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Abstrakt

The aim of this paper is to look at the quantitative dimension of public space resources in Polish cities, a comparative analysis of these resources, determining the share of public space in the urban spatial structure and referring this structure to European cities. The concept of ‘public space resources’ has been introduced, and is defined as those areas in the city that fulfill or can fulfill the functions of public space. This concept, and then the proposal of its operationalization, aimed to draw attention to the spatial and physical aspects of public space, which would allow to broaden and supplement social approaches in the study of public space. The quantitative approach to public space proposed in the paper also enabled a comparative research to assess the role of public space in the structure of Polish cities in a more objective manner and refer it to European cities.
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Abstrakt

Artykuł porusza podstawowe problemy związane z kreacją przyjaznych przestrzeni publicznych w zespołach mieszkaniowych, jako głównych miejsc integracji społecznej. Współczesne przemiany społeczne odbijają się w nowym, zintensyfikowanym użytkowaniu przestrzeni publicznych, które oferując coraz więcej możliwości zaspokojenia ludzkich potrzeb z zakresu m/n: kontaktu społecznego, wiedzy, rekreacji i stymulacji prowokują ludzi i ich aktywność do przenoszenia „życia” z przestrzeni prywatnej do przestrzeni publicznej.
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Abstrakt

Funkcje handlowe mają bardzo istotne znaczenie dla rewitalizacji zespołów miejskich. Różnorodne formy handlowe jak rynki i place targowe, hale sukienne, czy pasaże, na przestrzeni wieków wzbogacały koloryt przestrzeni publicznych w mieście. Struktura urbanistyczna przez ostatnie 25 lat wolnego rynku w Polsce pod wpływem nowych funkcji komercyjnych uległa wielu deformacjom. Atrakcyjne, umieszczone wewnątrz galerii miejskich i centrów handlowych funkcje przyczyniają się do degradacji zewnętrznych, otaczających ulic. Rozrzucone w przestrzeni miasta centra handlowe, izolowane powierzchniami parkingów od sieci powiązań pieszych, pogłębiają wewnętrzne peryferia. Wahania światowej ekonomii skłaniają nas do refleksji nad skalą interwencji komercyjnych w mieście, kierując w stronę ograniczania funkcji handlowych, a w szczególności wielkopowierzchniowych. Właściwa relacja funkcji komercyjnych z pięknym krajobrazem miejskim może i powinna być traktowana jako element promocji miasta. Działanie w obszarach dziedzictwa kulturowego wymaga jednak wypracowania instrumentów, które umożliwiłyby ochronę istniejących wartości.
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Abstrakt

Tematyka niniejszego artykułu dotyczy badań nad specyfiką przeobrażeń współczesnej przestrzeni publicznej miast cywilizacji zachodniej oraz zagadnieniem jej wielopostaciowości. W opisie złożonych przemian przestrzeni miejskich Autorka sięga do zapożyczonych z pola nauk przyrodniczych pojęć „hybrydy” i „hybrydyzacji” szeroko wyjaśniając przy tym zasadność ich wykorzystania we wspomnianym obszarze badawczym.
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Abstrakt

Artykuł jest próbą analizy dyskursu przestrzenno-pedagogicznego na gruncie niemieckiej pedagogiki społecznej. Stanowi wycinek rozważań na temat zmiany w paradygmacie myślenia o miejscu/przestrzeni (spatial turn), jako kategoriach pedagogicznych. Autorki szukają odpowiedzi na pytanie, czym jest przestrzeń i miejsce oraz jakimi pojęciami w zakresie refleksji nad miejscem/przestrzenią operuje niemiecka pedagogika społeczna. Tekst przybliża między innymi relacyjną koncepcję przestrzeni Martiny Löw, jej dwuznaczność oraz pojęcie spacingu. Aktywne wytwarzanie przestrzeni miejskiej oraz przestrzenny wymiar relacji i jego dynamika poddane są dyskusji. Artykuł prezentuje również głosy krytyczne, dotyczące między innymi transdyscyplinarności przestrzeni oraz pracy socjalnej zorientowanej na przestrzeń socjalną. Stanowi zachętę do pogłębionych, międzynarodowych analiz teorii przestrzenno-pedagogicznych.
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In this paper a small time local controllability, naturally defined in a configuration space, is transferred into a task-space. It was given its analytical characterization and practical implications. A special attention was put on singular configurations. Theoretical considerations were illustrated with two calculation examples. An extensive comparison of the proposed construction with the controllability defined in an endogenous configuration space approach was presented pointing out to their advantages and disadvantages.
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Abstrakt

