Obervations of wind directions and air temperatures in Hornsund, Spitsbergen, in 1978—1985 were used to compute frequency distribution of wind directions and mean air temperatures at particular wind directions. Prevailing easterly winds (60°, 90° and 120°) resulted in lower air temperatures (to —2.2°C) than winter and spring means and in higher (nearly 1°C) than summer and autumn mean temperatures. Greatest positive deviations from mean seasonal temperatures are observed in winter at southerly and southwesterly winds and reach 10°C. Greatest negative deviations from mean seasonal temperatures are noted at northerly winds (330° and 360°) in autumn and reach —3.7°C.
The frequency of wind occurrence at sectors each 30° as well as mean air temperature at particular wind direction were accounted for the warmest and the coldest year of the investigation period 1978—1987 at Polish Antarctic „Arctowski" Station. The effect of orography on wind direction and air temperature was determined. A great rate of dependence of air temperature and wind direction upon atmospheric circulation type was found. High air temperature at the winds from 300° and 330° directions is related both to the kind of air mass and foehn phenomena.
Observations from 1978—81, 1983 and 1985 collected at the Polish Polar Arctowski Station (King George Island, South Shetland Islands) were used to calculate frequencies of wind directions in 30° sectors and mean air temperatures observed at each wind direction. Results reveal that all over the year the warmest air masses flow onto the South Shetland Islands from the northwest while the coolest ones from the southeast and east.