Geographical names reflect a complex intermingling of language, culture, history, and economics. The disappearance of names for small physiographical features, known only to small local communities, is driven in part by changes in economic activity – a process that may be observed in the micro-toponymy of the Hutsul region in Ukraine
The aim of the article is to diagnose the regional diversification of development in the axiological context. The starting point in this analysis is the term: development. This category is understood in a multidimensional manner. Presented in this paper conceptual model of development allows to distinguish three levels of analysis of the development process: material, social and cultural. Identification of the axiological phenomenon of the diversification of regional development in this research is ultimately served by the systematization tool – typology, introducing the division into the culture of honour, achievements and joy.
In the heterogeneous economic space, big cities are development poles that are usually characterized by the best conditions for running a business and the highest level and living conditions. Their role in development processes is the subject of many discussions. On 23 October 2017, at the invitation of the Mayor of Cracow, J. Majchrowski, an external Plenary meeting of the Committee for Spatial Development of the Polish National Academy of Sciences was held in Cracow, the aim of which was to discuss the role of big cities in Poland›s socio-economic development. This article presents the author›s opinions in a synthetic way, presenting the most important issues raised by him during the panel on the importance of Polish metropolises in shaping the development potential of the country and the region. In addition to the fundamental terminological and problematic discussion, the article describes the experience of Poznań as an agglomeration signifi cantly aff ecting the development of the region, formulating in the summary recommendations referring to the practice of regional policy.
Considering the increasing role of cities throughout the world and in Europe, the European Union regulations on cohesion policy that are binding in the 2014–2020 programme period have foreseen the need to introduce a separate intervention dedicated to cities and their functional areas. However, the implementation of these solutions did not come without certain problems. They referred both to the process of institutionalising co-operation and to the realisation of projects. Also in Poland, Integrated Territorial Investments have not gone beyond co-operation for the absorption of EU funding so far, which demonstrates doubtlessly that their potential still remains unexploited. Thus, a discussion on both the positive and negative aspects of the implementation of ITIs is necessary. Poland, as the largest beneficiary of the Cohesion Policy, has a wide experience, which might provide valuable information on that matter. The aim of the paper is to present these experiences and to provide conclusions for the regional policy.
For centuries, identity has been an important existential issue, because it organizes human relation with the world. Identity is not only one man's being in a biological sense, but the principle of social and cultural order. The identity is the self-awareness, the result of the social actor's involvement in a variety of network connections which are forming a human being together with the biological dimension. Thus, the identity, on the one hand, is a kind of Erikson's tradition, namely the sense of being human, on the other hand interactionist tradition, modification of identity through a process of interaction. Contemporary world, the world of confronting cultures, raises the need for analysis of identity within many cultures, which has been shaped by continuous contact with different values, norms, patterns of behaviour. Upper Silesia has been our empirical reference point for the discussion on social (regional) identity. Identity of Upper Silesia is the result of a long and complicated history and present day. This identity is created by Polish, German, Czech and Jewish a cultural elements.
Ice constitutes physically, but not legally, a separate element of polar regions, alongside with land, water and air. Lack of clear legal regulations in this respect compells the practitioners to apply often inadequate analogies. The specific status of polar permanent and floating ice calls for urgent and comprehensive legal regulation under general international law, the law of the sea and the law of polar regions, on the ground of the principle of Arctic sectors in the Northern Hemisphere and the Antarctic Treaty System in the Southern Hemisphere, with reference to the relatively rich legal doctrine, discussed in detail below.
The energy security of the European Union is still a concept, rather than the actual action. It was confirmed by legal regulations that give Member States the possibility of individual control of energy security. Furthermore, EU Member States can perform unilateral energy policy, which is often in the interest of the most powerful countries. The concept of energy solidarity, solidarity mechanisms of energy flows directly from the Treaty of Maastricht. This was intended to help to increase energy security, and above all, its construction at the EU level. The functioning of the European Communities and the European Union is showing that the goal of building energy security of the European Union is still in the process of creation and still remain a certain course of action. Following th energy crisis of 2009 we can observe discussion about the concept of energy union, as a way to build energy security of the European Union. Currently, its energy security is limited to the definition adopted by the European Commission and activities aimed at the development of energy infrastructure of Community interest, which contributes to improving EU energy security. The aim of this article is analyze the concept of energy union and attempt to answer the question whether it has a real chance of success, and whether the concept of the proposed shape will be effective and necessary. These questions are important because of we can observe discrepancies between the regulations, promotion of building a common energy security and the practical action of individual Member States of the European Union.
