Applied sciences

Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi - Mineral Resources Management

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Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi - Mineral Resources Management | 2012 | vol. 28 | No 3 |

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Abstract

In the article there was described the current state of mines against a background of tradition of exploitation and application of rock raw materials. Active quarries were selected, where the extraction of rock blocks has been a tradition, as well as quarries where the geological structure of the deposit allows to exploit the blocks in the future. There were also assessed old quarries and their deposits where the popular stones had been extracted in the past and then used in domestic architecture as a decorative materials. That is a group of more than 230 deposits in total. It has been presented economically justified perspectives of exploitation development concerning decorative and architectural rocks in south-eastern Poland against a background of European market requirements, the state of resources and environmental limitations. It was established that they are differentiated depending on the decorative properties of the rocks, their block divisibility and quantity of resources. Taking above-mentioned into consideration the deposits have been classified to groups which have the chances of exploitation development in the European, domestic and local scale. The former are Zygmuntówka Conglomerate, Morawica Limestone, Zalesiaki Limestone and Diplopora Dolomite. The domestic scope of use can be associated with properly developed deposits of Paleozoic limestones in the vicinity of Kielce and Krzeszowice and some dimension sandstones in the margin of the Holy Cross Mountains and in the Carpathians. The small deposits of sandstones from the Holy Cross Mountains margin and from the Carpathians as well as deposits of limestones from the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland, excavating material used in so called small architecture, have guarantee of local development. Moreover there was shown the hazard to the dimension stones deposits connected with the huge consumption of their resources for the production of crushed aggregates. This problem concerns especially raw materials with good physico-mechanical properties. For the most attractive rocks it was justified the need of their protection against exploitation for the other purposes than block production. It was stated that the return to local masonry traditions is possible and necessary because of many connections with the national culture through its history, architecture and art. It requires large investments for modernize the exploitation methods as well as for promotion of Polish stones in the European market. It must be also taken into consideration the possibility of financial support from the European Union funds.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jan Bromowicz
Beata Figarska-Warchoł
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Abstract

The development of human civilization ignites a demand for various natural resources. Nowadays, these resources include not only useful minerals, soil, water, air, flora, or fauna, but also natural forces and other environmental assets determining the quality of human life, such as geographic space, landscapes, and microclimates. Among so many categories of natural resources, minerals - which are for the most part non-renewable - often constitute a deciding influence on the level of human well-being. Within the study of the utilization of natural resources, a series of models have been developed which are aimed - mostly in a dynamic mode - at maximizing the level of social well-being determined by the consumption of specific resources. The paper discusses, while recalling selected, established economic theories, the problem of the use and protection of non-renewable mineral resources at the stage of their economic exploitation. The author examines, based on the theory of sustainable development, Hotelling's model and its later modifications of the difficulties in implementing a resource protection policy. The paper approximates a new approach to the concept of mineral resources use in light of the N-person Prisoner's Dilemma. The conclusions were illustrated by simplified cases, conducted with the assumption of an absence of perfect unlimited substitutes.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mariusz Krzak
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Abstract

Due to the occurrence of zinc and lead ore deposits in dolomite rocks, the sphalerite concentrates obtained from these ores contain an admixture of dolomite. In practice, a substantial amount of magnesium included in zinc ores passes to the last production stage, i.e. zinc electrolysis. The magnesium present in electrolyte impairs electrical conductance and appears in the technical and economical indexes. This paper deals the attempts to remove magnesium removal from initial sphalerite concentrates by means of chemical flotation using spent electrolyte derived from zinc electrolysis. The authors attempt to substantiate the existing relationships, as well as to derermine the optimum conditions for the procedure suggested. The leaching efficiency of magnesium amounted to about 80%, and is dependent upon the stage of the leaching. Losses of zinc were below 2%, and the magnesium concentration in solution amounted to about 20%. These solution can produce magnesium and zinc, which will be presented in the following paper.

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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Jarosiński
Adam Kozak
Sylwester Żelazny
Piotr Radomski
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Abstract

