The paper presents experimental research carried out to determine the possible actions to reduce the noise generated by trams in a highly urbanised area. A few design strategies affecting tram ride quality have been presented – especially in the aspect of the acoustic phenomena. Main sources of the noise in trams were characterised. The paper includes selected results of comprehensive studies of tram noise in the pass-by test based on the authors’ research methodology. The tests were carried out on various types of trams to recognise the acoustic phenomena characteristic for the rolling stock in a selected tram system. The results of the measurements were analysed both in the field of amplitudes based on noise maps and in respect to frequencies based on noise spectra. The results indicated the rolling noise as important issue demanding taking some actions in order to reduce its level. In this area, elements for the application of individual attenuation solutions, i.e. at the source and during propagation, were presented. The results of the measurements were used as input data to the assumptions of the noise attenuation passive system, which was the final outcome of the study. Dedicated external dampers were used in the case of wheel and rail pairs, where the dominant power of the noise is emitted. The acoustic properties of the bogie area and the bogie side covers were redeveloped to hamper the noise propagation, which is a novel application. The presented results indicate measurable benefits from the applied solutions on the tram noise reduction.
The present study aimed to determine the role of job components and individual parameters on the raised blood pressure among male workers of textile industry who were exposed to continuous high noise level. Information of all eligible subjects including demographic and individual characteristics, medical history and job characteristics were obtained by direct interview and referring to the medical records. All blood pressure measurements were done using mercury sphygmomanometer in the morning before work. The 8-hours equivalent A-weighted sound pressure level, the level of blood cholesterol and triglyceride, and noise annoyance was determined for each worker. As the result of weighted regression in path analysis (direct effect), only the work shift did not have a significant effect on blood pressure among the studied variables. It can be seen that variables including the level of triglyceride, cholesterol, and noise exposure have the most direct effects on blood pressure. The results of total effects showed that variables, including using the hearing protection device, age, work experience and visibility of sound source, did not have a significant effect on blood pressure. The results of this study indicate that occupational noise exposure alone and combined with other job components and individual parameters is associated with raised blood pressure. However, noise exposure was probably a stronger stressor for increased blood pressure.
In this paper, the applications of the multivariate data analysis and optimization on vibration signals from compressors have been tested on the assembly line to identify nonconforming products. The multivariate analysis has wide applicability in the optimization of weather forecasting, agricultural experiments, or, as in this case study, in quality control. The techniques of discriminant analysis and linear program were used to solve the problem. The acceleration and velocity signals used in this work were measured in twenty-five rotating compressors, of which eleven were classified as good baseline compressors and fourteen with manufacturing defects by the specialists in the final acoustic test of the production line. The results obtained with the discriminant analysis separated the conforming and nonconforming groups with a significance level of 0.01, which validated the proposed methodology.
A novel method of active noise control using adaptive radiation sound sources is investigated. A finite element model of a modal enclosed sound field is excited harmonically, representing a noise field in the low-frequency range. The control sources are comprised of elementary dipole sources for which the driving signals are adjusted by an optimization method. Two set-up cases of the proposed compound sources are investigated. The coupling of the control sources with the modal sound field is discussed. The simulated performance of the proposed method is compared with that of a system with distributed simple sources and the results show the effectiveness of the sources with adaptive radiation for active noise control in small enclosures.
