The article describes semantic roles of instrumental case (tvoritel’nyj padezh) in Russian and other Slavic languages. Its functions as the instrument, agent, route, temporative, vehicle, comparison, nominal predicate and object of action, and their place in human mental world are considered. Examples of izosemic (standard) and non-izosemic realization of these functions are provided. It is concluded that each semantic role is associated with the specifi c range of lexemes. The idea of interdependence or syncretism of meanings of the instrumental case is discussed. Examples from modern fi ction, where the opposition between certain functions of instrumental case is neutralized, worn off, are provided too. It is hypothesized that in certain discourse circumstances the instrumental case becomes the symbol of common dependency of noun from verb.
In the present study, butt joints of aluminum (Al) 8011-H18 and pure copper (Cu) were produced by friction stir welding (FSW) and the effect of plunge depth on surface morphology, microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. The welds were produced by varying the plunge depth in a range from 0.1 mm to 0.25 mm. The defect-free joints were obtained when the Cu plate was fixed at the advancing side. It was found that less plunging depth gives better tensile properties compare to higher plunging depth because at higher plunging depth local thinning occurs at the welded region. Good tensile properties were achieved at plunge depth of 0.2 mm and the tensile strength was found to be higher than the strength of the Al (weaker of the two base metals). Microstructure study revealed that the metal close to copper side in the Nugget Zone (NZ) possessed lamellar alternating structure. However, mixed structure of Cu and Al existed in the aluminum side of NZ. Higher microhardness values were witnessed at the joint interfaces resulting from plastic deformation and the presence of intermetallics.