Functional urban areas (FUA) have became an important component of polycentric settlement structure of all European countries. FUAs have been defined as labour market basins, composed on large city and its surrounding areas (commuting zones). The very spatial and economic concept formed the foundation of old industrial regions. Old industrialized regions with all the spatial challenges and economic problems could be also perceived as a specific type of functional urban area. In Poland, National Spatial Development Concept 2030 (NSDC 2030 2013) describes restructuring and revitalization of degraded areas and cities in terms of spatial policy measures addressed to the supporting of cohesion in problematic areas. That is why integrated revitalization programs of functional urban areas may become key instrument of regional spatial policy and urban strategies. In response to the problems of degraded land and related land-use conflicts, it can significantly help in establishing valuable solutions, as well as ensuring connections between environmental, social and economic needs in the development of functional urban areas.
Within this article the method of delimitation of the revitalization area within the realities of the current Polish legislation was described. This method was presented on the example of the City of Wejherowo – a medium-sized municipality, being part of the Gdańsk Metropolitan Area. It includes both spatial and socio-economic analyses allowing selection of the areas suff ering from various types of degradation. In result, this method allows indicating the areas demanding the complex intervention, which – on the basis of the comprehensive analysis – shall be subject of further planning for urban regeneration.
Green spaces are an integral element of urban structures. They are not only a place of rest for their users, but also positively affect their well-being and health. The eff ect of these spaces, is the better, the smoother they create larger urban layout – stings of greenery. The introduction of urban greenery can and should be one of the basic elements of revitalization. Often, however, greenery is designed without multi-aspect analysis, enabling understanding of conditions and the use of existing potential in a given place. The use of computational design in conjunction with the use of generally available databases, such as numerical SRTM terrain models, publicly available OSM map database and EPW meteorological data, allows for the design of space in a more comprehensive way. These design methods allow better matching of the greenery design in a given area to specific architectural, urban and environmental conditions.
This paper includes a description of both the mode of development and the final structure and contents of the Municipal Revitalization Program, which was developed for the City of Starogard Gdański. All key parts of this program were described as well as methods used for planning the diverse activities associated with revitalization of the municipality. These were based on both actual legislation – of both national and regional importnace – as well as on Author’s own experience in this matter. In result, the article can serve as the example of one of the possible ways of developing the complex program of urban transformation for the medium-sized municipality.
BIM (Building Information Modelling) is a tool and technology closely related to the planning, design, implementation and management of construction investments – both at the level of a building, as well as infrastructure or civil engineering. It combines advanced spatial modeling (using virtual representations of building elements) with management of information at every level, from the modelling of building’s components, through complex interactions between these elements, to the description of building processes and the behavior of users of the building. This is just a part of many possibilities, the full application depends only on the needs and skills of the system user. Construction dependencies are set at the level of the IFC (Industry Foundation Class) universal standard IFC, its syntax allows to describe not only the physical structure of the object, but also their mutual interactions. This is done in a hierarchical way, i.e. from the superior element there are subsequent, lower-level elements and interactions. So how can this tool be used in urban revitalization? The basic problem here is the excess of information related to and contained in the virtual model. In urban planning and design, most of this data is unnecessary. On the other hand, the data contained in the GIS (Geographic Information System) models, despite correlation with external databases, are insufficient. Basic location data, technical conditions of facilities and infrastructure, property dependencies are not enough to obtain a full picture of the urban space. The solution to the problem of linking these systems is CIM (City Information Modeling). It combines the description of an object derived from IFC with database support at the level of GIS systems. Such a broad approach allows for placing enough information in one virtual space for designing, modeling and analyzing urban space. The article is an attempt to demonstrate what conditions must be met by the CIM system, to extend its functionality to issues related to the revitalization of urban areas: whether and how the information contained in the spatial model can be used to determine the rules for the revitalization of space at the urban level?
The article presents how multi-layered urban lighting projects fit into the programs of integrated activities to improve the living conditions of the local community, the surrounding space, and its economic relations. The role of the electric lighting in revealing the night image of the city, its promotion and public spaces transformations offering new impressions to city residents is growing thanks to the use of the SSL technology. The authors focus on a role of outdoor lighting projects in urban regeneration within the selected urban areas. The paper describes how conscious shaping of lighting by analysing the goals and stages of the project can contribute to the improvement of quality in the processes of renewal of degraded urban areas.
