintaining confidentiality, which is not showing or discussing with others except those authorized by the editor. Any manuscripts received for review are treated as confidential documents.
8. Performing a review within the set time limit or accepting another solution jointly with ACE in the event of failure to meet this deadline.
9. Notifying the editor if the invited reviewer feels unqualified to review the manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible.
10. identifying relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors
11. Not considering evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the submission.

Author Responsibilities
1. Results of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the manuscript. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behaviour and are unacceptable.
2. The authors should follow the principle of originality, which is submitting only their own original works, and in the case of using the works of other authors, marking them in accordance with the rules of quotation, or obtaining consent for the publication of previously published materials from their owners or administrators;
3. An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Parallel submission of the same manuscript to more than one journal constitutes unethical publishing behaviour and is unacceptable.
4. Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study and phenomena such as ghostwriting or guest authorship in the event of their detection must be actively counteracted.
5. All authors should report in a Reliable manner the sources they used to create their own study and their inclusion in the attachment bibliography;
6. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be named in an Acknowledgement section.
7. The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors (according to the above definition) and no inappropriate co-authors are included in the author list of the manuscript, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.
8. All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or their interpretation in the manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.
9. When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal’s editor or publisher and cooperate with them to either retract the paper or to publish an appropriate erratum.

Publisher’s Confirmation
In cases of alleged or proven scientific misconduct, fraudulent publication or plagiarism the publisher, in close collaboration with the editors, will take all appropriate measures to clarify the situation and to amend the article in question. This includes the prompt publication of an erratum or, in the most severe cases, the complete retraction of the affected work.

Procedura recenzowania

Manuscript Peer-Review Procedure

”Archives of Civil Engineering” makes sure to provide transparent policies for peer-review, and reviewers have an obligation to conduct reviews in an ethical and accountable manner. There is clear communication between the journal and the reviewers which facilitates consistent, fair, and timely review.

-The model of peer-review is double-blind: the reviewers do not know the names of the authors, and the authors do not know who reviewed their manuscript (but if the research is published reviewers can eventually know the names of the authors). A complete list of reviewers is published in a traditional version of the journal: in-print.
-It is the editor who appoints two reviewers; however, if there are discrepancies in the assessment the third reviewer can be appointed.
-After having accepted to review the manuscript (one-week deadline), the reviewers have approximately 6 weeks to finish the process.
-The paper is published in ACE provided that the reviews are positive. All manuscripts receive grades from 1-5, 5 being positive, 1 negative, the authors receive reviews to read and consider the comments.
-Manuscript evaluations are assigned one of five outcomes: accept without changes, accept after changes suggested by the reviewer, rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review, reject, withdraw.
-Manuscripts requiring minor revision (accept after changes suggested by the reviewer) does not require a second review. All manuscripts receiving a "Rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review " evaluation must be subjected to a second review. Rejected manuscripts are given no further consideration. There are cases when the article can be withdrawn, often upon the request of an author, technical reason (e.g. names of authors are placed in the text, lack of references, or inappropriate structure of the text), or plagiarism.
-The revised version of the manuscript should be uploaded to the Editorial System within six weeks. If the author(s) failed to make satisfactory changes, the manuscript is rejected.
-On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to suit house style.
-Paper publication requires the author's final approval.
- As soon as the publication appears in print and in electronic forms on the Internet there is no possibility to change the content of the article.

Editor’s responsibilities
-The editor decides whether the paper fulfills all requirements i.e. formal and scientific and which articles submitted to the journal should be published.
-In making these decisions, the editor may be guided by the policies of the journal’s editorial board as well as by legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism.
-The editor maintains the integrity of the academic record, precludes business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards, and is always willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed.
-The editor evaluates manuscripts for intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author(s).
-The editor does not disclose any information about a manuscript under consideration to anyone other than the author(s), reviewers and potential reviewers, and in some instances the editorial board members, as appropriate.

Reviewers' responsibilities
Any manuscripts received for review are treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except if authorized by the editor. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review is kept confidential and not used for personal advantage Any invited reviewer who feels unqualified to review the manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible should immediately notify the editor so that alternative reviewers can be contacted. Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published data of which they have personal knowledge. Reviewers should not consider evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the submission. Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is unacceptable. Referees should express their views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments. All reviews must be carried out on a special form available in the Editorial System.

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