The aim of this study was to determine the effects of factors such as sex, eye-side and diurnal variation on intraocular pressure (IOP) values measured by Tono-Pen Vet® in healthy calves. Twenty four (12 males, 12 females) calves were used in this study. IOP measurements were per- formed in the morning (6:00 a.m.) and at night (8:00 p.m). Average IOP values in all calves were measured as 17.67±2.64 mmHg in the morning and 15.52±2.05 at night and the difference between these two time points was found to be statistically significant (p<0.0001). Average IOP values were measured as 16.04±2.82 mmHg in males and 17.15±2.23 mmHg in females with a statistically significant (p<0.05=0.023) difference between them. Average IOP values were 16.81±2.85 mmHg in right eyes and 16.37±2.23 mmHg in left eyes and the difference between these values were statistically insignificant (p>0.05). At the end of study, overall average IOP in all calves was measured as 16.59±2.59 mmHg. The present data showed a significant difference in terms of sex and diurnal variations and a non-significant difference in eye-side. In addition, this study is the first research article in which the intraocular pressure in calves was measured by Tono-Pen Vet®.
Bragg scattering of waves propagating in a periodically disturbed substrate is widely applied in optics and micro-acoustic systems. Here, it is studied for Rayleigh waves propagating on a periodically grooved elastic substrate. Practically applied groove depth in the Bragg grating reflectors does not exceed a few percent of the Rayleigh wavelength. Here, the analysis is carried out for periodic grooves of larger depth by applying the elastic plate model for the groove walls. The computed results show that the surface wave existence and reflection depends strongly on both the groove depth and period, and that there are limited domains of both for practical applications, primarily in comb transducers of surface waves.
The role of slag in the process of continuous casting of steel (CCS) is reduced to the thermal and chemical insulation of the liquid steel surface, and additionally to refining. The ability to adsorb non-metallic inclusions flowing off from the crystallizer, mainly Al2O3, determines its physicochemical properties. As a result of adsorption and dissolution of inclusions tin he liquid layer the viscosity and thickness of mould flux change, which eventually affects the technological parameters and behavior of slag in the crystallizer. The influence of aluminum oxide on the viscosity of slag was empirically investigated with a structural viscosity model worked out by Nakamoto. The results of the simulation are presented in the form of plots. Authors observed a significant influence of Al2O3 on the slag viscosity, which suggests that this effect should be taken into account when selecting chemical composition of mould flux for definite types of steel. The results of calculations also show that the disturbances in casting caused by the use of the mould slag may be connected with the content of non-metallic inclusions in steel.