Passive noise reduction methods require thick and heavy barriers to be effective for low frequencies and those clasical ones are thus not suitable for reduction of low frequency noise generated by devices. Active noise-cancelling casings, where casing walls vibrations are actively controlled, are an interesting alternative that can provide much higher low-frequency noise reduction. Such systems, compared to classical ANC systems, can provide not only local, but also global noise reduction, which is highly expected for most applications. For effective control of casing vibrations a large number of actuators is required. Additionally, a high number of error sensors, usually microphones that measure noise emission from the device, is also required. All actuators have an effect on all error sensors, and the control system must take into account all paths, from each actuator to each error sensor. The Multiple Error FXLMS has very high computational requirements. To reduce it a Switched-Error FXLMS, where only one error signal is used at the given time, have been proposed. This, however, significantly reduces convergence rate. In this paper an algorithm that uses multiple errors at once, but not all, is proposed. The performance of various algorithm variants is compared using simulations with the models obtained from real active-noise cancelling casing.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the hearing status of call centre operators in relation to their noise exposure. Conventional pure-tone audiometry and extended high-frequency audiometry were performed in 49 workers, aged 22–47 years (mean ± SD: 32.0 ± 6.0 years), working in call centre from 1.0 to 16.5 years (mean ± SD: 4.7 ± 2.9 years). Questionnaire inquiry aimed at collecting personal data, the information on ommunication headset usage habits, self-assessment of hearing ability and identification of risk factors for noise-induced hearing loss were also carried out. Sound pressure levels generated by the communication headset were determined using the artificial ear technique specified in CSA Z107.56-13 (2013) standard. The background noise prevailing in offices was also measured according to PN-N-01307 (1994) and PN-EN ISO 9612 (2011). Personal daily noise exposure levels in call centre operators varied from 66 to 86 dB (10–90th percentile). About half of the study subjects had normal hearing in the standard frequencies (from 250 to 8000 Hz) in both ears, while only 27.1% in the extended high-frequencies (9–16 kHz). Moreover, both high-frequency and speech-frequency hearing losses were observed in less than 10% of audiograms, while the extended high-frequency threshold shift was noted in 37.1% of analysed ears. The hearing threshold levels of call centre operators in the frequency of 0.25–11.2 kHz were higher (worse) than the expected median values for equivalent (due to age and gender) highly screened population specified in ISO 7029 (2017). Furthermore, they were also higher than predicted for 500–4000 Hz according to ISO 1999 (2013) based on the results of noise exposure evaluation.
Transportation noise is a main source of noise pollution. It is assumed that it consists of recognizable noise events which come from moving aircrafts, trains and boats. The noise of an isolated sound event is assessed by the sound exposure level, LAE. Much legislation and many regulations and guidelines employ the A-weighted time-average sound level, LAeq,T, with the time interval T of one hour or longer. LAE measurements enable an approximation of LAeq,T. The key point is the uncertainty of this approximation. It has been shown that an increase in the number of LAE categories brings about a decrease in uncertainty. For illustrative purposes, LAE measurements of aircrafts taking off and landing were carried out.
New Year’s Eve is an example of a situation in which urban residents are exposed to an almost continuous and increased noise level from the impulsive sounds sources – fireworks. This custom has become a source of many controversies related to the protection of human and animal health or environmental pollution. However, current legal regulations only slightly affect the subject of noise of fireworks and its harmfulness. Currently, it does not seem possible to completely prohibit the use of fireworks in urban areas, but this does not mean that it is not possible to decrease the degree of their annoyance. The paper consists the issues of identification, analysis and assessment of impulsive noise of fireworks and acoustic climate during New Year’s Eve. Material presented refers to measurements of time series, frequency spectrum and values of noise parameters of selected fireworks. It was presented, among others, that the measured values exceed the criteria for occupational noise (LCpeak), due to the direct hazard of hearing loss, from 1.8 dB at a distance of 25 m and 6.2 dB at a distance of 15 m. Also this work discusses results of impulsive noise measurements of fireworks recorded during New Year’s Eve in years 2016–2017. Material refers to measurements at three measurement points spread over the city of Kraków. Obtained results were compared with typical noise levels for night time in urban area, indicating also the main sources of annoyance and hazard from this type of noise.
