# Archives of Civil Engineering

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### Abstract

Numerical analysis of the tensioning cables anchorage zone of a bridge superstructure is presented in this paper. It aims to identify why severe concrete cracking occurs during the tensioning process in the vicinity of anchor heads. In order to simulate the tensioning, among others, a so-called local numerical model of a section of the bridge superstructure was created in the Abaqus Finite Element Method (FEM) environment. The model contains all the important elements of the analyzed section of the concrete bridge superstructure, namely concrete, reinforcement and the anchoring system. FEM analyses are performed with the inclusion of both material and geometric nonlinearities. Concrete Damage Plasticity (CDP) constitutive relation from Abaqus is used to describe nonlinear concrete behaviour, which enables analysis of concrete damage and crack propagation. These numerical FEM results are then compared with actual crack patterns, which have been spotted and inventoried at the bridge construction site.

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### Authors and Affiliations

J. Chróscielewski
M. Miśkiewicz
Ł. Pyrzowski
B. Sobczyk
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### Abstract

The formulation of a plate finite element with so called ‘physical’ shape functions is revisited. The derivation of the ‘physical’ shape functions is based on Hencky-Bollé theory of moderately thick plates. The considered finite element was assessed in the past, and the tests showed that the solution convergence was achieved in a wide range of thickness to in-plane dimensions ratios. In this paper a holistic correctness assessment is presented, which covers three criteria: the ellipticity, the consistency and the inf-sup conditions. Fulfilment of these criteria assures the existence of a unique solution, and a stable and optimal convergence to the correct solution. The algorithms of the numerical tests for each test case are presented and the tests are performed for the considered formulation. In result it is concluded that the finite element formulation passes every test and therefore is a good choice for modeling plate structural elements regardless of their thickness.

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W. Gilewski
M. Sitek
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### Abstract

In the paper the topic of Building Information Technology BIM is investigated. It is new in Polish circumstances technology for construction and for building product industry, which contribute to change and develop level of industrialization. Especially challenge raising from the information and introducing IT technology into daily practice is considered to provide changes in construction branch of economy. In Poland there is the hot need of start to introduce BIM as the common technology for owners of assets, facility management, construction entities, design offices, administration officers and many other players relative to construction data and processes. BIM technology introduction, basing on foreign case studies, results in cost savings, control and time reduction of investment processes and some more advantages. The perspective of digital buildings, digital infrastructure, digital roads, digital railways and digital cities is outlined at the perspective of technology challenge, but simply transfiguration of many fields of personal everyday life, where digitalization is already present and with the question when it will be common in professional activity, particularly in civil engineering.

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A. Glema
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### Abstract

The author investigated traffic flow quality on a new 2+1 long road bypass with an exceptionally high share of heavy vehicles in order to assess rational limits of heavy vehicle shares in traffic flow, dependent on the length of the 2+1 road and the number of passing segments in each direction. This paper presents the results of traffic flow quality analyses through the use of empirical and simulation methods for a single 2+1 road segment with additional passing lanes, as well as for the study of the entire section of the bypass – 2+1 road. Variables include analysis of travel speed distribution, platoon traffic, and amount of passing maneuvers. Results show that large passing demands lead to very high speeds (over 100 km/h) on segments with additional passing lanes. The conclusions include remarks related to the use and operation of 2+1 cross-sections with high shares of heavy vehicles.

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M. Kieć
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### Abstract

This paper presents an approach based on NURBS (non-uniform rational B-splines) to achieve a seismic response surface (SRS) from a group of points obtained by using an analytical model of RC joints. NURBS based on the genetic algorithm is an important mathematical tool and consists of generalizations of Bezier curves and surfaces and B-splines. Generally, the accuracy of the design process of joints depends on the number of control points that are captured in the results of experimental research on real specimens. The values obtained from the specimens are the best tools to use in seismic analysis, though more expensive when compared to values simulated by SRSs. The SRS proposed in this paper can be applied to obtain surfaces that show site effect results on destructions of beam-column joint, taking into account different site conditions for a specific earthquake. The efficiency of this approach is demonstrated by the retrieval of simulated-versus-analytical results.

