In this study a group of selected transformation kinetics equations is applied to describe the isothermal ferritic transformation in austempered ductile iron (ADI). A series of dilatometric tests has been carried out on ADI at different temperatures. The obtained experimental data are utilized to determine the parameter values of the considered kinetic equations. It is found that the transformation kinetics models by Starink, Austin and Rickett are substantially more effective at describing the ferritic transformation in ADI than the much celebrated Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that evaluating the kinetic parameters using the least squares method instead of calculating them from vastly used formulas can significantly improve the accuracy of the JMAK model’s predictions.
Dr. Artur Obłuski of the University of Warsaw tells us about research into political, social, and religious transformations in Sudan in the Middle Ages, the present-day importance of archaeological discoveries, and the meaning of the word “UMMA.”
“Isolation would be most unfortunate. We would be doing science in our own company, completely indifferent to what is happening outside our own universe. This would be totally self-destructive and I hope it will never happen,” says Professor Michał Głowiński in an interview with Grzegorz Wołowiec, titled “A Time Unexpected,” a fragment of which is presented below.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that are of international concern because of global distribution, persistence, and toxicity. Removal of these compounds from the environment remains a very difficult challenge because the compounds are highly hydrophobic and have very low solubility in water. A 900 W domestic microwave oven, pyrex vessel reactor, pyrex tube connector and condensing system were used in this experiment. Radiation was discontinuous and ray powers were 540, 720 and 900 W. The PCBS were analyzed by GC-ECD. The application of microwave radiation and H2O2/TiO2 agents for the degradation of polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated oil was explored in this study. PCB – contaminated oil was treated in a pyrex reactor by microwave irradiation at 2450 MHz with the addition of H2O2/TiO2. A novel grain TiO2 (GT01) was used. The determination of PCB residues in oil by gas chromatography (GC) revealed that rates of PCB decomposition were highly dependent on microwave power, exposure time, ratio to solvent with transformer oil in 3:1, the optimal amount of GT01 (0.2 g) and 0.116 mol of H2O2 were used in the study. It was suggested that microwave irradiation with the assistance of H2O2/TiO2 might be a potential technology for the degradation of PCB – contaminated oil. The experiments show that MW irradiation, H2O2 oxidant and TiO2 catalyst lead to a degradation efficiency of PCBs only in the presence of ethanol. The results showed that the addition of ethanol significantly enhanced degradation efficiency of PCBs.
The radiation of sound waves from partially lined duct is treated by using the mode-matching method in conjunction with the Wiener-Hopf technique. The solution is obtained by modification of the Wiener-Hopf technique and involves an infinite series of unknowns which are determined from an infinite system of linear algebraic equations. Numerical solution of this system is obtained for various values of the problem parameters, whereby the effects of these parameters on the sound diffraction are studied. A perfect agreement is observed when the results of radiated field are compared numerically with a similar work existing in the literature.
The article discusses the problem with modifications of plans of water areas and the forms of their borders which have been inscribed into the history of all city structures related to water. It can be observed that the modifications made in recent decades very often concern the transformations of former industrial sites. Many such structural changes are taking place within signifi cant areas which have fragmented central parts of cities and created voids in the urban fabric. They are being applied to many former shipyards and ports. Research shows that the formation of new connections between land and water in these transformation processes is essential. More frequently, those conversions that are currently being realized change the constructions of wharves and lead to the development of plans drawing new borders between land and water. In these cases water is introduced into land areas and new land surfaces are being created over existing bodies of water. These operations can be considered extremely valuable in achieving the intended eff ects of transformations of post-industrial areas. They are perceived as an excellent possibility to strengthen the relationship between the city structure and water. At the same time they create an opportunity to achieve a high quality of architectural and landscape solutions and the quality of spaces in both social and economic terms.
Gothenburg is the second-largest city in Sweden, capital of Västra Götaland County Region. It is situated on the west coast of Sweden with the port area located along the Göta Älv River. Due to economic restructuring, waterfront redevelopment emerges as an attractive option to boost economic growth of the city. The aim of this paper is to shed light on conditions of the transformation process of two neighboring areas: Frihamnen and Ringön. Publicly initiated and privately executed waterfront redevelopment in Gothenburg transforms industrial grounds into residential and service oriented areas in Eriksberg, Lindholmen and Frihamnen. The collaborative process of a “developer dialogue” crafts a redevelopment in a consistent way with taking into consideration city’s long-term planning strategy, specifi c needs and opportunities of the neighbourhoods, but also market and fi nancial realities of development community. Another example is a slow and spontaneous transformation of post-industrial areas in Ringön, where still active small industrial fi rms, services, cultural and artistic initiatives take place in the close proximity to the city centre. Results show the waterfront transformation attracts “developers’ dialogue” giving the opportunity to build a coherence for spatial, environmental and socio-economic development. Yet fragmented redevelopment of brownfi eld areas strengthen polarization between dynamic and carefully planned Frihamnen and spontaneously growing Ringön. This paper contributes to the knowledge on the complexity of urban post-industrial transformation.