An innovative system designed for the continuous monitoring of acoustic climate of urban areas was presented in the paper. The assessment of environmental threats is performed using online data, acquired through a grid of engineered monitoring stations collecting comprehensive information about the acoustic climate of urban areas. The grid of proposed devices provides valuable data for the purpose of long and short time acoustic climate analysis. Dynamic estimation of noise source parameters and real measurement results of emission data are utilized to create dynamic noise maps accessible to the general public. This operation is performed through the noise source prediction employing a propagation model being optimized for computer cluster implementation requirements. It enables the system to generate noise maps in a reasonable time and to publish regularly map updates in the Internet. Moreover, the functionality of the system was extended with new techniques for assessing noise-induced harmful effects on the human hearing system. The principle of operation of the dosimeter is based on a modified psychoacoustic model of hearing and on the results of research performed with participation of volunteers concerning the impact of noise on hearing. The primary function of the dosimeter is to estimate, in real time, auditory effects which are caused by exposure to noise. The results of measurements and simulations performed by the system prototype are depicted and analyzed. Several cases of long-term and short-term measurements of noise originating from various sources were considered in detail. The presented outcomes of predicted degree of the hearing threshold shift induced during the noise exposure can increase the awareness of harmfulness of excessive sound levels.
Traffic related noise is currently considered as an environmental pollution. Paper presents results of multidirectional study attempting to serve urban traffic without the need to erect noise barriers interfering urban space. Initial concept of the road expansion included construction of 1000 m of noise barriers dividing city space. Improvement in the acoustic conditions after construction completion is possible due to the applied noise protection measures: vehicle speed limit, smooth of traffic flow, use of road pavement of reduced noise emission and the technical improvement of the tramway.
One of the most effective designs to control the road traffic noise is the T-shaped barrier. The aim of this study was to examine the performance of T-shape noise barriers covered with oblique diffusers using boundary element method. A 2D simulation technique based on the boundary element method (BEM) was used to compute the insertion loss at the center frequency of each one-third octave band. In designed barriers, the top surface of the T-shaped noise barriers was covered with oblique diffusers. The width and height of the barrier stem and the width of its cap were 0.3, 2.7, and 1 m, respectively. Angles of he oblique diffusers were 15, 30, and 45 degrees. The oblique diffusers were placed on the top surface with two designs including same oblique diffusers (SOD) and quadratic residue oblique diffusers (QROD). Barriers considered were made of concrete, an acoustically rigid material. The barrier with characteristics of QROD, forward direction, and sequence of angles (15, 30, and 45 degrees) had the greatest value of the overall A-weighted insertion loss equal to 18.3 to 21.8 dBA at a distance of 20 m with various heights of 0 to 6 m.
Position time series from permanent Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations are commonly used for estimating secular velocities of discrete points on the Earth’s surface. An understanding of background noise in the GNSS position time series is essential to obtain realistic estimates of velocity uncertainties. The current study focuses on the investigation of background noise in position time series obtained from thirteen permanent GNSS stations located in Nepal Himalaya using the spectral analysis method. The power spectrum of the GNSS position time series has been estimated using the Lomb–Scargle method. The iterative nonlinear Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) algorithm has been applied to estimate the spectral index of the power spectrum. The power spectrum can be described by white noise in the high frequency zone and power law noise in the lower frequency zone. The mean and the standard deviation of the estimated spectral indices are ��1:46#6;0:14;��1:39#6;0:16 and ��1:53#6;0:07 for north, east and vertical components, respectively. On average, the power law noise extends up to a period of ca. 21 days. For a shorter period, i.e. less than ca. 21 days, the spectra are white. The spectral index corresponding to random walk noise (ca. –2) is obtained for a site located above the base of a seismogenic zone which can be due to the combined effect of tectonic and nontectonic factors rather than a spurious monumental motion. Overall, the usefulness of investigating the background noise in the GNSS position time series is discussed.
The non-contact current measurement method with magnetic sensors has become a subject of research. Unfortunately, magnetic sensors fail to distinguish the interested magnetic field from nearby interference and suffer from gauss white noise due to the intrinsic noise of the sensor and external disturbance. In this paper, a novel adaptive filtering-based current reconstruction method with a magnetic sensor array is proposed. Interference-rejection methods based on two classic algorithms, the least-mean-square (LMS) and recursive-least-square (RLS) algorithms, are compared when used in the parallel structure and regular triangle structure of three-phase system. Consequently, the measurement range of RLS-based algorithm is wider than that of LMS-based algorithm. The results of carried out simulations and experiments show that RLS-based algorithms can measure currents with an error of around 1%. Additionally, the RLS-based algorithm can filter the gauss white noise whose magnitude is within 10% of the linear magnetic field range of the sensor.