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### Authors and Affiliations

R. Tabatabaei Mirhosseini
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### Abstract

This paper presents the study of the impact of vibration induced by the movement of the railway rolling stock on the Forum Gdańsk structure. This object is currently under construction and is located over the railway tracks in the vicinity of the Gdańsk Główny and Gdańsk Śródmieście railway stations. The analysis covers the influence of vibrations on the structure itself and on the people within. The in situ measurements on existing parts of the structure allow us to determine environmental excitations used for validation and verification of the derived FEM model. The numerical calculations made the estimates of the vibration amplitudes propagating throughout the whole structure possible.

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### Authors and Affiliations

M. Miśkiewicz
Ł. Pyrzowski
M. Rucka
K. Wilde
J. Chróscielewski
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### Abstract

The present study examines some durability aspects of ambient cured bottom ash geopolymer concrete (BA GPC) due to accelerated corrosion, sorptivity, and water absorption. The bottom ash geopolymer concrete was prepared with sodium based alkaline activators under ambient curing temperatures. The sodium hydroxide used concentration was 8M. The performance of BA GPC was compared with conventional concrete. The test results indicate that BA GPC developes a strong passive layer against chloride ion diffusion and provides better protection against corrosion. Both the initial and final rates of water absorption of BA GPC were about two times less than those of conventional concrete. The BA GPC significantly enhanced performance over equivalent grade conventional concrete (CC).

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R. Saravanakumar
V. Revathi
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### Abstract

Steel Mesh-Reinforced Cementitious Composites (SMRCC) (traditionally known as ferrocement) have been in existence for few decades, but have some limitations set on element thickness and number of reinforcing mesh layers and the resulting deflection ductility. Therefore, the author has made an attempt to explore whether deflection ductility will improve in mesh-reinforced cementitious composites (25 mm thick) if discontinuous fibres are added to slab elements. For this purpose, thin slab elements of dimensions 700 mm (length) × 200 mm (width) × 25 mm (thickness) were cast and subjected to four point bending tests. Based on the flexural tests conducted on SMRCC (Control Slab Elements, cast with Steel Mesh Volume of reinforcement, MVr = 0.78, 0.94, and 1.23%) and Hybrid Mesh-and-Fibre-Reinforced Cement Based Composite (HMFRCBC) (Test Slab Elements, combining MVr = 0.78, 0.94 and 1.23% and Polyolefin Fibre Volume fraction, PO-FVf = 0.5‒2.5% of volume of specimens, with 0.5% interval), load-deflection and the deflection ductility index were analyzed. From the flexural load-deflection curves it has been observed that HMFRCBC slabs demonstrate higher flexural load-carrying capacity and deflection ductility when compared to SMRCC slabs. This study shows that higher the polyolefin fibre volume fraction (PO-FVf) from 0.5 to 2.5% (with a 0.5% interval) in HMFRCBC slabs, the higher the flexural deflection ductility. The Deflection Ductility Index (DDI) of HMFRCBC (with 5 layers of mesh and PO-FVf = 2.5%) is 4.5 times that of SMRCC. This study recommends that HMFRCBC can be used as an innovative construction material due to its higher flexural ductility characteristics.

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P.B. Sakthivel
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### Abstract

Hydraulic fracturing of rocks boosts the production rate by increasing the fracture-face surface area through the use of a pressurized liquid. Complex stress distribution and magnitude are the main factors that hinder the use of information gathered from in situ hydraulic fracturing in other locations. Laboratory tests are a good method for precisely determining the characteristics of these processes. One of the most important parameters is breakdown pressure, defined as the wellbore pressure necessary to induce a hydraulic fracture. Therefore, the main purpose of this investigation is to verify fracture resistance of rock samples fractured with the assistance of the most popular industry fluids. The experiments were carried out using a stand designed specifically for laboratory hydraulic fracturing. Repeatable results with a relative error within the range of 6-11% prove that the experimental methodology was correct. Moreover, the obtained results show that fracturing pressure depends significantly on fluid type. In the case of a water test, the fracturing pressure was 7.1±0.4 MPa. A similar result was achieved for slickwater, 7.5±0.7 MPa; however, a much lower value (4.7±0.5 MPa) was registered in the case of carbon dioxide.

