The paper presents an analysis of overvoltages caused by a direct lightning strike in intrusion detection system equipped with underground radiating cable sensors. Waveforms of currents and voltages in the system components are calculated using analytical formulas basing on a transmission-line model in the frequency domain. The time-domain waveforms are computed using the inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT). Three network configurations of the intrusion detection system are analyzed.
The authors present a numerical study of a start-up of a boiler with a thick-walled element subjected to thermomechanical loading. The significance of calculations of real heat transfer coefficients has been demonstrated. Fluid dynamics, mechanical transient thermal and static structural calculations have been conducted in both separate and coupled modes. Strain-stress analyses prove that the effect of the heat transfer coefficient changing in time and place in comparison with a constant one as recommended by standards is the key factor of fatigue calculations.
The purpose of this paper is to focus on the loss separation of non-grain-oriented electrical steels used for speed-variable rotating electrical machines. The impact of laser-cutting, used in prototype manufacturing and of flux density harmonics, occurring locally in the lamination, on the loss distribution is studied in detail. Iron losses occurring under operation can physically be separated in different loss components. In this paper, a frequency-based loss model with parameters identified for single-sheet tester specimens, cut in strips of different widths, is therefore used. Moreover, a time-domain approach considers loss distributions occurring from higher harmonics. Hysteresis losses having high sensitivity to cut edge effects are calculated by the well-known Jiles-Atherton model adapting the frequency-based loss parameters. The model is validated by free-curve measurements at a single-sheet tester. It has been shown that the studied elliptical hysteresis model becomes inaccurate particularly for specimens with small strip widths with similar dimensions as teeth of electrical machine laminations. The incorrect mapping of losses occurring from minor hysteresis loops due to higher harmonics is concluded. The results showconsequently that both, the impact of a cut edge effect and local distributions of flux density harmonics need to be considered in terms of accurate iron loss prediction of electrical machine design.
This paper presents a study on ferroresonance occurring in a high voltage 400 kV transmission grid due to energization of power transformer under no-load conditions. The system scenarios analyzed in the present paper are considered as critical for development and modernization plans as currently announced by the national grid operator in Poland. The PSCADsimulation modelwas developed and applied for several study cases of a system with double-circuit arrangement of a transmission line. It is shown that the ferroresonant oscillations can be initiated by two-phase switching operation of a line circuit breaker. The impact of the double-circuit length on the ferroresonance mode and severity is demonstrated with the use of the Poincaré map analysis and Short Time Fourier Transform. It is demon- strated that the length of the transmission line that is mutually coupled in the double-circuit arrangement has a significant impact on the ferroresonance occurrence and on its mode. As the ferroresonance can pose severe threat to the power system components due to the severe overvoltage and overcurrent oscillations, the analysis presented in this paper demonstrates the necessity of the ferroresonance analyses for any re-designed transmission system.
Electric arc is a complex phenomenon occurring during the current interruption process in the power system. Therefore performing digital simulations is often necessary to analyse transient conditions in power system during switching operations. This paper deals with the electric arc modelling and its implementation in simulation software for transient analyses during switching conditions in power system. Cassie, Cassie-Mayr as well as Schwarz-Avdonin equations describing the behaviour of the electric arc during the current interruption process have been implemented in EMTP-ATP simulation software and presented in this paper. The models developed have been used for transient simulations to analyse impact of the particular model and its parameters on Transient Recovery Voltage in different switching scenarios: during shunt reactor switching-off as well as during capacitor bank current switching-off. The selected simulation cases represent typical practical scenarios for inductive and capacitive currents breaking, respectively.
Commonly, the Park model is used to calculate transients or steady-state operations of synchronous machines. The expanded Park theory derives the Park equations from the phase-domain model of the synchronous machine by the use of transformations. Thereby, several hypothesis are made, which are under investigation in this article in respect to the main inductances of two different types of synchronous machines. It is shown, that the derivation of the Park equations from the phase-domain model does not lead to constant inductances, as it is usually assumed for these equations. Nevertheless the Park model is the most common analytic model of synchronous machines. Therefore, in the second part of this article a method using the evolution strategy is shown to obtain the parameters of the Park model.
A method for modeling of the dynamics characteristics for a 5-phase permanent magnet tubular linear motor (PMTLM) is presented. Its electromagnetic nonlinear field analysis with finite element method (FEM) has been coupled with the circuit model. The calculation model includes the equations for electrical circuits and mechanical quantities as well. They have been obtained using Lagrange's method. The calculated and measured waves of the mover position have been compared for several values of the excitation current. This comparison yields a good agreement. Presented calculation model is very useful in designing and optimization of the PMTLM and in the calculation of the parameters for the control algorithms intended for such a type of actuators.