B a c k g r o u n d: Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is considered a reliable assessment method of a balance between cerebral oxygen demand and supply. One of forms of anaesthesia applied during extensive abdominal surgical procedures is the epidural anaesthesia. Its application in addition to the general anaesthesia is a commonly accepted form of anaesthesia in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that epidural blocks may have eff ects on cerebral saturation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anaesthesia. M e t h o d s: Cerebral saturation was monitored intrasurgically. Reduction of cerebral oxymetry by over 25% in relation to the baseline, or cerebral oxymetry value below 50% was considered clinically significant. R e s u l t s: One hundred and one (101) subsequent and non-randomised patients, age between 35 and 84 years (mean 64 ± 10) qualifi ed for major abdominal surgeries were enrolled. In 14 (13.9%) patients of 101 enrolled a clinically signifi cant reduction of cerebral saturation was observed. In 50 (49.5%) of the enrolled patients, the epidural anaesthesia was applied along the general anaesthesia. A clinically signifi cant reduction of cerebral saturation was observed in 9 of them. No statistically significant association was found between the application of epidural anaesthesia and development of cerebral desaturation. C o n c l u s i o n: The application of epidural anaesthesia caused no clinically significant reduction of cerebral saturation during the general anaesthesia in course of major abdominal surgical procedures.
This paper proposes a self-excited induction generator model with saturation effect for power generating mode in a remote site. The model is led through the space vector mathematical formalism and allows one to analyze the steady and dynamic states. It is developed for a squirrel cage induction machine. This model provides magnetizing inductance variation able to influence the build-up and the stabilization of voltage generation when the load changes. The final result is a realistic approach model which takes into con- sideration the dependency of the magnetizing inductance versus magnetizing current. This novel model is validated through experimental measurements to demonstrate its validity and practicability.
The ways of the improvement of the method for the determination of steel losses in the electrical devices of basic types are substantiated. The method is refined by taking into account the magnetic system properties at high saturation. The presence of the interrelation between the special features of the domain structure movement and the shape of the hysteresis loop is proved for laminated cores. It enabled the explanation of the causes for the abnormally high values of the losses in the steel and the atypical shapes of the hysteresis loops at its high saturation. The empiric dependence for the determination of steel losses is obtained. It provides for the high convergence of the calculated and experimental data at the actual degree of saturation and can be used in the direct-current operation of the analyzed devices.
In this paper, the influence of impact damage to the induction motors on the zero-sequence voltage and its spectrum is presented. The signals detecting the damages result from a detailed analysis of the formula describing this voltage component which is induced in the stator windings due to core magnetic saturation and the discrete displacement of windings. Its course is affected by the operation of both the stator and the rotor. Other fault detection methods, are known and widely applied by analysing the spectrum of stator currents. The presented method may be a complement to other methods because of the ease of measurements of the zero voltage for star connected motors. Additionally, for converter fed motors the zero sequence voltage eliminates higher time harmonics displaced by 120 degrees. The results of the method application are presented through measurements and explained by the use of a mathematical model of the slip-ring induction motor.
This paper presents a predictive torque and flux control algorithm for the synchronous reluctance machine. The algorithm performs a voltage space phasor pre-selection, followed by the computation of the switching instants for the optimum switching space phasors, with the advantages of inherently constant switching frequency and time equidistant implementation on a DSP based system. The criteria used to choose the appropriate voltage space phasor depend on the state of the machine and the deviations of torque and flux at the end of the cycle. The model of the machine has been developed on a d-q frame of coordinates attached to the rotor and takes into account the magnetic saturation in both d-q axes and the cross saturation phenomenon between both axes. Therefore, a very good approximation of this effect is achieved and the performance of the machine is improved. Several simulations and experimental results using a DSP and a commercially available machine show the validity of the proposed control scheme.
The paper presents a detailed description of one of the newest methods of vacuum saturation of reinforcing preforms in gypsum molds. As an appropriate selection of the infiltration time is a crucial problem during realization of this process, aim of the analysis shown in the paper is to present methods of selection of subatmospheric pressure application time, a sequence of lowering and increasing pressure, as well as examining influence of structure of reinforcing preforms on efficiency of this process. To realize the aim, studies on infiltration of reinforcing preforms made of a corundum sinter of various granulation of sintered particles with a model alloy were conducted. The infiltration process analysis was carried out in two stages. The first stage consisted in investigation of influence of lengthening of sucking off air from the reinforcing preforms on efficiency of this process. In the second stage, an analysis of influence of a two-staged infiltration process on saturation of the studied materials was conducted. Because the studied preforms were of similar porosity, the obtained differences of the saturation level of particular preforms have shown, that the saturation process is influenced mostly by size of pores present in the reinforcement. Because of these differences, each reinforcement type requires individual selection of time and sequence of the saturation process. For reinforcements of higher pore diameter, it is sufficient to simply increase air sucking off time to improve the saturation, while for reinforcement of smaller pore diameter, it is a better solution to apply the two-staged process of sucking off air. Application of the proposed analysis method allows not only obtaining composite castings of higher quality, but also economical optimization of the whole process.