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Keywords shale gas

Abstract

Shale gas mining is mainly viewed as an industrial and economic issue. But we can also look at it from the scientific perspective. Why should we?
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Abstract

The occurrence of gas confined in shales allows us to consider it as a component of the host rock. During drilling wells, the gas is released into the drilling fluid from finely ground gas-bearing rock particles. The amount of gas released can be determined on the basis of mud-gas logging; in addition, it is possible to determine the gas-content in shales expressed by the volume of gas released per mass unit of rock [m3/ton]. The gas content in the Ordovician and Silurian shales (Sasin formation and Jantar member respectively) in two selected wells in northern Poland was determined using this method. It has been found that clearly distinguishable, highly gas-bearing sections, which are separated by very poorly gas-bearing ones, can be determined in the well log. The increased gas content in shales can be observed in zones generally enriched in TOC. No direct correlation between TOC and gas-bearing capacity was found however, but the structure of TOC variability and the gas-bearing capacity described using variograms is identical. Correlations of the distinguished gas-bearing layers in the wells under consideration suggest a multi-lens or multi-layered reservoir model. The lack of natural boundaries in the shale gas reservoir means that they must be determined arbitrarily based on the assumed marginal gas-bearing capacity. In the case of several gas-bearing zones, numerous variants of interpretation are possible. In any case the low, best and high estimated resources may be evaluated, assigned to each borehole in the area with radii equal to the range of variogram of gas content in horizontal part of the well.
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Abstract

In the last decade, Poland has become one of the most active markets for unconventional hydrocarbon deposits exploration. At present, there are twenty concessions for the exploration and/or discovery of reserves, including shale gas. The area covered by exploration concessions constitutes ca. 7.5% of the country’s area. Four main stages can be distinguished In the shale gas development and exploitation project: the selection and preparation of the place of development of the wells, hydraulic drilling and fracturing, exploitation (production) and marketing, exploitation suppression and land reclamation. In the paper, the concept of cost analysis of an investment project related to the exploration and development of a shale gas field/area was presented. The first two stages related to the preparatory work, carried out on the selected site, as well as drilling and hydraulic fracturing were analyzed. For economic reasons, the only rational way to make shale gas reserves available is to use horizontal drilling, either singly or in groups. The number of drilling pads covering the concession area is a fundamental determinant of the development cost of the deposit. In the paper, the results of the cost analysis of various types of reaming method with an area of 25,000,000 m2 were presented. Cost estimates were prepared for two variants: group drilling for three types of drilling pads: with three, five and seven wells and for single wells. The results show that, as the number of horizontal wells increases, the total cost of the development of the deposit is reduced. For tree-wells pad, these costs are 7% lower than in the second variant, for five-well pads they are 11% lower, and for seven-well pads they are 11.5% smaller than in the second variant. Authors, using applied methodology, indicate the direction of further research that will enable the optimization of shale gas drilling operations.
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Abstract

In the paper, the technology of the production of the modified ceramic proppants used in the shale gas extracting process is described. The natural available materials and uncomplicated process to new ceramic proppants preparation were applied. The modification of the ceramic proppants based on the addition of the waste material as fly ash. The produced ceramic material in the form of granules characterized by high mechanical properties and low production costs. Moreover, the obtained good values of compressive strength and gas permeability for investigated proppants confirmed that this material has appropriate properties to be used in the hydraulic fracturing.
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