The largest glacier of the Petuniabukta area is the Hörbyebreen. It is among the tew on Spitsbergen whose marginal zones undergo areal decay. What has made in this type of glacier is a rich supra-glacial moraine cover that was formed as a result of a deformation of debris bands in the frontal part following a surge. In the marginal zone three subzones were distinguished differing in the degree of degradation of passive ice that covers almost all its area. They also differ in the stability of deposits and in the relief.
A subject of the paper Substantive Declension in Slavic Linguistic Atlas is based on an extensive field research of the Dialects of all Slavic languages. The territory of the research is delimited by the international Slavistic project Slavic Linguistic Atlas the database of which is formed by answers to 3400 questions within 853 localities of the overall Slavic territory. However, not all the forms of all the substantive paradigms are presented, but only the selected representative phenomena testifying to the natural constitutive processes of the national languages in connection with the phonetic changes proving the specifi c character of the linguistic development under the infl uence of a genetically homogeneous or heterogeneous environment and testifying to linguistic changes as results of intercultural, interlingual and probably also inter-confessional infl uences. The final part of the publication is oriented upon the constitutive processes of substantive declination in the Slavic macro-areas (South-Slavic, West-Slavic, and East-Slavic – and within them also in the particular Slavic languages) from the point of view of “otherness” and “foreignness”, i.e. from the point of view of the original and non-original grammatical endings in the particular declension types. The genuine basis of the transgression from the original domestic elements to the new ones gets manifested not only within the adaptation processes of the lexical level, but its basis is hidden in the long-term stabilization processes, in systemic changes by which the inner structure of the language, the area of the distribution of changes, and their impact upon the typological substance of the language are modified. By its interpretative character, the paper The Interpretation of Substantive Declension in Slavic Languages aims at integrating the genetic, areal as well as typological aspects of the investigated domain.
The review covers Ruselina Nicolova’s The Bulgarian Grammar. This is a revised version of Bǔlgarska gramatika. Morfologiia (Sofiia 2008) edited in English by Frank & Timme (Berlin 2017). This outstanding achievement is appraised highly by the review author. The review compares the new work with an earlier academic morphology of Bulgarian (Gramatika na sǔvremenniia bǔlgarski knižoven ezik, t. 2: Morfologiia, Sofiia 1983). It concludes that the Grammar of R. Nicolova makes important progress in semantically and functionally oriented type of Bulgarian linguistic description as well as that publication of this study translated to English is important because it provides a widened reception of the work.
Powdered polyaniline (PANI) was synthesised chemically with different doping anions namely hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid and para-toluenesulfonic acid (pTSA). Two-step synthetic procedure was utilised at low temperature. The highest reaction efficiency was found for chlorine-doped PANI. Structural characterization with FTIR revealed the vibration bands characteristic to formation of the emeraldine salt. The surface morphology of doped PANIs was studied by SEM images which showed near globular shape and porous structures with different size of the aggregated particles. They were smaller for Cl–- or pTS–-doped PANI while for SO42– the size was markedly larger. The XRD patterns revealed that there are ordered regions especially for pTS– doped PANI, while the highest conductivity value was recorded for Cl– doped one followed by organic pTS– doped and SO42– doped one.