Celem pracy była wstępna charakterystyka (mineralogiczna, chemiczna, teksturalna) odpadów poflotacyjnych, stanowiących surowiec uboczny (odpadowy) przy uzyskiwaniu koncentratów cynkowo-ołowiowych, pod kątem dalszych analiz nad możliwością ich perspektywicznego (eksperymentalnego) wykorzystania jako sorbentów gazów kwaśnych (SO2 i CO2). Składowisko tych odpadów jest własnością ZGH 'Bolesław' w Bukownie. Materiał badawczy stanowiła próbka odpadów poflotacyjnych pobrana ze stawu osadowego nr 1, leżącego w południowej części Stawu Zachodniego. Charakterystyka wytypowanych do badań materiałów obejmowała podstawowe badania mineralogiczne (XRD, SEM-EDS), analizy chemiczne (oznaczenie zawartości wilgoci analitycznej, zawartości strat prażenia, podstawowego składu chemicznego, jak też pierwiastków śladowych) oraz wyznaczenie podstawowych parametrów teksturalnych (powierzchnia właściwa BET, rozkład i wielkość porów). Badania mineralogiczne wykazały, że materiał odpadowy stanowią głównie minerały węglanowe (w przewadze kalcyt, dolomit, ankeryt) oraz minerały stanowiące pozostałość po niewyflotowanych kruszcach (w przewadze galena, sfaleryt). Analiza chemiczna pozwoliła stwierdzić, iż w analizowanej próbce dominują związki wapnia, magnezu i żelaza uwarunkowane przewagą minerałów węglanowych w badanych odpadach. Wśród pierwiastków śladowych przeważa arsen, następnie mangan i bar, występujące jednak w ilości nie przekraczającej 1%. Analiza teksturalna wykazała, że materiał badawczy charakteryzuje się niską powierzchnią właściwą i dużymi rozmiarami cząstek. Przeprowadzone badania sugerują, że analizowany materiał charakteryzuje się ubogimi właściwościami adsorpcyjnymi, aczkolwiek mógłby on znaleźć zastosowanie w metodach odsiarczania, jak też neutralizacji dwutlenku węgla (karbonizacja). Należałoby jednak w tym celu przeprowadzić dodatkowe badania wymywalności metali ciężkich w środowisku kwasowym, jak też zastosować domieszki innych składników, takich jak cement czy zeolity, w celu immobilizacji niebezpiecznych składników odpadów.

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Authors and Affiliations

Magdalena Wdowin
Agnieszka Gruszecka
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Abstract

This article presents the results of research on carbonate rock samples taken from Triassic sediments of the northern area of Chorzów City. The aim of the research was to identify the mineral phases of these rocks, especially carbonate phases. The rocks from the roof part of the Bundsandstein profile and floor part of the Muschelkalk profile - Gogolin Beds - are typical sediments from the northern part of Chorzów City. These rocks were mined in the XIX century and the beginning of the XX century. The article also presents the results of research on samples of carbonate rocks taken from investigated strata. It provides a Petrographic description, the results of microscopic analysis executed in polarized, transmitted light, X-ray analysis, and microprobe measurements using a scanning microscope. The results of these analyses showed that dolomites dominate in the Bunsandstein strata. Dolomites (The sampled rocks?) are composed mainly of dolomite, but sparry calcite was also identified. Moreover, quartz, clay minerals, muscovite and iron minerals were observed in the Bundsandstein rocks. The Muschelkalk sedimentsare mainly represented by limestone. In some areas, conglomerates were also found. The conglomerates are composed of carbonate rock boulders connected by carbonate cement. Two generations of calcite were observed while investigating the limestone. The first generation calcite is micritic, and the second generation calcite forms sparry crystals different in size and shape. In some areas of the sparry calcite it is possible to observe perfect rhobohedral cleavage. Moreover, dolomite, rhodohrosite, and noncarbonate minerals like quartz, muscovite, and clay minerals were identified. The results of microscopic analysis also showed that the limestone is different in texture. The limestone presents the following textures: biomorphic, detrical, sparry, microsparry and micritic.

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Authors and Affiliations

Katarzyna Stanienda
Jacek Nowak
Tomasz Kukiełka
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Abstract

In the Fore-Sudetic Monocline area, gas deposits occur in carbonate rocks of cyclothems PZ1 (Zechstein limestone Ca1) and PZ2 (main dolomite Ca2). The location of deposits is closely connected with zones of carbonate sedimentation. Generally, gas deposits occur within barrier zones and at the foot of carbonate platforms. The outburst of rock fragments into the heading of the KGHM Rudna mine in 2009 was evidence that gas could also appear in the basin zone Ca1 of the copper deposit. 2D and 3D surface seismic surveys comprise the basic method which is applied to hydrocarbon prospecting. The main advantage of this method is the fact that P-wave velocity and bulk density decrease as a result of gas saturation of the pore spaces. As a result, one can observe anomalous seismic [records(activity?)] which can be connected with gas deposits, and reservoir interpretation of seismic data is based on Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators analysis (DHI). This paper presents and compares seismic images of gas saturation [in traps(trapped?)] in a typical carbonate barrier (Kościan gas field in Ca1) at the foot of a carbonate platform (Lubiatów gas field in Ca2), and in a porous/fractured zone in Ca1 dolomite where there was a gas outburst in the Rudna mine. Based on available well logging data and 1D seismic modeling (synthetic seismograms) this study developed criteria for identification of gas-saturated zones for each case. The results of the study provide the following basic criteria for gas saturation: (1) phase change at Ca1 bottom from negative at the basin zone to positive at the barrier zone - for the Kościan barrier Ca1; (2) the bright spot at the top of the saturated zone - for the Lubiatów deposit at the foot of the carbonate platform; (3) reflections with close to zero amplitude at the bottom of Ca1 dolomites - for the porous and fractured deep-water zone of the Rudna mine.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jerzy Dec
Kaja Pietsch
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Abstract

