Search results

Filters

  • Journals
  • Authors
  • Keywords
  • Date
  • Type

Search results

Number of results: 9
items per page: 25 50 75
Sort by:

Abstract

Mineral composition of bedrock is the main factor determining salt mineralization in the weathering zone of Seymour (Marambio) Island (maritime — Antarctic continent climatic boundary). Supply of salts by sea water spray can accelerate weathering process, modify chemical formula of salt minerals and give ephemeral efflorescences of easy soluble chlorides and partially longer lasting gypsum on the surface. Microbiologically mediated oxidation of sulphides and followed acid sulphate drainage formed K and Na jarosite, basic amorphous aluminium sulphate, gypsum, aluminium bearing ferrihydrite and ankerite in weathering zone of Paleogene sediments. Intense alteration of well-lithified, calcareous sandstones of unit 1 of the López de Bertodano Formation (Cretaceous) on old erosion surface led localy to surface mineralization comparable with that found in Antarctic Continent. Stones laying on the soil surface are covered by thin red film of ferrihydrite above the soil level and by light green crust of aragonite coloured by glauconite pigment on the underground side. Most of the Cretaceous sediment does not contain sulphides nor alteration susceptible silicates thus ephemeral sea salts efflorescences observed on its surface are more prominent than in another places.
Go to article

Abstract

Mid-winter rapid rise of temperature in the vicinity of Arctowski Station, King George Island (West Antarctica) was studied in 1991. Depending on circumantarctic migration of cyclones, sudden drop in air pressure and foehn-like phenomenon intensified by local topography occurred. Two such events are described on May 13 and June 28, against meteorological conditions during autumn and winter. Extreme intensification of morphogenetic processes caused degradation of a snow cover, immense meltwater discharge, radical transformation of slopes, effective aeolian activity and dynamic modifications in a sea-shore zone.
Go to article

Abstract

Due to unfavorable factors, dangerous conditions occurred in the delivery of electric energy in Poland. This was the most serious incident of its kind since the 1980’s. Such a serious incident raised concern about the safety of the electric power system in the summer and led to the formulation of conclusions for the future. In this article, the author analyses the conditions, which caused that situation. Poland was experiencing a doubt in August 2015, which along with an extremely high maximum daily temperature created remarkably unfavorable conditions for power plants and decreased the capacity of overhead power lines. Such unfavorable metrological conditions occurred not only in Poland, but also in Central-Eastern and Western Europe. It is worth emphasizing that the safety of electric energy delivery was endangered only in Poland. The improper renovation and upkeep policies, as well as unplanned outages in power plants caused a significant decrease of available power in the National Electric Power System. Unscheduled flows between Germany and Poland ruled out the possibility of importing electric energy at such a critical time. The author presents the correlation between the maximum daily air temperature in the sweltering heat and an increase in the demand for electric energy. Overall, unfavorable conditions posed a threat in the delivery of electric energy in Poland. In this article, the author draws attention to the report from the Supreme Audit Office (Najwyższa Izba Kontroli – NIK) from 2014, which predicted such a dangerous situation. Unfortunately, that report remained unnoticed. The author formulated appropriate solutions in order to increase the safety of electric energy delivery in the summer and to prevent such occurrences in the future.
Go to article

Abstract

This article aims to analyse the influence of weather types on meteorological conditions in Petuniabukta (Svalbard) during July and August of 2016. The paper analyses the daily courses of air temperature and humidity at four measurement points located on the west bank of Petuniabukta near Adam Mickiewicz University Polar Station during two different types of weather conditions: (i) cloudy and windy, (ii) calm and clear. These weather types, distinguished on the basis of wind speed and cloudiness, allowed for the creation of composite maps of the synoptic situation (SLP and geopotential height of 500 hPa distribution) and its anomalies. In the study area, the air temperature range in windy and cloudy weather conditions was larger (-10°C to 15°C) than that in sunny and calm weather (0°C to 15°C), which contrasts the range of humidity values. The diurnal cycle of meteorological elements in sunny and calm days is strongly related to the sun elevation angle. In the above-mentioned weather types, the air temperature was higher by several degrees (median 5°C to 8°C) than on windy and cloudy days (median about 0°C to 6°C) at each measurement point. On days with sunny and calm weather, a smaller vertical temperature gradient of air is observed (for sunny and calm days 0.63°C and for windy weather 0.8°C).
Go to article

