Compared to other European countries, Poland has scarce drinking water resources and exhibits significant variation in annual runoff. On the other hand, the geothermal water resources present in sedimentary/structural basins, mostly in the Polish Lowlands and the Podhale geothermal system, not only provide a valuable source of renewable energy, which is utilized, although only to a limited extent, but can also be used for many other purposes. The paper presents the results of studies related to the desalination of low dissolved mineral content geothermal waters from the Bańska IG-1 well using a dual hybrid system based on ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis. The desalination of geothermal waters may be considered a possible solution leading to the decentralization of drinking water supply. In many cases, using cooled waters for drinking purposes may be considered an alternative method of disposing of them, in particular for open drain arrangements, i.e. where cooled water is dumped into surface waters.
The partial solution for the growing contamination of the environment is the implementation of new technologies. The most of the currently operated systems for surface and groundwaters treatment as well as for wastewater treatment characterize with complex technological arrangements based on a number of unit operations. In water-wastewater management membrane processes are more often applied, especially those in which the difference of pressure at both membrane sites is used as a driving force. As an example of such application is the use of nanoﬁ ltration for groundwaters treatment at Water Treatment Plant Zawada near Dębica or the treatment of municipal landﬁ ll leachate and industrial wastewater at Eko Dolina Waste Utilization Plant in Łężyce near Gdynia (reverse osmosis unit capacity of 120 m /d). Municipal wastewater treatment based on membrane technologies has already been implemented at domestic wastewater treatment plant. It is especially proﬁ table, when the load of contaminant present in a wastewater varies within a year. In the case of membrane systems use, this issue can be neglected. As an example of membrane based system may serve WWTP in Rowy n/Ustka started up in 2013 and modernized in 2017. The latest trends and developments of selected suppliers of membrane systems are also presented.
The aim of the study was to develop an effective treatment of post-digestion liquors highly-loaded with biogenic and organic substances. The scope of the research project encompassed: mesophilic anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) as well as the treatment of post-digestion liquors, coming from the most appropriate HRT value of 25 days, in the process of ammonium magnesium phosphate (struvite) precipitation targeted at ammonia nitrogen binding and a subsequent reverse osmosis (RO) process. It was established that the method combining chemical precipitation and high-pressure ﬁltration ensures a high degree of contaminants removal allowing for a direct release of treated liquors into the natural reservoir. However, in order to decrease the residual NH4+ concentration (6.1 mg NH4+/dm3) in the puriﬁed post-digestion liquors below the level allowing for a direct release to the natural reservoir, it turned out to be necessary to apply increased molar ratio of magnesium and phosphates (Mg:NH4+: PO43-= 1.5:1:1.5).
M embrane-based water desalination processes and hybrid technologies are often considered as a technologically and economically viable alternative for desalination of geothermal waters. This has been conﬁrmed by the results of pilot studies concerning the UF-RO desalination of geothermal waters extracted from various geological structures in Poland. The assessment of the feasibility of implementing the water desalination process analysed on an industrial scale is largely dependent on the method and possibility of disposing or utilising the concentrate. The analyses conducted in this respect have demonstrated that it is possible to use the solution obtained as a balneological product owing to its elevated metasilicic acid, ﬂuorides and iodides ions content. Due to environmental considerations, injecting the concentrate back into the formation is the preferable solution. The energy efﬁciency and economic analysis conducted demonstrated that the cost effectiveness of implementing the UF-RO process in a geothermal system on an industrial scale largely depends on the factors related to its operation, including without limitation the amount of geothermal water extracted, water salinity, the absorption parameters of the wells used to inject water back into the formation, the scale of problems related to the disposal of cooled water, local demand for drinking and household water, etc. The decrease in the pressure required to inject water into the formation as well as the reduction in the stream of the water injected are among the key cost-effectiveness factors. Ensuring favourable desalinated water sale terms (price/quantity) is also a very important consideration owing to the electrical power required to conduct the UF-RO process.
The post-processes coke wastewater treatment was carried out using flat ultrafiltration membranes with a variable polysulfone concentration in membrane solution (15 wt% - 17% wt.) and variable evaporation time of the solvent from the polymer film surface (0s, 2s, 5s). The ultrafiltration process was carried out with the transmembrane pressure of 0.4 MPa and the linear speed of water flow over the surface of the membrane at 2 m / s. For all the membranes transport characteristic of de-ionized water describing the dependence of the volumetric flow on the transmembrane pressure was done. Since none of the ultrafiltration membranes prepared had provided a sufficiently high degree of pollutants removal from wastewater, it was post-treated by RO method. The wastewater treated this way can be used as technical water for coke quenching. The calculations based on the assumptions of the hydraulic model of filtration resistance allowed to predict the efficiency of ultrafiltration membranes used in the process. To that end, for each of the membranes, the following parameters were determined experimentally: the alterations of effluent stream volume over the time of the low-pressure filtration, the total hydraulic resistance and the resistance constituents such as „new” membrane resistance, the resistance generated by polarization layer and the resistance caused by fouling - reversible and irreversible.
A number of inorganic compounds, including anions such as nitrate(V), chlorate(VII), bromate (V), arsenate(III) and (V), borate and fluoride as well as metals forming anions under certain conditions, have been found in potentially harmful concentrations in numerous water sources. The maximum allowed levels of these compounds in drinking water set by the WHO and a number of countries are very low (in the range of µg/l to a few mg/l), thus the majority of them can be referred to as charged micropollutants. Several common treatment technologies which are nowadays used for removal of inorganic contaminants from natural water supplies, represent serious exploitation problems. Membrane processes such as reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF), ultrafiltration (UF) and microfiltration (MF) in hybrid systems, Donnan dialysis (DD) and electrodialysis (ED) as well as membrane bioreactors (MBR), if properly selected, offer the advantage of producing high quality drinking water without inorganic anions. I