The article attempts a comparison of two harbor districts, in Gdansk and in Hamburg. In 2013, a multiannual program - IBA Hamburg (International Building Exhibition) - was completed. The IBA, initiated with the a concept of the Leap over the Elbe River, part of the Growing City development agenda, addressed the problem of restructuring the port-nearby zones in Harburg and Wilhelmsburg, which have been recognised as areas of high potential in metropolitan development. The concept of metrozones (intra-peripheries or intra border zones), similarly to the term in-between City (German: Zwischenstadt), describes the current problems associated with the strive for creation of an original, but efficient and compact European city. Restructuring of the harbor districts enables new development of the urbanized, but never planned as urban space, areas. Shaped in accordance with the technological capabilities and with the regulation standards and norms of the second half of the 20th century, nowadays the areas form the resultative landscape, burdened with the image of an unfriendly or even dangerous zones. In the era of high technology, metrozones are becoming valuable intra-city developmental areas, opened to alternative urban programs, avoiding the homogenising global trends. In connection with the above, the article describes the situation of the area organized around Nowy Port in Gdansk.
The aim of the presented work is to prove that construction of large sports facilities in the urban space, can generate positive changes and revitalization of degraded areas. On the basis of comparative analysis of cases in which such activities took place, it can be concluded that locating these facilities in heavily degraded urban areas is one of the most eff ective methods of large-scale revitalization. This is mainly visible in post-industrial areas, which are usually well linked to canals, rivers and other waterways or reservoirs. The vast spaces around sports facilities create favorable conditions for additional recreational functions, such as parks and green areas, which in connection with water become a very attractive place for the residents of the city. Increasing interest in the area leads to new investments such as housing estates and gradual development of a multi-functional urban structure. One of the most important factors leading to this type of transformation is the modernization of the communication infrastructure which enables connection between revitalized areas and the rest of the city. A well-planned program of newly emerging sports facilities is also an extremely important factor. As research shows, large multifunctional sports and entertainment facilities, can function as a new kind of public space in the city. This leads not only to the establishment of completely new social relations, but also to the creation of jobs and the general improvement of the broadly understood image of the district.
Both the landscape shaped and recognized as valuable, as well as the internally incoherent, low-value landscape are the basis on which the development and transformation of culture, social ties and ties with the place take place. Shaping the landscape is associated with among others, on identity, creativity and responsibility for the place. The social eff ects of building a valuable, attractive landscape, including the urban landscape, are determined by many activities, not only those related to building and functioning of the built environment. Communal revitalization programs emphasize the importance of the aesthetics of public places and undertake the eff ort to involve the local community in increasing the aesthetics of the neighborhood and semi-public spaces. However, landscape themes appear sporadically at the occasion of discussing the attractiveness of a place of residence and are intuitively intertwined with the issues of the quality of public spaces and green areas. The shaping of the urban landscape is signifi cantly associated with innovation [Bach-Głowińska 2014]. As a result of research into the relationship between space, the sense of belonging and innovation, there are some initial recommendations for providing elements that stimulate the user’s creativity while shaping the urban landscape. In the developed methodology of the smartest place, the determination of stakeholders takes place, among others thanks to the use of an online survey, then meetings are held with those involved in the co-creation session, which aim to definitively determine the form of landscape that best suits their needs and at the same time have the chance to stimulate their creativity
According to the Grant Map of the Ministry of Development (MoD) as of March-April 2017, there were 1716 urban regeneration (revitalization) projects implemented in Poland between 2007-2013. Data from 11 voivodeships (out of 16 regions NUTS 2 in Poland) and 977 projects was sufficient to provide a representative sample (56,9% of projects presented in the Grant Map). The main methods used in the article included observation and review of MoD statistical data and literature on the subject. As observed by the author, between 2007-2013 the definition of urban regeneration (revitalization) was only mentioned in one of the footnotes to the housing guidelines, which was a poor legal basis for the regional managing authorities. Similarly, there was no solid basis in the strategic documents (national) for that period: they did not provide any definition of revitalization. It was in the interest of the beneficiaries, as well as – partly – in the interest of those managing authorities to satisfy the local needs, especially those needs which were not considered the result of the shift to the post-industrial era, but rather as a result of numerous institutional and political events. Due to these features, the period 2007-2013 was dominated by infrastructure projects aimed at the quality of life but also efficient in terms of spending European money. It seems that there was an agreement between regional managing authorities and the benefi ciaries (potential voters) as to the way of spending the revitalization funding. This was understood differently at national level, but because institutions at this level were not involved directly in the urban regeneration (revitalization), their influence on regional units was minor. Even more so because the managing authorities were also interested in speeding up the process of spending European resources.