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S. Stanisławek
P. Kędzierski
D. Miedzińska
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### Abstract

Coal ash produced from thermal power plants as a substitute for conventional construction material has increased considerably in recent years. In the past, studies on partial replacement of soil were carried out with a single type of ash. Because of the insufficient evidence, limited research has been initiated on the productive usage of Fly and Bottom Ashes. This paper aims to study the properties of these materials and investigate their efficacy in road construction. Laboratory investigations were conducted to assess chemical and physical properties and mechanical performance to evaluate both ash types in pavement construction. The rutting factor is calculated for various combinations of coal ash materials with the addition of polypropylene fiber as a reinforcement in increments of 0.1% of its total weight with an aspect ratio of 200. The analytical tool ANSYS is used to validate the service life, vertical strain and quality of reinforced ash materials.

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S.M. Subash
N. Mahendran
M. Manoj Kumar
M. Nagarajan
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I. Szer
E. Błazik-Borowa
J. Szer
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### Abstract

The drainage consolidation method has been efficiently used to deal with soft ground improvement. Nowadays, it has been suggested to use a new sand soil which is a composite of sand and recycled glass waste. The permeability performance of glass-sand soil was explored to judge the feasibility of glass-sand soil backfilled in the drainage consolidation of sand-drained ground. For comparison purposes, different mix proportions of recycled glass waste, fineness modulus, and glass particle size were analyzed to certify the impact on the permeability coefficient and the degree of consolidation. The numerical results show that adding a proper amount of recycled glass waste could promote the permeability performance of glass-sand soil, and the glasssand soil drain could be consolidated more quickly than a sand drain. Experiments showed that glass-sand soil with the a 20% mix of recycled glass waste reveals the optimum performance of permeability.

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F.C. Wang
X.N. Feng
H. Gong
H.Y. Zhao

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### Publication Ethics Policy

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Editor Responsibilities
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### Peer-review Procedure

Manuscript Peer-Review Procedure

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-The model of peer-review is double-blind: the reviewers do not know the names of the authors, and the authors do not know who reviewed their manuscript (but if the research is published reviewers can eventually know the names of the authors). A complete list of reviewers is published in a traditional version of the journal: in-print.
-It is the editor who appoints two reviewers; however, if there are discrepancies in the assessment the third reviewer can be appointed.
-After having accepted to review the manuscript (one-week deadline), the reviewers have approximately 6 weeks to finish the process.
-The paper is published in ACE provided that the reviews are positive. All manuscripts receive grades from 1-5, 5 being positive, 1 negative, the authors receive reviews to read and consider the comments.
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-Manuscripts requiring minor revision (accept after changes suggested by the reviewer) does not require a second review. All manuscripts receiving a "Rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review " evaluation must be subjected to a second review. Rejected manuscripts are given no further consideration. There are cases when the article can be withdrawn, often upon the request of an author, technical reason (e.g. names of authors are placed in the text, lack of references, or inappropriate structure of the text), or plagiarism.
-The revised version of the manuscript should be uploaded to the Editorial System within six weeks. If the author(s) failed to make satisfactory changes, the manuscript is rejected.
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-Paper publication requires the author's final approval.
- As soon as the publication appears in print and in electronic forms on the Internet there is no possibility to change the content of the article.

Editor’s responsibilities
-The editor decides whether the paper fulfills all requirements i.e. formal and scientific and which articles submitted to the journal should be published.
-In making these decisions, the editor may be guided by the policies of the journal’s editorial board as well as by legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism.
-The editor maintains the integrity of the academic record, precludes business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards, and is always willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed.
-The editor evaluates manuscripts for intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author(s).
-The editor does not disclose any information about a manuscript under consideration to anyone other than the author(s), reviewers and potential reviewers, and in some instances the editorial board members, as appropriate.

Reviewers' responsibilities
Any manuscripts received for review are treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except if authorized by the editor. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review is kept confidential and not used for personal advantage Any invited reviewer who feels unqualified to review the manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible should immediately notify the editor so that alternative reviewers can be contacted. Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published data of which they have personal knowledge. Reviewers should not consider evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the submission. Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is unacceptable. Referees should express their views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments. All reviews must be carried out on a special form available in the Editorial System.