The paper presents a method of priority scheduling that is useful during the planning of multiple-structure construction projects. This approach is an extension of the concept of interactive scheduling. In priority scheduling, it is the planner that can determine how important each of the technological and organisational constraints are to them. A planner's preferences can be defined through developing a ranking list that defines which constraints are the most important, and those whose completion can come second. The planner will be able to model the constraints that appear at a construction site more flexibly. The article presents a general linear programming model of the planning of multiple-structure construction projects, as well as various values of each of the parameters that allow us to obtain different planning effects. The proposed model has been implemented in a computer program and its effectiveness has been presented on a calculation example.
This paper presents the capabilities of ABAQUS finite-element program  in modelling sandwich beams and plates resting on deformable foundations. Specific systems of sandwich beams and plates separated by an elastic core layer were subjected to the action of point and distributed moving loads. A few theoretical examples are provided to present different techniques of modelling the foundations and the moving loads. The effects of the boundary conditions and of the foundation parameters on the deflections of the analysed structures are also presented.
The authors studied the fracture mechanical properties under half-symmetric loading in this paper. The stress distribution around the crack tip and the stress intensity factor of three kinds of notched specimens under half symmetric loading were compared. The maximum tensile stress σmax of double notch specimens was much greater than that of single notch specimens and the maximum shear stress τmax was almost equal, which means that the single notch specimens were more prone to Mode II fractures. The intensity factors KII of central notch specimens were very small compared with other specimens and they induced Mode I fractures. For both double notch and single notch specimens, KII was kept at a constant level and did not change with the change of a/h, and KII was much larger than KI. KII has the potential to reach its fracture toughness KIIC before KI and Mode II fractures occurred. Rock-like materials were introduced to produce single notch specimens. Test results show that the crack had been initiated at the crack tip and propagated along the original notch face, and a Mode II fracture occurred. There was no relationship between the peak load and the original notch length. The average value of KIIC was about 0.602 MPa×m1/2, and KIIC was about 3.8 times KIC. The half symmetric loading test of single notch specimens was one of the most effective methods to obtain a true Mode II fracture and determine Mode fracture toughness.
The durability characteristics of Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) with various fibers such as polypropylene and glass were investigated in view of developing composites with high resistance to cracking. ECC offer large potential for durable civil infrastructure due to their high tensile strain capacity and controlled micro-crack width. In this study, fibre volume fractions (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2%) of both polypropylene and glass fibers varied and durability measures such as a rapid chloride penetration test, sorptivity, water absorption, acid attack, and sulphate attack were measured. Increasing the fiber content up to 1.5% improved the durability properties of ECC. The test results indicate that the glass fiber-reinforced Engineered Cementitious Composites have better durability characteristics than polypropylene fiber-reinforced ECC.
Underground spaces having features such as stability, resistance, and being undetected can play a key role in reducing vulnerability by relocating infrastructures and manpower. In recent years, the competitive business environment and limited resources have mostly focused on the importance of project management in order to achieve its objectives. In this research, in order to find the best balance among cost, time, and quality related to construction projects using reinforced concrete in underground structures, a multi-objective mathematical model is proposed. Several executive approaches have been considered for project activities and these approaches are analyzed via several factors. It is assumed that cost, time, and quality of activities in every defined approach can vary between compact and normal values, and the goal is to find the best execution for activities, achieving minimum cost and the maximum quality for the project. To solve the proposed multi-objective model, the genetic algorithm NSGA-II is used.