Today’s cities tend to “pour out” beyond their administrative boundaries. This phenomenon is related to the settlement of people “from the city” in neighboring municipalities, or taking up jobs in cities by people living in neighboring municipalities. This has been recognized in the European Union, which has introduced appropriate legal instruments for cohesion policy. Integrated Territorial Investments were introduced to the EU cohesion policy for the fi rst time in the 2014-2020 fi nancial perspective. Their goal was to intensify cooperation between cities and their functional areas. Unfortunately, the emerging information about diffi culties in implementing ITIs often become the basis for considering this idea ineff ective. The purpose of the work is qualitative and quantitative verifi cation of the operation of ITU based on selected data, so that it is possible to answer the question about the validity of the existence of this instrument.
Rural areas have great potential, which properly supported can signifi cantly accelerate the socio-economic development of the country. However, the resources and values of individual areas are spatially diversifi ed, which means the diversity of development challenges and the necessity to diversify the instruments of local development policy as well as the territorialisation of development policy. The need to deal with development issues in connection with the development of urban functional areas and, more broadly, node regions, remains unchanged for all types of rural areas, which means the necessity of joint planning of spatial development, implementation of common development strategies of the entire functional area and pursuit of common socio-economic goals. The endogenous theory of local development remains valid, but it must be based on resources that go beyond the administrative boundaries of a single municipality. The need for network local development planning applies in particularly to peripheral rural areas, since rural municipalities often do not have sufficient economic potential to stay competitive even on a local scale. Only in partnership with other municipalities, within the framework of nodal regions, they can implement more eff ective competitive strategies. Another aspect of the network cooperation is the need to involve non-public entities into local economy. Establishing partnerships for the implementation of development goals may increase the chances of achieving a favourable competitive position and implementation of effective development strategies.
The aim of the article is to present the problem of revitalization of marketplaces in the context of the challenges they face in contemporary socio-economic conditions. This issue was developed based on desk research and inquiry conducted on a representative marketplace in Gdańsk Oliwa. They served to formulate guidelines for the implementation project aimed at improving the image and economic condition of traditional marketplaces in Poland. Despite significant importance for the local economy, traditional marketplaces are not able to compete with shopping malls and shopping centers, as a result of which they become unsustainable. The ongoing degradation of marketplace areas reduce their attractiveness and role they play in public spaces network. The authors of the project recognize that the solution to the issue of marginalization of traditional marketplaces is to strengthen their image in both physical and media realms. One of the proposed solutions is institutional support for marketplaces by non-governmental organizations involved in the revitalization and aestheticisation of urban areas.
The work assessed the diversity of the natural potential in communes of Szczecin Metropolitan Area with particular emphasis on the areas of natural and valuable nature, protected area, forests and green areas. Established links between natural resources of municipalities and their valorisation using the SWOT analysis method (included in development strategies) and planned development goals. The basic method of use of the natural potential of the municipality are: to improve the quality of life of residents and tourism development. The impact of the natural potential on the quality of life is noticed primarily by urban centres, where a large share of green areas is noticed. The commune with a dominant share of protected areas (include Natura 2000) draws attention to the development of tourism based on natural potential. This is particularly evident in the communities that are characterized by a favourable location in relation to watercourses and reservoirs (freshwater and marine). However, in the socio-economic development, the natural potential is used in both these directions: to improve the quality of life and the development of tourism. In local strategic documents, it can be noticed that the transport system based on bicycle, pedestrian and water routes related to the natural potential can be eff ectively used in building cooperation between the central and other municipalities associated in Szczecin Metropolitan Area.
