An aim of this article was to analyze and interpret multifaceted semantic of motives for lying in the novel Women’s Lies by Lyudmila Ulitskaya mainly on the basis of the text’s content as well as related to it preceded annotations, essayistic and journalistic utterances of an actress. We declare that the “laboratory analyze” of women’s lies in its various scenes makes a leading opinion and basic motive of the novel. At the beginning of the conclusion we are concentrating on the author`s definition of lie, so we can later refer to mythological-historical-literary roots. In the context of above mentioned facts, it is interesting that Ulitskaya divides lie on masculine and feminine. Ulitskaya, in her typical way, referring to cultural-religious archetypes and symbols, indicates the roots of masculine lie pertaining even to the Old Testament, as contrary to “pleasant feminine lie”. In this regard, the mythological characters of Odysseus and Penelope are also recognized as representatives. After all, in the content of the analyzed piece are only presented various examples of female lies, and, in our opinion, exposed as an element of the third plane, which unites natural sciences and literature.
The objective of the paper is to use the model of Complexity Scales and Licensing (Cyran 2003, 2010) to account for the existence of two prosodic types: ‘syllable’ and ‘word’ languages (Auer 1993, Szczepaniak 2007), which roughly correspond to syllable-timed and stress-timed languages. We will postulate that these categories are not primitive and that many of their phonological characteristics can be derived from simpler mechanisms of licensing. It will be also argued that the phenomenon of contrast plays an important role in prosodic typology and may infl uence syllable structure. Languages use more marked syllabic confi gurations in order to optimise contrast expression. We will carry out an analysis on a simple hypothetical language in order to demonstrate the interdependence of syllabic complexity and the contrastive potential of a syllabic unit.
Identification of agriculture types in Poland with analysis of spatial associations. The aims of the paper were to identify and characterize contemporary agriculture types in Poland, and evaluate the suitability of the typology used. The analysis was performed on the basis of territorial units (communes, LAU2). The study involved a total of 68 variables characterizing agriculture. Spatial associations found in the data were identified. As the next step, an analysis of local spatial autocorrelation was performed and spatial clusters were identified by LISA and cluster analysis performed by the method of k-means clustering, which identified a total of five agriculture types. The study presented the spatial distribution of individual types of agriculture and their characteristics. Furthermore, the method was shown to be especially useful for investigating agricultural phenomena characterized by a large number of traits in relation to a large number of territorial units.
Depopulation is understood as a real population loss in an area represented by a negative population change. In the present-day Poland, the process is particularly distinct in the economically underperforming areas situated on the peripheries of large urban centres, but some of the most populous cities are also affected by it. The purpose of the presented research using Webb’s typology was to identify Polish poviats that were depopulating in all the years from 2002 to 2014 as a result of natural population decline and negative migration balance (two-factor depopulation). In the research, special attention was given to the rate of change in the number of population (total and by age group) and to a net natural and migration loss in the selected poviats. Selected characteristics of the 2014 population age structure in Poland were also evaluated. The basis for all findings presented in the paper is vital and migratory statistics for the years 2002 to 2014 and the data on poviats’ population age structure from 2002 and 2014 published by the Central Statistical Office.
On the Transylvanian territory 19 axes have been recorded that date to different times during the 7th and 8th c. AD, and which create a chronological sequence that will be shown in the text below. These 19 artefacts were retrieved from: 6 cemeteries — 10 finds; 1 military guard post / observation post for the surveillance of the area — 1 find; a settlement / house — 1 find; and discovered as stray finds: at 3 specified sites — 4 finds, within the territory of the county — 3 finds. The shape of the artefacts is the main criterion used to develop the typological groups of axes found in the Transylvanian plateau. Accordingly, five main types have been defined: 1st type — Axe with a poll, hammer type; 2nd type — Axe with a long poll in the shape of a rectangular bar; 3rd type — Axe with a fan-shaped blade and a long poll in the shape of a rectangular bar; 4th type — Axe with a round poll; 5th type — pole-axe. Taking into consideration the contexts of the discoveries and known analogies, these axes can be dated to different points in time creating a chronological sequence spanning over the 7th and 8th centuries. Most of the axes dated from the 7th and 8th centuries in Transylvania were found in warrior graves or funerary contexts, or together with other weapons, thus providing grounds for their inclusion within the category of weapons. This fact, combined with the series of typological features, allows to include these artifacts in the category of battle axes.