Extensive efforts have been made for many years by the power generating industry to replace conventional solid and liquid insulation with synthetic materials. Those measures are aimed at increasing the load capacity, improved fire safety and extending transformer life during exploitation. Modern insulating materials include aramid fibre-based paper and insulating fluids made of synthetic and natural esters. The paper presents research results of the electrostatic charging tendency (ECT) of mixtures of fresh and aged mineral oil Trafo En with synthetic ester Midel 7131 and natural ester Midel 1204. The measurements were taken in a flow-through system using the pipes made of metal, cellulose and aramid paper. The influence of the liquid flow velocity, the type of material of the measuring pipe and the mixture content on the level of the streaming electrification current generation was determined.
An acoustic emission method (AE) is widespread and often applied for partial discharge (PD) diagnostics, mainly due to its ease of application as well as noninvasiveness and relatively high sensitivity. This paper presents comparative analysis of AE signals measurement results archived under laboratory conditions as well as on-site actual AE signals generated by inside PDs in electrical power transformer during its normal service. Three different PD model sources are applied for laboratory research: point to point, multipoint to plate and surface type. A typical measuring set up commonly used for on-site transformer PD diagnostics is provided for the laboratory tasks: piezoelectric joint transducer, preamplifier, amplifier and measuring PC interface. During the on-site research there are three measuring tracks applied simultaneously. Time domain, time-frequency domain and statistical tools are used for registered AE signals analysis. A number of descriptors are proposed as a result of the analysis. In the paper, at- tempt of AE signals descriptors, archived under laboratory condition application possibilities for on-site PD diagnostics of power transformers during normal service is made.
This paper deals with a three-phase power system with hybrid transformer (HT) installed between two AC sources. The main aim of this paper is analyze the basic properties of HT with active load and ability to bidirectional energy flow. The HT contains two main units – a conventional transformer with electromagnetic coupling and PWM AC line chopper connected with secondary windings with electric coupling. The HT is located between the distribution system and a Local Balancing Area (LBA) with low power local energy sources. After describing the HT circuit and three-phase, twosources power system, the mathematical and circuit models of the AC source with HT are presented. These models are verified by means of the simulation and experimental test results obtained for a three-phase HT of about 3 kVA rated power.
The new topology of three-winding welding transformer is proposed. Each secondary winding is connected in parallel through the separate bridge rectifier to the welding arc. The main feature of the proposed device is parallel working of two secondary windings with different rated voltage. The advantage is nonlinear transformation ratio of current that provides unprecedented power efficiency. The self- and mutual leakage inductances, which are important in power conversion, are calculated by 2D FEA model. The operational current of the device is modelled numerically via P-Spice simulator. The proposed topology is up to 30% more power effective than conventional welding transformer provided that the leakage inductances of primary and secondary windings are correctly fitted. This transformer is used for manual arc welding.
In the submitted study, the author shows that Paul in the propositio (12,1-2) the section of encouragement (12,3-15,13), although he does not use the word syneidēsis directly, but the words used in it refer to him in conjunction with his basic functions and prove in this way how fundamental it is to renew the mind in the right, i.e. salvifically effective, education of Christian conscience. He does so in the encouragement context to make the recipients aware of how important it is to have a renewed mind and conscience in being and continuing to become a Christian in everyday and concrete living as well as practicing faith in Jesus. With propositio, he makes the foundation on which he builds the paraclesical message of the Letter. It clearly states that permanently renewed by the Gospel of God mind, is an absolute condition for an uninterrupted evangelical renewal of conscience. Thus, renewed in this way conscience is the only deity of mercy granted to sinful humanity, which guarantees constant faithfulness to its norms of judgment with God’s justice revealed in Christ, the Son of God, or his absolute righteousness, which is an indispensable condition for achieving eternal salvation.
The subject of this paper is the study of the specificity of the transformation of the urban public spaces of the Western world and the problem of the multi form nature of this phenomenon. The Author uses such concepts as that of the "hybrid" and of "hybridization" borrowed from the field of natural sciences and explains the reasons for their introduction within this specific scope of research in a broad manner.