The main objective of the article is an attempt to indicate factors which determine the image of a city as a good place to live as well as to reveal the ways in which they affect the citizens’ quality of life. In order to do so, the author selected the city of Gdynia which is perceived as the best city to live in by its citizens. Among the most important factors determining the quality of life in general there are: the scale of a city, local identity, public spaces, symbolic places, housing environment, perception of a place, personal satisfaction of a place where a particular person lives, urban policies as well as presence and activeness of local leaders. The article presents the results of a social study carried out by the author herself during two periods of time – in 2004 and 2014 as well as the results of the Social Diagnosis 2015.
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Abstrakt

The article concerns problems with shaping contemporary housing estates. By analyzing housing structures designed in recent years, the aim was to demonstrate the importance of creating the continuity of public spaces in order to achieve places seen as attractive and presenting features of high quality urban space. Essential for the research is the question about the conditions which should be fulfi lled when creating the ideal residential place which then leads to a series of answers. These included indicating a good location with functional and aesthetic urban/architectural solutions. Environmental issues are important as well. Regardless of whether it is a multi-family dwelling or a single family house, a good neighborhood and its location in a well-connected place with necessary basic services within walking range are important. It is also signifi cant how the public space was shaped and whether a natural network was created. Due to factors such as the specifi city of the structure’s location in the city and diff erent surfaces of designed estates, as well as the variety of residential buildings being constructed, it is often diffi cult to assess them unambiguously. Importantly, this assessment also includes social and economic aspects as well as technical issues. However, by using multi-directional research it can be noted that the forms of public spaces within housing complexes play an important role in the creation of high-quality structures, perceived as attractive not only by the residents.
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Abstrakt

The article is an attempt to collate and present the existing works of Polish geographers who focused on public space in cities, taking two main theoretical and methodological approaches – objective and subjective – under consideration. The article discusses different definitions of the analysed term in an interdisciplinary context as well as indicates main aspects and research directions in geographical studies along with the scholars representing them. Moreover, the authors make an attempt to evaluate the existing state of the art and try to set future perspectives for geographical studies on public space in cities. The article finishes with the authors’ conclusions regarding the necessity to continue the research on public space and the role Polish geographers shall play in it.
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Abstrakt

Deriving the formulas for strain components, we are assuming, that cross-section of a rod being rotated in space during deformation does not need to be perpendicular to deformed centroid line. This not a quite intuitive assumption allows for more compact and easier formulas for strain tensor or equilibrium equations. Derived transformations between actual and initial coordinate system, components of strain tensor and virtual works principle for investigated spatially curved beams of bisymmetric cross-section are shown in this paper. Conformity with other models from referenced literature is also shown.
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Abstrakt

The article describes the relationship between the local community and the primary school considered as “place” within the meaning derived from the book by yi-Fu Tuan “Space and place: The perspective of experience”. The article compares the cases of two schools in the city of bielsko-biała (the city has a population of 175 thousands inhabitants). One school is overcrowded, yet its future existence has been secured. The second school, however, was first transferred to another location and it eventually went into liquidation in 2012. The article demonstrates then underlying reasons and consequences of losing the school as place. Moreover, it indicates potential problems emerging in such cases altogether with a set of possible solutions.
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Słowa kluczowe kosmos morze jurysdykcja Galileo

Abstrakt

Autor, myśląc nieszablonowo, prezentuje „Sponsalia ex hoc Mundo”. Tytuł ten odzwierciedla pogląd, że nauki o kosmosie i nauki o morzu są analitycznie rozdzielne, ale praktycznie ze sobą powiązane. Można to zaobserwować w kontekście technologii kosmicznej i techniki satelitarnej, nowego systemu zarządzania, a także nowego systemu prawa i polityki. W dzisiejszych czasach infrastruktura kosmiczna (wykorzystanie sztucznych satelitów naziemnych do bezpośredniej transmisji telewizyjnej, łączności, teledetekcji, nawigacji, pocisków wojskowych) wpływa na infrastrukturę naszej planety, w tym na infrastrukturę morską. Istnieje zatem potrzeba prezentowania nowego oblicza zintegrowanego systemu nauki i praktyki.
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Abstrakt