Achene macro- and micromorphology and pericarp anatomy are described in four Polish species of Anemone (A. narcissiflora, A. nemorosa, A. ranunculoides, A. sylvestris). Biometric analysis showed that achene size varies greatly in all the studied species and is of limited diagnostic value. Three types of sculpture connected with the character of the indumentum were distinguished. The presence or absence of stomata on the achene style and the character of the hair base differentiated A. nemorosa and A. ranunculoides, which have the same type of pericarp ornamentation. The endocarp (number of layers and outline of its cells) was shown to be useful in the systematics of Anemone
The study assessed the effect of cumulative tropospheric ozone on the morphology of an ozone-sensitive (Bel W3) and an ozone-resistant (Bel B) tobacco cultivar, and two petunia cultivars (Mirage, White Cascade). The plants were exposed at two sites differing in tropospheric ozone level for two months during the 2008 growing season. Similar sets of plants were cultivated in control conditions. Morphological parameters of the plants were measured every week during the experiment. The correlation between the recorded results and the cumulative concentrations of tropospheric ozone measured at the two exposure sites was estimated. The ozone-sensitive tobacco cultivar showed increased visible damage after four weeks of the experiment, although ozone was relatively low during the preceding weeks, possibly confirming the cumulative effect of ozone on the plant response. The ozone-resistant tobacco cultivar showed higher mean plant growth and leaf growth than the ozone-sensitive one throughout the experimental period, but at the exposure sites the ozone-sensitive cultivar showed plant growth similar to or higher than the controls, especially at the forest site where ozone concentrations were higher. This suggests a plant defense against reduction of leaf assimilation area (i.e., against leaf necrosis). Petunia cv. Mirage showed lower growth at the control site and had fewer flowers than White Cascade at all sites. White Cascade had more flowers than Mirage in the last week of the experiment at the forest site where tropospheric ozone was higher. Its mean growth was higher at the forest site than at the other exposure site
The aim of our study was to determine the influence of L-carnitine (L-CAR) on the cellular parameters of hen erythrocytes during a 48 hour exposure to L-CAR at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL in nutrient-deficient medium. Cell morphology, haemolysis, caspase 3/7 activity and glucose uptake (GU) were determined. The results showed a lower percentage of apoptotic cells and decreased haemolysis of erythrocytes treated for 48 hours at all the concentrations of L-CAR. The amino acid at 50 mg/mL inhibited the activity of proapoptotic caspase 3/7; however, it increased GU. In contrast, caspase 3/7 level was increased but GU was decreased in erythrocytes treated with 100 mg/mL of L-CAR when compared to the control. It may be hypothesized that reduction of apoptotic changes in hen erythrocytes may result from increased GU.
This is a short report about the first Cenozoic shark fossil from Svalbard. The specimen derives from the late Paleocene greenish sandstone of the Grumantbyen Formation, which is exposed in Fossildalen on the western side of Colesbukta on Spitsbergen. The single tooth is assigned to the Paleogene sand tiger shark genus Striatolamia that also is known from other polar regions. The Fossildalen specimen represents the northernmost Paleogene shark record, and is the second reported body fossil of a vertebrate from the Cenozoic of Spitsbergen.
In this paper methods and their examination results for automatic segmentation and parameterization of vessels based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of the retina are presented. We present three strategies for morphologic image processing of a fundus image reconstructed from OCT scans. A specificity of initial image processing for fundus reconstruction is analysed. Then, the parameterization step is performed based on the vessels segmented with the proposed algorithm. The influence of various methods on the vessel segmentation and fully automatic vessel measurement is analysed. Experiments were carried out with a set of 3D OCT scans obtained from 24 eyes (12 healthy volunteers) with the use of an Avanti RTvue OCT device. The results of automatic vessel segmentation were numerically compared with those prepared manually by the medical doctor experts.
Urbanization has a far-reaching impact on the environment, economy, political and social processes. Therefore, understanding the spatial distribution and evolution of human settlements is a key element in planning strategies that ensure the sustainable development of urban and rural settlements. Accordingly, it is very important to map human settlements and to monitor the development of cities and villages. Therefore, the problem of settlements has found its reflection in the creation of global databases of urban areas. Global settlement data have extraordinary value. These data allow us to carry out the quantitative and qualitative analyses as well as to compare the settlement network at a regional, national and global scale. However, the possibility of conducting both spatial and attribute analyses of these data would be even more valuable. The article describes how to prepare raster data so that they can be implemented into a vector database. It answers the questions whether it is possible to combine these data with databases available in Poland and what benefits it brings. It presents the methods of data generalization and the optimization of time and disk space. As a result of the study, two vector databases with GUF data were developed. The first database resolution is similar to the original (~12 m resolution) database, the second database contains less detailed (~20 m resolution) data, generalized using mathematical morphology. Both databases have been enriched with descriptive data obtained from the National Geodetic and Cartographic Resource.
Pavol Żigo’s work, which opens the development of morphological maps in the OLA team, is worthy of the highest praise. It offers an interpretation of selected maps concerning declination of nouns, accompanied by detailed theoretical considerations of the process of changes in the declination system in Slavic languages. Drawing on extensive dialectal records, the Atlas offers an excellent overview of the complex development of declination of nouns in Slavic languages. This publication may serve as a model for further studies in this field.
