In this paper an alternative procedure to vibro-acoustics study of beam-type structures is presented. With this procedure, it is possible to determine the resonant modes, the bending wave propagation velocity through the study of the radiated acoustic field and their temporal evolution in the frequency range selected. As regards the purely experimental aspect, it is worth noting that the exciter device is an actuator similar to is the one employed in distributed modes loudspeakers; the test signal used is a pseudo random sequence, in particular, an MLS (Maximum Length Sequence), facilitates post processing. The study case was applied to two beam-type structures made of a sandstone material called Bateig. The experimental results of the modal response and the bending propagation velocity are compared with well-established analytical solution: Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko models, and numerical models: Finite Element Method – FEM, showing a good agreement.
In the paper the author has described the visualization methods in acoustic flow fields and show how these methods may assist scientists to gain understanding of complex acoustic energy flow in real-life field. A graphical method will be presented to determine the real acoustic wave distribution in the flow field. Visualization of research results, which is unavailable by conventional acoustics metrology, may be shown in the form of intensity streamlines in space, as a shape of floating acoustic wave and intensity isosurface in three-dimensional space. In traditional acoustic metrology, the analysis of acoustic fields concerns only the distribution of pressure levels (scalar variable), however in a real acoustic field both the scalar (acoustic pressure) and vector (the acoustic particle velocity) effects are closely related. Only when the acoustic field is described by both the potential and kinetic energies, we may understand the mechanisms of propagation, diffraction and scattering of acoustic waves on obstacles, as a form of energy image. This attribute of intensity method can also validate the results of CFD/CAA numerical modeling which is very important in any industry acoustic investigations.
One of the crucial advancements in next-generation 5G wireless networks is the use of high-frequency signals specifically those are in the millimeter wave (mm-wave) bands. Using mmwave frequency will allow more bandwidth resulting higher user data rates in comparison to the currently available network. However, several challenges are emerging (such as fading, scattering, propagation loss etc.), whenever we utilize mm-wave frequency wave bands for signal propagation. Optimizing propagation parameters of the mm-wave channels system are much essential for implementing in the real-world scenario. To keep this in mind, this paper presents the potential abilities of high frequencies signals by characterizing the indoor small cell propagation channel for 28, 38, 60 and 73 GHz frequency band, which is considered as the ultimate frequency choice for many of the researchers. The most potential Close-In (CI) propagation model for mm-wave frequencies is used as a Large-scale path loss model. Results and outcomes directly affecting the user experience based on fairness index, average cell throughput, spectral efficiency, cell-edge user’s throughput and average user throughput. The statistical results proved that these mm-wave spectrum gives a sufficiently greater overall performance and are available for use in the next generation 5G mobile communication network.
A low-dimensional physical model of small-amplitude oscillations of the vocal folds is proposed here. The model is a simplified version of the body-cover one in which mucosal surface wave propagation has been approximated by the seesaw-like oscillation of the vocal fold about its fulcrum point whose position is adjustable in both the horizontal and vertical directions. This approach works for 180 degree phase difference between the glottal entry and exit displacements. The fulcrum point position has a significant role in determining the shape of the glottal flow. The vertical position of the fulcrum point determines the amplitude of the glottal exit displacement, while its horizontal position governs the shape and amplitude of the glottal flow. An increment in its horizontal position leads to an increase in the amplitude of the glottal flow and the time period of the opening and closing phases, as well as a decrease in the time period of the closed phase. The proposed model is validated by comparing its results with the low-dimensional mucosal surface wave propagation model.
In marine seismic wide−angle profiling the recorded wave field is dominated by waves propagating in the water. These strong direct and multiple water waves are generally treated as noise, and considerable processing efforts are employed in order minimize their influences. In this paper we demonstrate how the water arrivals can be used to determine the water velocity beneath the seismic wide−angle profile acquired in the Northern Atlantic. The pattern of water multiples generated by air−guns and recorded by Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) changes with ocean depth and allows determination of 2D model of velocity. Along the profile, the water velocity is found to change from about 1450 to approximately 1490 m/s. In the uppermost 400 m the velocities are in the range of 1455–1475 m/s, corresponding to the oceanic thermocline. In the deep ocean there is a velocity decrease with depth, and a minimum velocity of about 1450 m/s is reached at about 1.5 km depth. Be − low that, the velocity increases to about 1495 m/s at approximately 2.5 km depth. Our model compares well with estimates from CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, Depth) data collected nearby, suggesting that the modelling of water multiples from OBS data might be − come an important oceanographic tool.
The fully coupled, porous solid-fluid dynamic field equations with u−p formulation are used in this paper to simulate pore fluid and solid skeleton responses. The present formulation uses physical damping, which dissipates energy by velocity proportional damping. The proposed damping model takes into account the interaction of pore fluid and solid skeleton. The paper focuses on formulation and implementation of Time Discontinuous Galerkin (TDG) methods for soil dynamics in the case of fully saturated soil. This method uses both the displacements and velocities as basic unknowns and approximates them through piecewise linear functions which are continuous in space and discontinuous in time. This leads to stable and third-order accurate solution algorithms for ordinary differential equations. Numerical results using the time-discontinuous Galerkin FEM are compared with results using a conventional central difference, Houbolt, Wilson θ, HHT-α, and Newmark methods. This comparison reveals that the time-discontinuous Galerkin FEM is more stable and more accurate than these traditional methods.
Early detection of potential defects and identification of their location are necessary to ensure safe, reliable and long-term use of engineering structures. Non-destructive diagnostic tests based on guided wave propagation are becoming more popular because of the possibility to inspect large areas during a single measurement with a small number of sensors. The aim of this study is the application of guided wave propagation in non-destructive diagnostics of steel bridges. The paper contains results of numerical analyses for a typical railway bridge. The ability of damage detection using guided Lamb waves was demonstrated on the example of a part of a plate girder as well as a bolted connection. In addition, laboratory tests were performed to investigate the practical application of wave propagation for a steel plate and a prestressed bolted joint.
A computational approach to analysis of wave propagation in plane stress problems is presented. The initial-boundary value problem is spatially approximated by the multi-node C⁰ displacement-based isoparametric quadrilateral finite elements. To integrate the element matrices the multi-node Gauss-Legendre-Lobatto quadrature rule is employed. The temporal discretization is carried out by the Newmark type algorithm reformulated to accommodate the structure of local element matrices. Numerical simulations are conducted for a T-shaped steel panel for different cases of initial excitation. For diagnostic purposes, the uniformly distributed loads subjected to an edge of the T-joint are found to be the most appropriate for design of ultrasonic devices for monitoring the structural element integrity.