Hydrocarbon production under certain geological conditions of these deposits can cause surface subsidence and deformation of the terrain surface. Such deformations appear as subsidence troughs of considerable range and the magnitude of the subsidence depending on the total thickness of the reservoir, compaction properties of reservoir and on the number of other factors. In the past there have been widely recognized magnitudes of the subsidence up to 9 meters. The stress zones in the subsidence trough may affect the buildings and surface structures. However there have been well known some cases of destroyed boreholes or pipelines belonging to the gas or oil mine. Therefore there is a requirement to analyze the possibility of occurrence unfavorable phenomenon on the ground surface, to monitor surface deformations during production and to protect surface infrastructure located in the range of mining influences. In the paper the issue of surface subsidence caused by hydrocarbon production has been presented. The cause - effect relationship between the compaction of thereservoir rock and the subsidence of surface area has been assumed. The prediction model base on the influence function and on the superposition of elementary influences. For the purpose of building damage protection a new model of risk assessment has been developed. This model base on the elements of fuzzy logicallows to incorporate in the analysis the quantitative and qualitative factors that contribute to the risk of building damage. Use of the fuzzy logic made it possible to obtain one value which clearly discriminate the risk of buildings damage. However, risk analyzes of damage to the large number of buildings has been required additional tools. The spatial analysis has been made by using GIS. The subjects of the paper have been illustrated with a practical example.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ryszard Hejmanowski
Agnieszka Malinowska
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Abstract

The mathematical modeling of mineral processing is a very complex task because of random character of comminuted materials. However, it allows applying of standard laws of mass preservation and mass transport. The basic method of description of comminution processes is determination of particles size distribution curves for products. In the paper, the concept of applying so-called censored distribution functions was presented, what means equations of exponential, Weibull, log-normand logistic distribution functions as the basis of crushers work description (formulas 1, 2, 3 and 4). The censoring of distribution functions is being realized through acceptation of maximum particle size dmax and the shape of them depends on shape and scale parameters. The joining of technical parameters of comminuting devices with parameters of equations describing distribution functions of products allows creating of satisfying models of comminution processes. After application of general forms of separation curves the description of sieving processes is possible (equations 6a and 6b) and then also of comminution systems. The optimization of aggregates production may be based on introduction of goal function determining profit dependably on amount of individual assortments. In case of analysis of comminution systems (formulae 10) in preparation of feed to beneficiation the goal function should be based on levels of useful minerals exposure in individual fractions. The paper shows the possibility of simulation of comminution processes course leading to determination of optimal conditions of systems containing comminution and sieving processes. Furthermore, the necessity of creation of empirical models for grinding processes was shown as they would be the compensation of models being result of heuristic analysis of phenomena. Also, the elementary rules of selection of models forms and their modifications based on justification of relations between distribution function parameters and basic technical parameters of devices as well characteristics of comminuted materials were discussed. The paper is the introduction to further research of general approach to joining grained materials characteristics with comminution effects.

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Authors and Affiliations

Tadeusz Tumidajski
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Abstract

This paper describes comminution processes using the theories of limiting states, elasticity, and plasticity to explain some effects observed in the process of crushing brittle materials. It further describes the phenomena occurring during crushing in high-pressure roll presses and analyzes the effects of selected factors upon crushing results. The evaluation of the usefulness of various hypotheses for interpretation of the crushing process in the high-pressure grinding roll was carried out by means of experimental investigations. A series of laboratory crushing tests were also conducted in which limestone samples were pressed in a hydraulic piston-die press. Comminution conditions in this press are similar to those observed in the working chamber of HPGR presses. The limestone aggregate, placed in a steel cylinder, was exposed to pressure exerted by the stamp of the press. Samples had various particle size distributions, and experiments were conducted for two values of pressing force. Operating pressure was the main parameter influencing the obtained comminution effects, but the particle size distribution also has an impact on the process effects. A comparison of the results of the investigations indicated that there exists a significant potential for adjusting the operational parameters of high-pressure grinding rolls. Internal stresses are a derivate of crushing actions such as compression, impact, bending, and shearing. The result of crushing in a particular crusher depends on the strength properties of particles reacting to a specific type of crushing actions. In every crusher there are many crushing actions out of which one is dominating due to the crusher type. Impact is a dominating factor in impact or hummer crushers. Various actions of crusher elements on the crushed material are beneficiary. For example, the shape of the jaw surface in jaw crushers, cone surface in cone crushers, or roll surface in roll presses are important.