An important aspect in assessing noise in urban agglomerations is the subjective one, which takes into account the sensitivity and specific reactions of residents to the noise in their living environment. This paper presents results of a sociological study initiated to determine the population awareness, regarding the urban acoustic environment and estimation of effects and disturbance. The survey was conducted in a Romanian city, to complement the information provided by the strategic noise map of the area. This approach allows the estimation of specific local patterns of reaction and response to urban noise of the exposed population and provides the information, needed to develop action plans and to set proper solutions for urban area planning.
The aim of this project was to create a ranking of the nursery schools in Wrocław with regard to the quality of the acoustic environment on their premises, using a specially developed evaluation methodology. Each nursery school was rated according to an adopted grading scale on the basis of the noise level distribution on the playground and on the nursery school building facades. Using the grading scale one can classify nursery school premises into twelve categories characterized by different acoustic environment quality, from exceptionally good (< 45 dB) to exceptionally bad (> 70 dB). The appropriately rescaled data from the acoustic map of Wrocław and the authors' own measurements and simulation analyses were used. The developed methodology was verified by comparing the ratings yielded by it with those determined on the basis of field measurements and simulation studies, carried out for several selected nursery schools. The paper presents the results of an acoustic environment quality assessment carried out, using the developed investigative methodology, for 118 nursery schools located in Wrocław.
The aim of the study was to investigate how the time structure of a road-traffic affects the noise annoyance judgment. In a psychoacoustic experiment, the listeners judged noise annoyance of four road-traffic noise scenarios with identical numbers of vehicles and LAeq, T value but different time structure of a road traffic. The traffic structure varied from even to highly clustered across different scenarios. The scenarios were created in the laboratory from a large set of a single vehicle pass-by recordings. The scenarios were additionally filtered with filters corresponding to a typical window transfer function to simulate the situation inside the building. The experimental results showed that there is a significant difference in annoyance judgment for different traffic structures with the same LAeq, T value. The highest annoyance ratings were obtained for even traffic distribution and the most clustered distribution resulted in the lowest annoyance rating. These results correlated well with the averaged loudness, whereas the percentile loudness (N5) and level (L5) predict the opposite results.
The grid method is the most widely used technique for measurement-based noise assessment, and indeed is part of the ISO 1996-2 standard. Nevertheless it has certain disadvantages. The present work is an analysis of the grid method for evaluating noise, firstly in the city of Cáceres and, secondly in two other smaller towns. Using as reference a 200 metre grid study, a study was made of the effect of varying the size and form of the grid on the city’s overall noise value, the percentage of data found to lie above some reference thresholds, and the noise value assigned to a certain zone of the city. The ISO 1996 recommendations of the necessity of new sampling points and the method’s predictive capacity for these new measurements were also analyzed.
The paper presents the results of the noise propagation analysis in ship structures tested in a number of AHTS (Anchor Handling Tug Supply) vessels. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) based on numerical model developed specially for the purpose of this numerical investigation were conducted. This numerical model enabled the analysis of both the structural elements and the acoustic spaces. For the detailed studies 47 points fixed at various ship locations were selected. Prediction results with use of the numerical model were compared with the experimental results carried out in six identical AHTS vessels. Experimental studies were performed in accordance with the requirements of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) Resolution A.468 (XII). As a result one presented a comparison of the model analysis and experimental tests results.