The concept of place has been present in human geography for almost half a century. The human geographers looked for the answer about genesis of place category in different sociological or psychological aspects with the basis of space dimension. In last two decades a few of them referred that idea to communication processes. Inspired by the views expressed by the latter group of scientists, we are asking: how is creating a place? We put forward thesis that a special type of place making is social communication that works continuously on the principle of the palimpsest of overlapping meanings through messages arising in several dimensions. Our assumption is that every place is creating (overwriting) a social subject – an individual or a group, that will build communication in three dimensions: within a space/place (W), about a space/place (A), and/or between people and a space/place (B).
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Abstrakt

Geography versus spatial management. The aim of the article is to draw attention to substantive connections that combine spatial management with geography, first of all with socio-economic geography. Both disciplines are of a multidimensional nature and they expose physical space as a field of their interests. The convergence of disciplines is also reflected in the research methodology – a spatial analysis has been developing in socio-economic geography since the 1960s by the so-called spatial direction. Both disciplines are competitive not only on the scientific, but also educational and utilitarian (socio-economic practice) market. The article focuses on the essence and a cognitive sense of both fields, in general, and on their scope of competence. Spatial management should be developed as part of basic sciences, including geography as its professional specialization.
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Abstrakt

The essay critically approaches the current state and directions of changes in the university education. We see the critical point in the unconditioned endorsement by the university of the market values of intense competitiveness of global economy and the cult of the pro-market education which is its inevitable result. We would like to argue that although the university must respect economic conditions and limitations, nevertheless we fear that the ongoing process of corporatization of the university with its management strategies such as cutting costs, scanning environments for competitive purposes, re-engineering highly competitive efficiency criteria for the staff will bring about a neglect of the humanist values rooted in intellectual and social sensibility and hence undermine the social mission of the university which, apart from professional skills and research, must cultivate intellectual pluralism by providing space for intelligent conversation, sharing critical views of the present state of things thus fostering social criticism and the spirit of responsible dissent.
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Abstrakt

Autorka przedstawia przemiany, jakie zaszły pod koniec dwudziestego wieku w obszarze koncepcji dotyczących prezentacji sztuki publiczności miejskiej. Zwraca uwagę na znaczenie ruchu tzw. „nowej muzeologii”, który dokonał rewizji postaw muzeologów wobec odbiorców sztuki. Przedstawia zaczerpnięte z Polski i Europy praktyki lokowania działań artystycznych poza instytucjami wystawienniczymi, bezpośrednio w przestrzeni publicznej, z natychmiastowym dostępem do widza, który ponadto zapraszany jest do uczestnictwa w procesie tworzenia dzieła wspólnie z artystą. Wskazuje na konsekwencję tego rodzaju praktyk, jaką jest wytworzenie się tzw. „nowej publiczności” – świadomej swoich oczekiwań w stosunku do instytucji kultury. W końcu autorka opisuje projekt badawczy na temat zjawiska „nowej publiczności” zainicjowany w ramach międzynarodowego projektu „Artecitya”.
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Abstrakt

In the Act on Revitalization of 9 October 2015, for the first time in Poland, the legal act introduced the necessity to apply the principles of universal design (Article 3 paragraph 2 point 3). The practice of investment processes in crisis areas shows that the requirements set out in the Act are not properly implemented. Regeneration processes require attention to improve the quality of life of residents. The article presents issues related to the implementation of universal design principles during revitalization processes. There is a noticeable lack of interest in this issue despite the fact that it is one of the three tasks set before local governments in the Revitalization Act, after social participation and support for people at risk of exclusion in the area of housing. The reasons for this state should be seen in a small knowledge of the issue, deficiencies in the educational process of designers and poor control on the part of local governments and central authorities. This is due to conservation conditions, which often misinterpret the right to protect cultural heritage. The self-government as its own task should guarantee the possibility of using the positive effects of the revitalization process, in particular the implementation of residents’ rights to an independent and dignifi ed life, which is required by the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
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Abstrakt

In the paper author discusses problems related to the leading role of architectural structures, as a part of the creating process within contemporary urban space. Architectural objects establish a continuous dialogue not only with their surrounding space, but also between each other. In this relation, the first plan comes with two factors, determining all spatial and functional solutions: the place in which a given project is localized and the time in which the urban designer came to the architect to create his plan. Based on the analysis of own projects and urban and architectural realizations, the author proves that the architectural dialogue in urban space must be respected in the context of the place and the time, but also in the creators moral responsibility. This responsibility is defined by consequences of design decisions not only for the urban space itself, but above all, for people and their coexistence with the space. For designers it reveals a necessity to comply principles of ethics and professing the value system in order to taking care of the urban space not only three-dimensional, but also “existential”.
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Abstrakt

