GNSS systems are susceptible to radio interference despite then operating in a spread spectrum. The commerce jammers power up to 2 watts that can block the receiver function at a distance of up to 15 kilometers in free space. Two original methods for GNSS receiver testing were developed. The first method is based on the usage of a GNSS simulator for generation of the satellite signals and a vector signal RF generator for generating different types of interference signals. The second software radio method is based on a software GNSS simulator and a signal processing in Matlab. The receivers were tested for narrowband CW interference, FM modulated signal and chirp jamming signals and scenarios. The signal to noise ratio usually drops down to 27 dBc-Hz while the jamming to signal ratio is different for different types of interference. The chirp signal is very effective. The jammer signal is well propagated in free space while in the real mobile urban and suburban environment it is usually strongly attenuated.
The results presented here are twofold. First, a heuristic algorithm is proposed which, through removing some unnecessary arcs from a digraph, tends to reduce it into an adjoint and thus simplifies the search for a Hamiltonian cycle. Second, a heuristic algorithm for DNA sequence assembly is proposed, which uses a graph model of the problem instance, and incorporates two independent procedures of reducing the set of arcs - one of them being the former algorithm. Finally, results of tests of the assembly algorithm on parts of chromosome arm 2R of Drosophila melanogaster are presented.
The presented results of investigations are part of a larger study focused on the optimization of the flow and mixing of liquid steel in the industrial tundish of continuous casting machine. The numerical simulations were carried out concern the analysis of hydrodynamic conditions of liquid steel flow in a tundish operating in one of the national steelworks. Numerical simulations were performed using the commercial code ANSYS Fluent. The research concerns two different speeds of steel casting. In real conditions, these speeds are the most commonly used in the technological process when casting two different groups of steel. As a result of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations, predicted spatial distributions of velocity and liquid steel turbulence fields and residence time distribution (RTD) curves were obtained. The volume fractions of different flows occurring in the tundish were also calculated. The results of the research allowed a detailed analysis of the influence of casting speed on the formation of hydrodynamic conditions prevailing in the reactor.
The results of studies presented in this article are an example of the research activity of the authors related to lead-free alloys. The studies covered binary SnZn90 and SnZn95 lead-free alloys, including their microstructure and complex mechanical characteristics. The microstructure was examined by both light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The identification of alloy chemical composition in micro-areas was performed by SEM/EDS method. As regards light microscopy, the assessment was of both qualitative and quantitative character. The determination of the geometrical parameters of microstructure was based on an original combinatorial method using phase quantum theory. Comprehensive characterization of mechanical behavior with a focus on fatigue life of alloys was performed by means of the original modified low cycle fatigue method (MLCF) adapted to the actually available test machine. The article discusses the fatigue life of binary SnZn90 and SnZn95 alloys in terms of their microstructure. Additionally, the benefits resulting from the use of the combinatorial method in microstructure examinations and MLCF test in the quick estimation of several mechanical parameters have been underlined.
The paper presents the results of the computer simulations of solidification with consideration of the liquid phase movement. Simulations were conducted in a real, complex cast. There is a multi-stage resolution to the problem of convection in solidification simulations. The most important resolution concerns the development of the numerical model with the momentum and continuity equations, as well as conditions which are determined by the convection. Simulations were carried out with the use of our authorial software based on stabilized finite elements method (Petroy-Galerkin). In order to solve Navier-Stokes equation (with the convection element), Boussinesq’s approximation were used. Finite Elements Method (FEM) was responsible for the solidification. FEM is close to the heat conduction equation solution (with the internal heat source responsible for the heat released during phase transformation). Convection causes movement in the liquid phase in the solidifying cast and can significantly influence the process of heat transfer from the cast. It may change the distribution of the defects. Results of this article make it possible to assess the conditions in which the influence of the convection on solidification is significant.