The article deals with the adaptation of Belorussian and Russian affixes in Polish dialects of Braslaw region. The author singles out certain models of af fixal adaptation on the basis of phonetic, morphological and semantic or phonomorphological equivalence. Collected vocabulary provides many examples where we can observe the assimilation of foreign elements into the native system of the multilingual population. Modifications of borrowings in this way indicate the vitality of the systemic word-formative rules of the Polish language in the speakers’ consciousness.
The aim of the article is to present loan vocabulary connected to clothes and ornaments. The Old-Believers’ dialect is subject to Polish interference on the lexical level because vocabulary is the linguistic element which is changing most rapidly. The dialect studied is situated in the Polish linguistic environment and thus it is isolated due to its lack of territorial contact with the Russian language. It belongs to the so-called Pskov group – the western Central Great Russian akanie dialects. Since the 1950s, when research into the dialect was initiated by Iryda Grek-Pabisowa and Irena Maryniakowa, the biggest increase in loan words has been noticed in the vocabulary related to health, jobs, clothes and ornaments, and the expressions used to refer to the new reality: the progress of civilisation, education, transport and agriculture. The lexemes borrowed are subject to various adaptation processes, for example, phonetic, stress-pattern, morphological or derivational ones.
This paper is devoted to the problem of the appearance of a stagnation region during Karman vortex shedding. This particular phenomenon has been addressed by G. Birkhoff in his model of vortices generation. Experimental results obtained by various research methods confirm the existence of a stagnation region. The properties of this stagnation region have been described based on experimental findings involving flow visualisation and hot-wire anemometry. Special attention has been paid to the relationship between the existence of a slit in the bluff body and the size of the stagnation region. The slit takes over the role of the stagnation region as an information channel for generating vortices.
The Lublin region has a rich history of coexistence and interpenetration of different traditions, cultures and religions, witnessed by its cities and towns. Small towns of the Lublin region are now facing a variety of spatial problems which are related to, among others, the organization and revitalization of public spaces, progressive scattering of housing development or changes in the organisation of traffic. The aim of this article is to present problems connected with landscape design and the revitalization of small towns of the Lublin region as exemplified by Frampol.
In the paper presented are definitions of specific indicators of power which characterize the operation of the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) plant. These quantities have been presented as function of evaporation temperature for selected working fluids of ORC installation. In the paper presented also is the procedure for selection of working fluid with the view of obtaining maximum power. In the procedure of selection of working fluid the mentioned above indicators are of primary importance. In order to obtain maximum power there ought to be selected such working fluids which evaporate close to critical conditions. The value of this indicator increases when evaporation enthalpy decreases and it is known that the latent heat of evaporation decreases with temperature and reaches a value of zero at the critical point.
The objective of the study was to create a printable 3D model of the sellar region of the sphenoid bone for demonstrating anatomical variant of the osseous bridging between anterior and posterior clinoid processes. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the middle cranial fossa along with 3D printed model, allow for accurate depicting position of the interclinoid bridge with reference to other basicranial structures.
Geological investigations of the 4th Polish Geodynamic Expedition to West Antarctica, summer 1990/91, covered the following topics: volcanological studies and mapping at Deception Island; stratigraphic, palaeonotological and sedimentological studies, and mapping of Tertiary glacial and glacio-marine strata on King George Island; sedimentological and mesostructural studies, and mapping at Hurd Peninsula, Livingston Island; and palaeontological sampling of Jurassic (Mount Flora Formation) and Trinity Peninsula Group deposits at Hope Bay, Trinity Peninsula.
Geological investigations of the 3rd Polish Geodynamic Expedition to West Antarctica, 1987—1988, covered the following topics: sedimentological and mesostructural studies of the Trinity Peninsula Group (?Carboniferous — Triassic) at Hope Bay, Cape Legoupil and Andvord Bay, Antarctic Peninsula, and at South Bay. Livingston Island (South Shetland Islands); late Mesozoic plant-bearing terrestrial sediments at Hope Bay; Antarctic Peninsula Volcanic Group, Andean-type plutons and systems of acidic and basic dykes (Upper Cretaceous and ?Tertiary) at Trinity Peninsula and around Gerlache Strait (Arctowski Peninsula, Anvers and Brabant islands); basalts and hyaloclastites within Tertiary glacigenic successions of King George Island; volcanic succession of the Deception Island caldera.