The urban form creates the city structure, whose spatial values not only shape the functionality of the city, but also its identity, whose the most important determinant is the urban tissue. The subject of the study is the analysis of selected historical areas of Cracow in the scope of composition and readability of their urban structure. The analysis focuses on the identification of the most important aspects of spatial renewal processes of these spaces. These processes aimed at strengthening their potential as local centres, that can become a factor stimulating the development of the individual urban units. The increase in the attractiveness and quality of public spaces will positively affect the degree of their perception by the inhabitants and the social relations taking place in them. This in turn, influences the degree of the social involvement in development processes and the creation of more or less spontaneous, bottom-up activities.
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Abstrakt

Multidimensional, variety of saving memories ways in landscape is visible in creation of commemorative spaces. These meaning is strictly connected with the most important events and persons in history of the country. Authors of article in their research are concentrated on commemorative space with monuments example in Poland and the world presence in landscape design meaning. They are announced by landscape analysis methods to recognition of structure, meaning and phenomena of chosen objects in genius loci categories. In Study of Conditions and Directions of Space Development Capital City of Warsaw is found the record that “commemorative resource” is not enough examined and protected. The aim of elaboration is indication of tendencies in aspects of location, space relations and meanings of memory places.
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Abstrakt

Artykuł ma na celu określenie głównych uwarunkowań rozwoju wiejskich przestrzeni tematycznych w kontekście odnowy wsi. Na tym tle autorzy podejmują próbę wyjaśnienia mechanizmów rządzących omawianym procesem oraz ich efektów. Wobec powyższego skoncentrowano się na przedstawieniu mechanizmów rozwoju procesów, które prowadzą do rozkwitu tej idei (anatomia sukcesu – przypadek wsi Sierakowo Sławieńskie), oraz takich, które ten rozwój spowalniają lub zupełnie ograniczają (anatomia porażki – przypadek wsi Lubcza).
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Obszary zielone w małej skali, parki miejski, lasy miejskie lub naturalne obszary zielone są istotnym komponentem struktury przestrzennej miast. W artykule, na przykładzie Bratysławy, przeanalizowano wykorzystane i utracone możliwości zastosowania koncepcji zielonych obszarów, jako strategii dla regeneracji urbanistycznej i rozwoju oraz poddano dyskusji możliwości wykorzystania tych koncepcji w nauczaniu i edukacji praktycznej w dziedzinie urbanistyki i architektury krajobrazu.
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The process of designing control systems for devices operating in microgravity, on-orbit environment, requires testing to verify the effectiveness and characteristics of the algorithms. The key issue is to design a relevant environment in terrestrial conditions that affects both the linear and angular three-dimensional motion of a rigid body. This paper contains a description of the mechanical aspects of two test beds used to evaluate control algorithms planned for use in a space manipulator. Two solutions are presented: (i) a planar manipulator with a free base placed on an air-bearing table; and (ii) a test bed with a 7-DOF manipulator fixed through a force-torque measurement system to the base.
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Abstrakt

A questionnaire survey was conducted in the residential quarters of Guangzhou, for which 582 elderly people over 60 years old were randomly recruited. The hearing impairment of the participants was evaluated using the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE), The participants’ subjective responses to the acoustical environment of their living place and the impact of the living acoustical environment (LAE) on the participants were investigated. The results show that the participants with a low HHIE score and no hearing impairment evaluated their LAE more favourably, and they considered that the effect of the LAE on their daily life was weak. However, those with a high HHIE score and severe hearing impairment evaluated their LAE poorly, and considered its effect on their daily lives to be significant. For the elderly, the worse the hearing is, the higher their demand for a better LAE. Traffic, construction, residential quarters, and noise from next door or upstairs neighbours were the main noise sources in the elderly’s living places, and traffic noise, construction noise, and noise from next door and upstairs were the most influential sources. 28.9% of the respondents had trouble hearing what their family said in their living place. The elderly without hearing impairment considered that continuous noise was the main reason that they could not hear what their family said in their living place, while those with hearing impairment believed that their own hearing problem was a contributing factor.
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Abstrakt

The results of shielding effectiveness (SE) measurements of textile materials containing metal by the free-space transmission technique (FSTT) in the 1-26.5 GHz frequency range are presented in the paper. It is shown that experimental data processing using time-domain gating (TDG) makes it possible to effectively remove diffracted and reflected components from the desired signal. The comparison with the results obtained by other techniques, namely modified FSTT with TDG and coaxial line probe technique (ASTM D4935-99) is given. The comparison shows that the proposed technique gives more reasonable results while the measurement set-up is simpler in realization.
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