According to the most popular conceptualization of materialism by Richins and Dawson it consists of three components: acquisition centrality, acquisition as the pursuit of happiness and possession -defined success. They are usually combined and an overall indicator of materialism is used commonly in various studies. In the article the three components are examined separately. Differences in their nature are revealed in a theoretical analysis, whereas in two empirical studies the ways they connect with well -being are presented. The results show that the overall materialism explains much less variance of well -being than the three components taken separately. Of the three the possession-defined happiness is the most detrimental to all aspects of well -being. The possession -defined success does not connect with well -being at all. Finally, acquisition centrality elevates hedonic and psychological well -being. The conclusion is that the modest effect of materialism on well -being, usually identified in various studies, is probably at least partly due to conflicting forces existing within the construct.
Animals kept outside their natural environment often suffer from boredom. They don’t hunt or have a chance to conduct their mating rituals, and their natural tendency for physical activity is limited by space. These deficiencies affect their psychological well-being. But when it comes to dogs, we can help them by exploiting their excellent sense of smell.
The aim of the paper is to compare nitrate concentrations in samples of supply water as well as water from deep and dug wells located in the eastern region of Poland. Additionally, samples of bottled water (spring and natural mineral), certifi ed by the Institute of Mother and Child and the Children’s Memorial Health Institute, were subjected to analyses. On the basis of the obtained results, health risks related to the occurrence of methemoglobinemia in neonates and infants were evaluated. The risk analysis was performed according to the procedure recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Nitrate concentrations in the examined samples ranged from: 0.153–161.1 mg/l. The lowest concentration of nitrates was determined in the samples of bottled water, the highest being detected in the water from dug wells. It was found that nitrate concentration in samples of bottled and supply water did not pose any risk to the health of neonates and infants. The highest health risk related to methemoglobinemia occurs for neonates consuming water originating from dug wells. The risk decreases along with the age of an infant.
The aim of this study was to examine the changes in the chemical composition of shallow groundwater and its quality that have occurred in the last decade in an agriculturally used, heavily populated and characterized by a complex geological structure, catchment of the Stara Rzeka river, located in the ﬂysch part of the Outer Carpathians. Water samples were collected during 2013 from 19 still operating wells. Analyses of pH, electrolytic conductivity and chemical composition by ion chromatography were conducted. The obtained results were compared with the results of studies conducted in 2003 for the same wells. The quality of groundwater and its suitability for consumption was assessed based on the regulations currently existing in Poland. 21% of the wells still do not meet the requirements for drinking water in terms of at least one component. However, there was a decrease in the concentration of mineral forms of nitrogen and phosphorus in most of the wells and their mean concentration as compared to 2003 was reduced. In terms of physical and chemical characteristics groundwater of this region is typical of the hypergenic zone of the temperate climate. The highest concentrations were observed for Ca2+ and HCO3- ions, while K+ and Cl- were characterized by the largest variability. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) demonstrated that the factors determining the quality and chemical composition of the analyzed waters include the composition of bedrock (mineralogy of the rock environment) and human economic activity, and that they have not been signiﬁcantly changed over the past decade.
There is a growing body of research investigating the relationships among gratitude, self-esteem, and subjective well-being. However, there remains a scarcity of research examining the impact of self-esteem on the relationship between gratitude and subjective well-being within Arabic context. In this study, 300 Arabic speaking adults completed measurements of gratitude, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, and positive and negative experiences. Participants’ ages ranged between 18 and 54 years with a mean age of 29.67 years (SD = 8.91). The correlation results revealed that there were significant positive relationships between gratitude, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, and positive experience, while there were significant negative relationships between gratitude, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, and negative experience. The results also showed that gratitude and self-esteem directly predicted subjective well-being. Additionally, using structural equation modeling, self-esteem exerted a mediation effect on the relationship between gratitude and subjective well-being. The results suggest that enhancing self-esteem could assist adults who have gratitude to experience greater subjective well-being. Using the source of self-esteem, researchers and professionals could improve one’s subjective wellbeing by employing various gratitude activities.
The subject of the research is one of the largest World’s mine tailings disposal sites, i.e. Żelazny Most in the Legnica-Głogów Copper Mining District (south-western Poland), where flotation tailings are poured out after copper ore treatment. The protective hydraulic barrier made of 46 vertical drainage wells was characterized and evaluated in view of reduction of major contaminants (Cl, Na, SO4, Ca) migrating from the facility to its foreground. The efficiency of groundwater protection was determined on the basis of a new approach. In applied method the loads of characteristic and commonly recognizable compounds, i.e. salt (NaCl) and gypsum (CaSO4) were calculated, instead their chemical components. The temporal and spatial variability of captured main contaminants loads as well as its causes are discussed. The paper ends with the results of efficiency analyses of the barrier and with respect to the predicted increase in contaminant concentrations in the pulp poured out to the tailings site.