The paper presents results of three socio-acoustic surveys conducted in an interval of twelve years, between 2001 and 2013, in a large Romanian city, Cluj-Napoca. The purpose of the surveys was to assess the awareness of residents on urban noise and the extent to which the noise environment affects their everyday life, behavior and health. The surveys were conducted in 2001, 2009 and 2013. The questionnaire used in the first survey had 16 questions and it was verified prior to study through a pilot survey, being corrected and improved. For the second and the third study, the questionnaire was enriched with eight more questions, regarding essentially the description of the residential area, criteria for its selection and also awareness about the noise map of the city. The analysis of responses defines the main characteristics of the local pattern of annoyance and reaction of the urban population to the environmental noise.
Infrasounds are very common in the natural environment. There are various opinions about their harmfulness or lack of harmfulness. One of the reasons of increasing interest in this issue is that there are more and more wind farms appearing close to building estates which are undoubtedly a source of infrasound. It is reasonable to present the results of research of infrasound noise connected not only with wind farms. In this study own results of research of infrasound noise related to daily human activity are presented. The measurements were carried out during housework, travel to the office or shop, and during shopping. The results are shown in the form of values of equivalent levels and 1/3-octave analyses. Taking into consideration the natural sources of infrasound in the environment, the measurements were conducted during both windy and windless weather. On the basis of the results of the measurements it was possible to define the daily exposure to infrasound noise. Those results were also compared with the available in the literature threshold values sensed by people. Estimated level of exposure to noise beyond workplace together with the level of exposure to noise at work enables to define daily exposure level, which means a better assessment of risk of health loss. Increasing social awareness of acoustic threat in everyday life allows us to identify the problem and at the same time improve the quality of rest and efficiency at work.
Studies of electrical properties, including noise properties, of thick-film resistors prepared from various resistive and conductive materials on LTCC substrates have been described. Experiments have been carried out in the temperature range from 300 K up to 650 K using two methods, i.e. measuring (i) spectra of voltage fluctuations observed on the studied samples and (ii) the current noise index by a standard meter, both at constant temperature and during a temperature sweep with a slow rate. The 1/f noise component caused by resistance fluctuations occurred to be dominant in the entire range of temperature. The dependence of the noise intensity on temperature revealed that a temperature change from 300 K to 650 K causes a rise in magnitude of the noise intensity approximately one order of magnitude. Using the experimental data, the parameters describing noise properties of the used materials have been calculated and compared to the properties of other previously studied thick-film materials.
In the article a short historical outline of noise control conferences organized in Poland is given. Those conferences with the participation of Polish specialists have been organized since 1964; since 1976 they have been evolved into International Noise Control Conferences. Silhouettes of four Polish scientists, which have made a large contribution to the noise and vibration control in Poland, are presented. Also the current state of threats by noise and vibrations have been briefly mentioned. The significance of such conferences has been emphasized.
In the last years the number of new forms of workplaces, such as call centers, increases. It is defined as a workstation where the basic tasks of a worker are carried out with the use of a phone and a computer. According to statistics, about 1.3-4% of workers are employed in call centers in the European countries. The noise is one of the harmful and annoying hazards of call center workstations. The paper presents the noise sources in call center rooms, assessment criteria of noise and results of noise measurements in call center workstations. The results of measurements show that the noise at call center workstations (during the use of handset receiver phone by operators) can be harmful (causing the risk of hearing loss) and annoying, as it makes it difficult to carry out the basic work activities and causes additionally auditory disadvantageous changes in health.
The analysis of available literature indicates that tests of products sound quality, which would not involve participation of groups of listeners supposed to evaluate the sounds emitted by these products, are neither carried out in Poland, nor in the world. That results in the fact that the products sound quality is determined on the basis of psychoacoustic information and comprises both objective and subjective factors of sound perception. With reference to those factors and to different life cycles of the machine, an original definition of the “sound quality of the machine” has been developed and presented in this article. The global index of the acoustic quality of the machine, accounting for the relations between the noise level at the workstation and the selected parameters characterising both the machine's sound activity and the working environment, was adopted as the measure of the sound quality of the machine. The experiments that followed confirmed the appropriateness of the assessment made with the use of the global index of acoustic quality.