Abstract

In this study, atlases of wave characteristics and wave energy for the Barents Sea have been generated for the years from 1996 to 2015 based on ERA-Interim datasets from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The wave power resources in the Barents Sea can be exploited with sea ice extent declining in recent years. The entire Barents Sea has been divided into multi-year sea ice zones, seasonal sea ice zones and open water zones according to the 20-year averaged sea ice concentration. In the entire domain, the spatial distributions of the annual averaged and mean monthly significant wave heights and wave energy flux are presented. For the open water zones, 15 points have been selected at different locations so as to derive and study the wave energy roses and the inter-annual wave power variation. Moreover, the correlations between the wave energy period and the significant wave height are shown in the energy and scatter diagrams. The maximum wave power occurs in the winter in the western parts of the Barents Sea with more than 60kW/m. The wave energy can therefore be exploited in the open water zones.
Go to article

Abstract

The paper presents investigation results of the migration of a chemical compound contained in fly ash deposited on a dry furnace waste landfill site exposed to weather conditions. Climate conditions are able to significantly affect chemical component distribution in a block of deposited, moving chemical compounds to different depths. The main aim of the investigations was to determine the chemical component distribution of deposited fly ash in the landfill. Identification of chemical components based on XRF analysis indicated the existence of differences in both tested storage layer and the fraction of fly ash.
Go to article

Abstract

This article comprises an analysis of the variability of meteorological conditions on Kaffiøyra (NW Spitsbergen, Svalbard) in 2013–2017 in connection with atmospheric circulation and the extent of sea ice. The obtained results were compared with the results of observations made at the Ny-Ålesund station. Due to the situation of the area in the polar region and the large amount of clouds, especially in summer, the annual sum of incoming solar radiation was small, amounting to an average of 2,237.8 MJ.m-2 per year. The mean air temperature in the considered period was -2.0°C. Its extreme values ranged from 15.2°C to -23.8°C. In the annual course, the highest mean temperature occurred in July (6.5°C), and the lowest in March (-7.8°C). The mean relative humidity of air was high (83%). The prevailing wind directions were from south and north sectors and this coincided with the orientation of Forlandsundet. The mean wind speed was 3.6 m.s-1. In the summer season in 1975–2017, a statistically significant air temperature increase was observed, reaching 0.28°C/10 years. The high variability of local weather conditions was caused mainly by atmospheric circulation and the impact of sea ice was much smaller in comparison.
Go to article

Abstract

Air Pollution in Poland – Condition, Causes and Effects. In the recent years the air in Poland seems to be the most polluted in Europe (it is worse only in a few times smaller Bulgaria). The concentration of particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), represented by benzo(a)pyrene are among the highest in European Union countries. They are highly toxic, especially PAHS, which damage the hematopoietic system, accumulate in living organisms leading to a cancerous process, they cause damages to the central nervous system and infertility. It is estimated that high air pollution causes 45-47 thousands premature deaths in Poland every year, as well as growth frequency of allergies and chronic diseases. Polish society loses about 520,000 potential years of life, and the economy of 18.5 million work days. It’s a very high price. The weather determines to a large extent the air pollution. The smog episode is usually accompanied by low wind speed or atmospheric silence, reduction of visibility and thermal inversions. However, the biggest problem is low emission, which is mainly related to individual heating of buildings (78-87% of the total emission of benzo(a)pyrene. The reasons for such poor sanitary condition of the air in Poland are complex and to a large extent they result from spatial chaos and lack of spatial planning, but also from general policy country. The most important reasons are i.a.: the lack of a planning policy and a sustainable transport policy, persistent subsidies for unprofitable coal mines, the lack of a policy promoting renewable energy sources and “clean” technologies, high gas price (the highest in Europe) and no subsidies for the poorest, scattered buildings which hinders access to system heat, inefficient and unsuitable transport based on road transport road and individual cars (often old, Diesel) etc.
Go to article

This page uses 'cookies'. Learn more