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Authors and Affiliations

Marian Brożek
Zdzisław Naziemiec
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Abstract

The economic downturn in Europe and in the world, has affected the traditional branches of industry in a particular way. Development plans of domestic coke plants in terms of main production assets for the next years have been presented. Taking into account the current market situation, the coke plants strategy should aim at risk minimization through application of already known technologies. On the other hand, investments in scope of new and innovative technologies which are connected with a high level of variability, should be seen as an opportunity. Thus, evaluation of investment projects should be done in a different way than so far. The traditional discount analysis, because of its static nature, does not take into account variability and options included in projects with many decision moments - it can prove to be not sufficient. A tool which helps the decision makers in such situations, is the real options analysis. The article presents the findings of the research-development project on coal blend pre-drying implementation, realized by Zdzieszowice Coke Plant and ICHPW in Zabrze. The results achieved so far, as well as the concerns resulting from the project, have been discussed in this article. Further project development plans, aiming at the construction of a semi industrial research installation for analysing the impact of pre-drying on the coke making process have been presented. The article describes premises for the application of real options analysis as a tool to evaluate projects, the results of which are uncertain. The origin and structure of real options as well as the conditions of their application compared to traditional, discount based project evaluation methods, have been presented. The origin and characteristic parameters of real options have been discussed. In the next part, by applying the NPV and real options method, the research-development undertaking of coal blend pre-drying implementation on two coke batteries, has been evaluated. In order to assess the real option's value of the project, which is a classic European call option, the Black-Scholes formula has been used. The achieved results have been compared as well as the flexibility rate of the analyzed research-development project has been defined.

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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Żarczyński
Andrzej Strugała
Aleksander Sobolewski
Czesław Sikorski

Editorial office

Editorial Board
  • Editor-in-Chief: Eugeniusz Mokrzycki
  • Deputy Editor-in-Chief: Ryszard Uberman (section: mining)
  • Editorial Secretary: Krzysztof Galos (section: mineralogy)
  • Deputy Editorial Secretary: Lidia Gawlik (section: mineral and energy economy)
  • Deputy Editorial Secretary: Beata Klojzy-Karczmarczyk (section: environmental engineering in mining)
  • Statistical Editor: Jacek Mucha
Advisory Board
  • Mattias Bäckström, Assistant Professor, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
  • Wiesław Blaschke, PhD(Eng), Professor, The Institute of Mechanised Construction and Rock Mining, Katowice, Poland
  • Jan Butra, Professor, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wrocław, Poland
  • Dennis L. Buchanan, Professor, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, United Kingdom
  • Michal Cehlár – Technical University of Košice, Slovak Republic
  • Józef Dubiński, Professor, The Central Mining Institute, Katowice, Poland
  • Jakub Jirasek, Associate Professor, The Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic
  • Roman Magda, Professor, The AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland
  • Antonio Mateus, Professor, Universidade de Lisboa, Lizbona, Portugal
  • Jacek Motyka, Professor, The AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland
  • Marek Nieć, DSc(Eng), Professor, The MEERI PAS, Kraków, Poland
  • James Otto, Professor, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, USA
  • Marian Radetzki, Professor, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden
  • Anton Sroka, Professor, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, University of Resources, Freiberg, Germany
  • Krzysztof Szamałek, Professor, The University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
  • Günter Tiess, Assistant Professor, MinPol GmbH, Dreistetten, Austria
Publishing Committee
  • Emilia Rydzewska – linguistic editor (Polish)
  • Michelle Atallah – linguistic editor (English)
  • Barbara Sudoł – technical editor

Contact

Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of
Sciences J. Wybickiego 7A, 31-261 Kraków,
Phone: (+48) 12 632 33-00, Fax: +48 12 632 35-24
Email: gsm@min-pan.krakow.pl

Additional information

The subject matter of the articles published in Mineral Resources Management covers issues related to minerals and raw materials, as well as mineral deposits, with particular emphasis on:

  • The scientific basis for mineral resources management,
  • The strategy and methodology of prospecting and exploration of mineral deposits,
  • Methods of rational management and use of deposits,
  • The rational exploitation of deposits and the reduction in the loss of raw materials,
  • Mineral resources management in processing technologies,
  • Environmental protection in the mining industry,
  • Optimization of mineral deposits and mineral resources management,
  • The rational use of mineral resources,
  • The economics of mineral resources,
  • The raw materials market,
  • Raw materials policy,
  • The use of accompanying minerals,
  • The use of secondary raw materials and waste,
  • Raw material recycling,
  • The management of waste from the mining industry.

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