In this study the current legal and market conditions of waste management in Poland are analyzed. The main legal basis for changes in the national municipal waste management system and their impact on the market situation in the last few years have been determined. Additionally, the important function of the selective collection and the key role of the separation of raw material fractions in waste sorting plants constituting the basis for the operation of Regional Municipal Waste Processing (RMWP) plants was underlined. Furthermore, the possibilities of developing electricity production technology in low and medium power modules using waste gasification techniques were emphasized. The stream of plastic mixture from municipal waste sorting was identified as problematic in the context of effective material recovery. Tests were conducted on the morphology of this waste stream from two sorting plants. In line with the literature data and as part of the analytical work, the properties of the plastic waste stream designated for recycling and the energy properties of the post-recycling plastic mixture were estimated. Tests results showed that the calorific value of this mixture reached 31.8 MJ/kg, whereas, ash and chlorine content equaled 2.7% and 1.1% of dry mass, respectively. These parameters indicate that the mixture as a high-calorific fuel component may be a valuable addition to refuse-derived fuel (RDF) produced from the over-sieve fraction of municipal waste. Concurrently, as a result of the development of waste gasification technologies with a high share of electricity production in low-medium power range plants, it is possible to integrate them with plastic recycling and RMWP plants in the Polish national waste management system.
The effect of combination grain refinement with AlTi5B1 master (55 ppm) and Sr-modification with AlSr5 master (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 ppm) on the microstructure, tensile and hardness properties of AlSi7MgTi cast alloy were systematically investigated. Eutectic silicon was studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy after standard (0.5% HF) and deep etching (HCl). Morphology of eutectic Si changes from compact plate-like (as-cast state) to fibbers (after modification). Si-fibbers in samples with 50 and 60 ppm Sr coarsen probably as a result of over-modification. The optimum mechanical properties has the experimental material which was grain refined and modified with 40 ppm of Sr (UTS = 220.6 MPa; ductility = 6.1%, and 82.3 HBW 5/250/15).
Genetically modified Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) leaves with typical symptoms of Alternaria early blight disease resembling that of tomato and potato were observed in the main cotton growing schemes in Sudan. Symptoms on leaves appeared as either brown 2leaf spot with gray centers or leaf blight with concentric rings. Pathogenicity tests using isolates with both symptoms showed that the isolated fungi were highly pathogenic to both G. hirsutum and G. barbadense cotton varieties. Alternaria alternata isolated from infected tomato and potato leaves with early blight symptoms was included for comparison. Microscopic examination showed that the mean length of conidia from cotton, tomato and potato isolates ranged from 26.25 to 45.45 μm, while the width ranged from 9.56 to 13.64 μm. The mean number of transverse septa among all isolates was 3.4 to 5.7 and the peak length ranged from 3.75 to 7.8 μm. Based on morphological characteristics the two isolates from cotton were identified as A. alternata. Genomic DNA was extracted directly from fungal cultures grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates using a Zymo Research Quick DNA kit. A species-specific primer using the internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) PCR scoring indicated the presence of A. alternata using primer pair ITS4/ITS5. Amplifications of the internal transcribed spacer region of 600 bp revealed 100% identity of the isolated fungus from cotton with A. alternata from tomato and potato. These data oblige us to reconsider the presence of A. alternata in the four main cotton growing schemes in Sudan while these symptoms have always been described for tomato and potato early blight disease.
Despite great technological progress scientists still are not capable of ascertaining how many species are there on Earth. Systematic studies are not only time-consuming, but sometimes also significantly impeded by constraints of available equipment. One of the methods for morphology evaluation, which is gradually more often used for taxonomical research is microcomputed tomography. It’s great spatial resolution and ability to gather volumetric data during single acquisition without sectioning specimen are properties especially useful in evaluation of small invertebrates. Nondestructive nature of micro-CT gives possibility to combine it with other imaging techniques even for single specimen. Moreover, in case of rare organisms studies it allows to collect full structural data without fracturing their bodies. Application of proper staining, exposure parameters or specific sample preparation significantly improves quality of performed studies. The following article presents summary of current trends and possibilities of microtomography in morphology studies of small invertebrates.