The present study has been taken up to emphasize the role of the hybridization process for optimizing a given reinforced concrete (RC) frame. Although various primary techniques have been hybrid in the past with varying degree of success, the effect of hybridization of enhanced versions of standard optimization techniques has found little attention. The focus of the current study is to see if it is possible to maintain and carry the positive effects of enhanced versions of two different techniques while using their hybrid algorithms. For this purpose, enhanced versions of standard particle swarm optimization (PSO) and a standard gravitational search algorithm (GSA), were considered for optimizing an RC frame. The enhanced version of PSO involves its democratization by considering all good and bad experiences of the particles, whereas the enhanced version of the GSA is made self-adaptive by considering a specific range for certain parameters, like the gravitational constant and a set of agents with the best fitness values. The optimization process, being iterative in nature, has been coded in C++. The analysis and design procedure is based on the specifications of Indian codes. Two distinct advantages of enhanced versions of standard PSO and GSA, namely, better capability to escape from local optima and a faster convergence rate, have been tested for the hybrid algorithm. The entire formulation for optimal cost design of a frame includes the cost of beams and columns. The variables of each element of structural frame have been considered as continuous and rounded off appropriately to consider practical limitations. An example has also been considered to emphasize the validity of this optimum design procedure.
The steel pipe umbrella is a widely used technology when tunnelling in weak soils in order to create pre-support ahead of the tunnel face. The design of steel pipes is frequently done through simplified analytical approaches which are easy to apply but require proper assessment of the loads acting on the pipe. To provide information on this key design aspect, the results of the comparison between a three-dimensional numerical model developed with the code FLAC 3D and an analytical model based on the approach of a beam on yielding supports is presented and discussed. The comparison refers to a shallow tunnel with an overburden of three times its diameter for two different types of weak rock masses. The obtained results provide suggestions about the load that has to be applied in the analytical model for the design phase.
This paper investigates the behaviour of axially-loaded tubular columns filled with M20 grade concrete and partially replaced concrete. The parameters varying in the study are slenderness ratio (13.27, 16.58 & 19.9), and normal M20 grade concrete, partially replaced quarry dust and concrete debris. The effects of the various concrete mixes and composite action between the steel tube and the concrete core are studied and a graph visualizing the differences between the load carrying capacity and the axial deflection is plotted. Some of the performance indices like the Ductility Index (DI), Concrete Contribution Ratio (CCR), Confinement Index (θ) and Strength Index (SI) are also evaluated and compared amongst the CFST columns. From the results it has been noted that an increase in the L/D ratio decrease the behaviour of the composite columns irrespective of the in filled materials. The composite action was achieved in the CFST columns filled with partially replaced quarry dust and concrete debris when compared with hollow steel columns. The load carrying capacity of the CFST column increases by 32 % compared with the hollow tubular columns.
Buckling and postbuckling response of thin-walled composite plates investigated experimentally and determinated analytically and numerically is compared. Real dimension specimens of composite plates weakened by cut-out subjected to uniform compression in laboratory buckling tests have been modelled in the finite element method and examined analytically based on P-w2 and P-w3 methods. All results were obtained during the experimental investigations and the numerical FEM analysis of a thin-walled composite plate made of a carbon-epoxy laminate with a symmetrical eight-layer arrangement of [90/-45/45/0]s. The instrument used for this purpose was a numerical ABAQUS® program.
This study focuses to develop a new hybrid Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) and assesses the performance of a new hybrid ECC based on the steel short random fiber reinforcement. This hybrid ECC aims to improve the tensile strength of cementitious material and enhance better flexural performance in an RC beam. In this study, four different mixes have been investigated. ECC with Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) fiber and PolyPropylene (PP) fiber of 2.0% volume fraction are the two Mono fiber mixes; ECC mix with PVA fiber of 0.65% volume fraction hybridized with steel fiber of 1.35% volume fraction, PP fiber of 0.65% volume fraction hybridized with steel of 1.35% volume fraction are the two additional different hybrid mixes. The material properties of mono fiber ECC with 2.0 % of PVA is kept as the reference mix in this study. The hybridization with fibers has a notable achievement on the uniaxial tensile strength, compressive strength, Young’s modulus, and flexural behavior in ECC layered RC beams. From the results, it has been observed that the mix with PVA fiber of 0.65% volume fraction hybrid with steel fiber of 1.35% volume fraction exhibitimprovements in tensile strength, flexural strength, andenergy absorption. ThePP fiber of 0.65% volume fraction hybridized with steel of 1.35% volume fraction mix has reasonable flexural performance and notable achievement in displacement ductility overthe reference mix.
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