The debate between Ludwik Fleck (microbiologist and philosopher of science) and Tadeusz Bilikiewicz (historian and philosopher of medicine) took place shortly before the outbreak of World War II and remained virtually unnoticed until 1978. A wider recognition of their exchange was possible only after the English and German translations appeared. Basically, the polemics concerned understanding of the concept of style and influence that the environment exerted on scientific activity and its products. The polemic started with the review of Bilikiewicz’s book Die Embryologie im Zeitalter des Barock und des Rokoko (1932) where the historical account of the development of embryology in the early and late Baroque period was interwoven with bold sociological remarks. The commentators of the debate were quick to notice that the claims made by Fleck at that time were crucial for understanding of his position, especially because they let to interpret his views in a non-relativist way. While the importance of the controversy was univocally acknowledged, its assessment so far has been defective for two reasons. First, for decades the views of Bilikiewicz were known only from the short and rather critical presentation given by Fleck and this put their discussion into an inadequate perspective. Second, for over 40 years it remained a complete puzzle what prompted their exchange of views. This paper closes these gaps. Thus, on the one hand, I reconstruct the central issue of the disputation between Fleck and Bilikiewicz and situate it within the context of Bilikiewicz’s views. On the other hand – and this is more important – I try to explain the origin of their debate by quoting some recently discovered and unpublished archival materials. A review of their correspondence gives me an opportunity to advance some hypotheses about the aims and hopes connected with their project but also possible reasons for its failure.
Evolutionary Developmental Biology (Evo-Devo) is becoming to be popular in psychology, and by certain is even seen as a new biology for psychology (Hofer 2014). In particular, it is about the concept of extended inheritance This concept claims to be (neo-) Lamarckian. According to it inherited is everything that contributes to resemblance across generations and that strongly affects the fitness of the offspring—starting by nuclear genes, by genes expression, maternal care, ecological niche, cultural niche, language, etc. In this paper I analyse the potential of the concept of extended inheritance on the example of transgenerational transmission of attachment style and mentalizing capacity. I present the neuroendocrine mechanism of transmission. Then I show that a) DNA methylation is complementary to neuroendocrine mechanism, but it does not revolutionize the latter as it is claimed; b) the concept of extended inheritance confounds the three questions rightly separated by Neo-Darwinism: origin of variation, fate of variation and inheritance, c) although the motivation of Evo-Devo goes against the alleged genetic determinism of neodarwinism, the concept of transgeneration inheritance is determinist (although it is an epigeneetic determinism).
The stigma of Ornithogalum sigmoideum is of dry and papillate type. The papillae are covered by a cuticle-pellicle layer, as revealed by staining. The activity of nonspecific esterase, acid phosphatase and peroxidase increases in the pellicle during the receptivity period. The style of O. sigmoideum is of the hollow type. Ultrastructural study of the cells lining the canal indicated that they are secretory cells and contain abundant endoplasmic reticulum, dictyosomes, mitochondria, plastids and ribosomes. After anthesis these organelles show degeneration at the end of the secretory phase. In canal cells, cytochemical tests showed the presence of acidic polyanions, insoluble and acidic polysaccharides, proteins and lipids. Before anthesis the canal cells are rich in polysaccharides, proteins and lipids. At maturity the cuticle is ruptured and secretory materials from the canal cells are released into the canal. In the unpollinated style of O. sigmoideum the exudates accumulated in the center of the canal; in pollinated pistils the same secretion materials were dispersed through the canal, which became wider.
The aim of the article is to compare the thought collective and the interpretive community, two surprisingly similar notions formulated independently by Ludwik Fleck and Stanley Fish. In contemporary discourse, both concepts are used as synonims, while an accurate analysis of the contexts of the use of interesting terms proves that the equivalent of the interpretive community is rather thought collective, as well as the thought style, both of these concepts in the deliberations of Fish are subject to contamination. The exact repartition of the notion of interpretive community seems to be important due to the frequency of its use in works in the field of literary interpretation and cognition. The article also presents more general remarks on the functioning and possible origin of twin terms and their role in scientific cognition.
Niniejsza wypowiedź jest próbą charakterystyki osobowości twórczej Henryka Elzenberga. Zwłaszcza pragniemy ukazać swoistość, oryginalność i odmienność zainteresowań i refleksji myśliciela oraz jego szczególny sposób filozofowania, które nie mieściły się w konwencjach teoretycznych ani w stylach myślenia swej epoki. Jako ilustrację powyższego przeświadczenia przywołujemy tu zaledwie cztery charakterystyczne przykłady, a mianowicie refleksje filozofa na temat: relacji kultura – nauka, samobójstwa, fenomenu śmieci, oraz zastanawiamy się nad tą cechą jego pisarstwa, jaką jest, z takim powodzeniem przez niego uprawiana, aforystyczna forma wypowiedzi.
Artykuł jest prezentacją programu nauczania przedmiotu „Podstawy projektowania architektonicznego – kompozycje” studentów pierwszego roku kierunku architektura Wydziału Budownictwa i Architektury Politechniki Lubelskiej. Przykładowe prace studenckie zamieszczone w tekście są ilustracją wyników procesu dydaktycznego
Gdynia i Zakopane to dwa słynne miasta na granicach II Rzeczypospolitej, pierwsze nad Bałtykiem, drugie pod Tatrami. Celem niniejszej pracy jest próba porównania pozornie odmiennego ich oblicza pod kątem architektury ośrodków. W obu – aczkolwiek w nieproporcjonalnym zakresie – zaistniał „styl zakopiański”, modernizm i funkcjonalizm.
Obłazowa Cave was first excavated in 1985, and is best known for the discoveries of remains of settlement from the time of Middle and Upper Palaeolithic. The traces of most recent settlement in the cave, found in the uppermost part of the stratigraphy can be attributed to Magdalenian settlement. Results of latest excavation brought more precise date this occupation face. In years 2016 and 2017 in layer III of the cave a series of artifacts, and a small sandstone female figurine were found.
The article studies such cultural phenomenon as madness in its romantic (Edgar Poe) and expressionistic (Ivan Shmelyov) interpretation. Refl ecting upon the philosophical concept introduced by Michel Foucault the author analyzes how visual-plastic and verbal experience of interpreting madness in terms of literature is realized. Verbal and literary peculiarities of creating an aesthetic image of madness within the romantic canon in Poe’s story is compared to the specific features of verbal and visual images created in the style of expressionism by Shmelyov. Techniques of literary image visualization, revealing the specific nature of interaction between different forms of literature, art, cinema peculiar to the first third of the twentieth century, are studied in the process of transition from the aesthetics of story to the aesthetics of presentation.