The current climate warming results in a quick recession of glaciers on the northern slopes and valleys of the Lindströmfjellet-Hĺbergnuten mountain ridge in Nordenskiöld Land. The equilibrium line altitude has risen from c. 500-550 m in 1936 to c.750 m in 2001 and c. 800 m in 2006. The slopes, almost completely glaciated during the Little Ice Age, and even in 1936, have mostly been abandoned by glaciers afterwards. The upper parts of the glaciers undergo a clear retreat diminishing their accumulative (firn) fields. The lower parts of the active glacial tongues have been transformed into marginal zones built of dead ice covered with morainic and glacifluvial deposits. The surfaces of the marginal zones are progressively lowered due to ablation of dead ice. The state of the described glaciers is not balanced under the current climatic conditions. Thus, the landscape transformation of the mountain ridge will most certainly continue.
Within this article a large scope of issues associated with development conditions and specifics of shaping the new image of Gdańsk waterfront was presented. The special attention was paid to its part situated within its central zone, located within the city centre. This area was playing a key role in development of the city, as within its boundaries many activities associated with shipbuilding and port industry were located. One has to mention that the Granary Island – a place located in the heart of the waterfront area – was an area of special interest for the port and shipbuilding activities, which relates also to the embankments of both Old and New Motława rivers. But the technological changes in the maritime transportation as well as wart-time destruction of the city decided about the major changes in structure of this area and shifting the port and shipbuilding operations to other sites located to the north from the city centre. Therefore, starting from the year 1945, one could observe the on-going discussion regarding the future of this area, although only in 1990-ties it was possible to actually start implementation of these ideas. At the same time – along with appearance of the demand for the types of apartments, offi ce and commercial spaces that are located on the waterfront – the urban space of Gdańsk waterfront has become interesting for both municipal authorities and developers. In result, a large amount of projects have already been implemented or planned, which contributes towards creation of the new, waterfront urban district of Gdańsk. Within its structure one can distinguish a number of particular sites, including ones still awaiting for their development chances. In the text of this article there were presented the most important parts of these plans, as well as future development directions of urban waterfront structures.
In accordance with the principles of conducting revitalization activities specified in the Revitalization Act in force from 9 October 2015 and horizontal guidelines for revitalization in operational programs for 2014-2020, the preparatory phase of the revitalization process should include multi-layered analyzes concluded with deductions included in communal urban regeneration programs. The article describes the role of student architectural and urban competitions performed in cooperation between municipalities and universities as innovative analytical and conceptual activities that could form the basis for specifying recommendations in revitalization strategies planned by a given municipality. The infl uence of the student competitions’ results on the development of the city revitalization strategy is presented on grounds of periodic competitions organized at the Faculty of Architecture of the Gdańsk University of Technology in cooperation with the Department of Plans and Marketing of the City Hall of the City of Gdańsk.
Clarifying the genetic background of the drought-tolerance trait is a crucial task that may help to improve plant performance under stress by a genetic engineering approach. Dehydration-responsive element-binding protein (DREB) is a transcription factor family which modulates many stress-responsive genes. In this study, we isolated a DREB homolog gene named ZmDREBtv from Zea mays var. Tevang-1. Using bioinformatic tools, a number of InDels and SNPs in ZmDREBtv sequence different from the reference accession were identified. In addition, based on deduced protein sequence similarity, ZmDREBtv was assigned to transcription factor DREB2 class as featured by a conserved DNA binding domain - AP2. The ZmDREBtv construct under thecontrol of the rd29A promoter was transformed into a drought-sensitive maize plant, K7 line. The transgenic plants were assessed with reference to molecular and phenotypic characteristics related to the drought-tolenrance trait. The results proved that the maize plants carrying ZmDREBtv gene showed enhanced tolerance and better performance to the water-deficit environment at different stages, compared to the wild-type plants.
The article presents the results concerning the use of clustering methods to identify signals of acoustic emission (AE) generated by partial discharge (PD) in oil-paper insulation. The conducted testing featured qualitative analysis of the following clustering methods: single linkage, complete linkage, average linkage, centroid linkage and Ward linkage. The purpose of the analysis was to search the tested series of AE signal measurements, deriving from three various PD forms, for elements of grouping (clusters), which are most similar to one another and maximally different than in other groups in terms of a specific feature or adopted criteria. Then, the conducted clustering was used as a basis for attempting to assess the effectiveness of identification of particular PD forms that modelled exemplary defects of the power transformer’s oil-paper insulation system. The relevant analyses and simulations were conducted using the Matlab estimation environment and the clustering procedures available in it. The conducted tests featured analyses of the results of the series of measurements of acoustic emissions generated by the basic PD forms, which were obtained in laboratory conditions using spark gap systems that modelled the defects of the power transformer’s oil-paper insulation.
