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Abstract

This paper presents a novel low-complexity soft demapping algorithm for two-dimensional non-uniform spaced constellations (2D-NUCs) and massive order one-dimensional NUCs (1D-NUCs). NUCs have been implemented in a wide range of new broadcasting systems to approach the Shannon limit further, such as DVB-NGH, ATSC 3.0 and NGB-W. However, the soft demapping complexity is extreme due to the substantial distance calculations. In the proposed scheme, the demapping process is classified into four cases based on different quadrants. To deal with the complexity problem, four groups of reduced subsets in terms of the quadrant for each bit are separately calculated and stored in advance. Analysis and simulation prove that the proposed demapper only introduces a small penalty under 0.02dB with respect to Max-Log-MAP demapper, whereas a significant complexity reduction ranging from 68.75% to 88.54% is obtained.
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Abstract

An analysis of the effect of drawing speed on the formation of a zinc coating in the multi-stage fine steel wire drawing process has been carried out in the article. Pre-hardened 2.2 mm-diameter material was drawn into 1.00 mm-diameter wire in 6 draws on a multi-stage drawing machine. The drawing process was carried out at a drawing speed of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 20 m/s, respectively. Mechanical tests were tests were performed for the final wires to determine their yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, uniform and total elongation and reduction in area. The thickness of the zinc coating on the wire surface was determined by the gravimetric method and based on metallographic examination. The use of electron scanning microscopy, on the other hand, enabled the identification of individual phases in the zinc coating. The above investigations were supplemented with corrosion testing of 1.00 mm-diameter wires. It has been demonstrated that drawing speed significantly influences not only the thickness of the zinc coating on the drawn wire surface, buts also its morphology and corrosion resistance.
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