Hundred years ago education aimed mainly at memorizing as much information as possible. Such an approach lost its sense in the digital age of today since we are overwhelmed by an easily accessible ocean of true information mixed with “fake news”. Hence, the role of the teachers nowadays must be to guide and organize the learning process rather than provide knowledge. The students must no longer be passive recipients but active participants in the process of acquiring knowledge. A new approach of “phenomenon-based learning” introduced in schools in Finland, Norway and other countries agrees also with the holistic process of human cognition rather than absorbing information in a way sliced into traditional disciplines. In the future, say, fifty years from now, the role of teachers may be partly modified by the use of robots, which however could not replace creative thinking of human beings.
The paper presents a phenomenon of directional change in the case of a LQR controller applied to multivariable plants with amplitude and rate constraints imposed on the control vector, as well as the impact of the latter on control performance, with the indirect observation of the windup phenomenon effect via frequency of consecutive resat- urations. The interplay of directional change of the computed control vector with control performance has been thoroughly investigated, and it is a result of the presence of con- straints imposed on the applied control vector for different ratios of the number of control inputs to plant outputs. The impact of the directional change phenomenon on the control performance (and also on the windup phenomenon) has been defined, stating that performance deterioration is not tightly coupled with preservation of direction of the computed control vector. This conjecture has been supported by numerous simulation results for different types of plants with different LQR controller parameters.
Some eutectic stripes have been generated in a hexagonal (Zn) - single crystal. The stripes are situated periodically with the constant interstripes spacing. The eutectic structure in the stripes consists of strengthening inter-metallic compound, Zn16Ti, and (Zn) – solid solution. The rod-like irregular eutectic structure (with branches) appears at low growth rates. The regular lamellar eutectic structure is observed at middle growth rates. The regular rod-like eutectic structure exists exclusively in the stripes at some elevated growth rates. A new thermodynamic criterion is recommended. It suggests that this eutectic regular structure is the winner in a morphological competition for which the minimum entropy production is lower. A competition between the regular rod-like and the regular lamellar eutectic growth is described by means of the proposed criterion. The formation of branches within irregular eutectic structure is referred to the state of marginal stability. A continuous transitions from the marginal stability to the stationary state are confirmed by the continuous transformations of the irregular eutectic structure into the regular one.
Harmonic flux penetrating solid conductive material causes eddy currents inside. It seems plausible that its magnitude does not exceed the exciting magnetomotive force (mmf). However, under certain circumstances the opposite occurs. This article deals with a special case in which the eddy current is approximately 13% higher than the exciting mmf. An analytical field solution, a finite element calculation and a measurement proving this phenomenon are presented. A special flux linkage is turned out to be the reason for this phenomenon. Finally, another example with higher pronounced mmfexceeding in a coil is presented.
Topics of this article concern the study of the fundamental nature of the sonoluminescence phenomenon occurring in liquids. At the Institute of Electrical Power Engineering at Opole University of Technology the interest in that phenomenon known as secondary phenomenon of cavitation caused by ultrasound became the genesis of a research project concerning acoustic cavitation in mineral insulation oils in which a number of additional experiments performed in the laboratory aimed to determine the influence of a number of acoustic parameters on the process of the studied phenomenona. The main purpose of scientific research subject undertaken was to determine the relationship between the generation of partial discharges in high-voltage power transformer insulation systems, the issue of gas bubbles in transformer oils and the generated acoustic emission signals. It should be noted that currently in the standard approach, the phenomenon of generation of acoustic waves accompanying the occurrence of partial discharges is generally treated as a secondary phenomenon, but it can also be a source of many other related phenomena. Based on our review of the literature data on those referred subjects taken, it must be noted, that this problem has not been clearly resolved, and the description of the relationship between these phenomena is still an open question. This study doesn’t prove all in line with the objective of the study, but can be an inspiration for new research project in the future in this topic. Solution of this problem could be a step forward in the diagnostics of insulation systems for electrical Power devices based on non-invasive acoustic emission method.
The paper refers to previous publications of the author, focused on criteria of casting feeding, including the thermal criterion proposed by Niyama. On the basis of this criterion, present in the post-processing of practically all the simulation codes, danger of casting compactness (in the sense of soundness) in form of a microporosity, caused by the shrinkage phenomena, is predicted. The vast majority of publications in this field concerns shrinkage and feeding phenomena in the cast steel castings – these are the alloys, in which parallel expansion phenomenon does not occur as in the cast irons (graphite crystallization). The paper, basing on the simulation-experimental studies, presents problems of usability of a classic, definition-based approach to the Niyama criterion for the cast iron castings, especially of greater massiveness, for prediction of presence of zones of dispersed porosity, with relation to predictions of the shrinkage type defects. The graphite expansion and its influence on shrinkage compensation during solidification of eutectic is also discussed.
The paper describes the behavior of the liquid in a container that moves with a constant speed along a track consisting of three arcs. Such a complicated track shape generates complex form of inertia forces acting on the liquid and generates the sloshing effect. The behavior of the tank container vehicle is affected by the time-dependent inertia forces associated with the transient sloshing motion of the liquid in the non-inertial frame. These internal excitations, acting on a tank construction, can cause a loss of stability of the vehicle. For that reason, the authors analyze the dynamic loads acting on the walls of the tank truck container. The variation of the position of the liquid cargo gravity center, that depends on the filling level of the container, is also analyzed. The simulations were performed according to the varying fill level, which was 20%, 50% and 80% of a liquid in the whole tank volume. The simulations were carried out for a one-compartment container. Another aim of this study was the investigation of the influence of container division (tank with one, two and three compartments) on behavior of the liquid. These simulations considered only the half-filled container which was treated as a dangerous configuration prohibited by the law regulations for one-compartment tank. The results of simulation are presented in the form of visualization of temporary liquid free surface shape, variation of forces and moments, as well as frequency analysis. The results of simulation were analyzed, and some general conclusion were derived, providing the material for future investigation and modifications of the law regulations.
The article studies such cultural phenomenon as madness in its romantic (Edgar Poe) and expressionistic (Ivan Shmelyov) interpretation. Refl ecting upon the philosophical concept introduced by Michel Foucault the author analyzes how visual-plastic and verbal experience of interpreting madness in terms of literature is realized. Verbal and literary peculiarities of creating an aesthetic image of madness within the romantic canon in Poe’s story is compared to the specific features of verbal and visual images created in the style of expressionism by Shmelyov. Techniques of literary image visualization, revealing the specific nature of interaction between different forms of literature, art, cinema peculiar to the first third of the twentieth century, are studied in the process of transition from the aesthetics of story to the aesthetics of presentation.