An alternative method for analysis of acoustic emission (AE) signals generated by partial discharges (PD), based on a correlation between voltage phase run and AE pulses, so called phase resolved PD pattern (PRPD), is presented in the paper. PRPD pattern is a well-known analysis tool commonly used in such PD diagnostic methods as conventional electrical and UHF ones. Moreover, it yields various signal analysis abilities and allows a direct correlation indication between measurement results achieved using different methods. An original PRPD measurement methodology applied for AE method as well as some exemplary measurement results and further data analysis capabilities are presented in the paper. Also a comparative analysis of PRPD patterns achieved using various measurement methods and different PD source configurations have been investigated. All presented experiments were done under laboratory conditions using PD model sources immersed in the insulation oil. The main purpose of the presented research is to indicate an all-embracing analytical tool that yields an ability to direct comparison (qualitative as well as quantitative) of the AE measurement results with other commonly applied PD measurement methods. The presented results give a solid fundamental for further research work concerning a direct correlation method for AE and other described in the paper diagnostic techniques, mainly in order to continue PD phenomena analysis and assessment in real life high voltage apparatus insulation systems under normal onsite operation conditions.
The paper presents theoretical and experimental analyses of a possible effect of the short-circuit forces on the transformer winding. The first part of the paper is focused on creation and activity of the radial and axial forces during a short circuit. It shows dimensions, direction and − of course − the resulting mechanical stress. The presented equation shows basic dependencies of these mechanical forces created in the transformer winding. Finally, the paper presents experimental methods of diagnosing and analysing the effects of short-circuit forces on the transformer winding.
The subject presented in this paper refers to measurements and assessment of the corrected sound pressure level values (noise) occurring around a medium-power transformer. The paper presents the values of noise accompanying the operation of the power object before and after its modernization, which consisted in repeated core pressing and replacement of the cooling system. The main aim of the research work was the assessment of the influence of the repair work on the noise level emitted into the environment.
On-load tap changers (OLTC) are some of the main transformer elements that make voltage adjustment in a power network possible. Their failures often cause shutdowns of distribution transformers. The paper presents research work aimed at the assessment of the technical condition of OLTCs by the acoustic emission method (EA). This method makes the OLTC diagnosis possible without the need of disconnecting the transformer from the system. The measurements were taken in laboratory conditions. The influence on the operation non-concurrence of the power tap changer contacts on the AE registered signals has been investigated. The signals registered were subjected to analyses in the time and time-frequency domains. The result analysis in the time domain was carried out using the Hilbert transform and calculating characteristic times for the particular runs. A short-time Fourier transform was used for the assessment of results in the time-frequency domain.
An optimized method of vibration Energy Harvesting is based on a step-down transformer that regulates the power flow from the piezoelectric element to the desired electronic load. Taking into account parameters of the whole system, the “optimal” voltage gain the piezoelectric transformer can be determined where the harvested power is maximized for the actual level of mechanical excitation. Consequently the piezoelectric transformers can be used to boost up the conversion of mechanical strain into electrical power with considerable potential in Energy Harvesting applications. Nowadays however, the most important factor is usage of lead free material for its construction. Additional desired parameters of such ceramics include high value of piezoelectric coefficients, low dielectric losses and reasonable power density. This work for first time proposes a lead free K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) material implementation for stack type of piezoelectric transformer that is designed for load efficiency optimization of vibration energy harvester.
This paper describes the design and test of a new high-current electronic current transformer based on a Rogowski coil. For better performances, electronic current transformers are used to replace conventional electro-magnetic inductive current transformers based on ferromagnetic cores and windings to measure high-current on the high voltage distribution grids. The design of a new high-current electronic current transformer is described in this paper. The principal schemes of the prototype and partial evaluation results are presented. Through relative tests it is known that the prototype has a wide dynamic range and frequency band, and it can allow high accuracy measurements.
In this paper, the power factor correction system consisted of: bridge converter, parallel resonant circuit, high frequency transformer, diode rectifier and LFCF filter is presented. This system is controlled by a pulse density modulation method and the principle of its operation is based on the boost technique. The modeling approach is illustrated by an example using AC/HF/DC converter. Verification of the derived model is provided, which demonstrated the validity of the proposed approach.