Selected results of investigations concerning a shallow water part of the coastal zone, covering the surf zone and the swash zone, are presented. The above research has been carried out by means of field measurements, as well as data-driven and theoretical modelling. The investigations have led to development of a mathematical model of wave transformation and run-up on the shore in the Lagrangian system, as well as identification of infragravity waves (edge waves) in the multi-bar morphological beach system and their linkage with rhythmic shoreline forms (cusps). Some empirical relationships have been obtained for the description of number of bars in a bar system and dissipation of wave energy over such morphological structure. The experimental findings are based on field studies carried out at the IBW PAN Coastal Research Station (CRS) in Lubiatowo.
The paper presents the results of studies on quartzite milling in a ball mill. The milling was conducted in a batch system, for diversified compositions of balls. The milling product was subjected to granulometrical, morphological and strength analyses. On the basis of the developed Reid's theory and using the Austin-Gardner equation, a form of the function circumscribing the specific rate of comminution of selected size fractions was determined. The values of the breakage rate function bi, j for the mill's apparatus conditions were determined. The impact was investigated for a variable number of grinding media contact points on the values of specific rate S and the values of the breakage rate function bi, j. Furthermore, the values of coefficients occurring in the equations circumscribing the specific rate of milling S and breakage parameter bi, j were determined.
In this study, the effect of gas pressure on the shape and size of the AZ91 alloy powder produced by using the gas atomization method was investigated experimentally. Experiments were carried out at 820°C constant temperature in 2-mm nozzle diameter and by applying 4 different gas pressures (0.5, 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 MPa). Argon gas was used to atomize the melt. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine the shape of produced AZ91 powders, XRD, XRF and SEM-EDX analysis to determine the phases forming in the internal structures of the produced powders and the percentages of these phases and a laser measuring device for powder size analysis were used. Hardness tests were carried out to determine the mechanical properties of the produced powders. The general appearances of AZ91 alloy powders produced had general appearances of ligament, acicular, droplet, flake and spherical shape, but depending on the increase in gas pressure, the shape of the powders is seen to change mostly towards flake and spherical. It is determined that the finest powder was obtained at 820°C with 2 mm nozzle diameter at 3.5 MPa gas pressure and the powders had complex shapes in general.
At thermal junctions of aluminium alloy castings and at points where risering proves to be difficult there appear internal or external shrinkages, which are both functionally and aesthetically inadmissible. Applying the Probat Fluss Mikro 100 agent, which is based on nano-oxides of aluminium, results in the appearance of a large amount of fine microscopic pores, which compensate for the shrinking of metal. Experimental tests with gravity die casting of AlSi8Cu3 and AlSi10Mg alloys have confirmed that the effect of the agent can be of advantage in foundry practice, leading to the production of castings without local concentrations of defects and without the appearance of shrinkages and macroscopic gas pores. Also, beneficial effect on the mechanical properties of the metal has been observed.
Berber languages outside Mauritania have a number of different morphological classes of vowel-final and semivowel-final verbs (“final weak verbs”). The situation in Zenaga of Mauritania looks very different. In this article, the Zenaga reflexes of the non- Mauritanian weak verbs are compared by studying all relevant cognates. As a result, it proves possible to establish to what extent the main weak verb classes of non- Mauritanian Berber are reflected in Zenaga, and to what extent certain irregularities can be understood from Zenaga-internal developments.
Monitoring of activated sludge flocs may provide important information for effective operation and control of wastewater treatment. The research objective is to demonstrate methodology for activated sludge image processing aimed to describe morphological characteristics of activated sludge flocs. The proposed software- -based method was presented and verified by analysis of several activated sludge samples. The results show high efficiency of image segmentation and floc recognition of more than 94% floc components. The analysis of a series of 50 pictures gives rapid and reliable results and can be performed in an automatic or semiautomatic mode. Given inherent heterogeneity of activated sludge flocs, multiple and repeated sample images capture (processing of 50 pictures at a time, repeated at least 4 times ) is recommended.
The elemental composition and morphology of aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactors (GSBRs) treating high-nitrogen digester supernatant was investigated. The investigation particularly focused on the effect of the number of anoxic phases (one vs. two) in the cycle and the dose of external organics loading (450 mg COD/(L·cycle) vs. 540 mg COD/(L·cycle)) on granule characteristics. Granules in all reactors were formed of many single cells of rod and spherical bacteria. Addition of the second anoxic phase in the GSBR cycle resulted in enhanced settling properties of the granules of about 10.6% and at the same time decreased granule diameter of about 19.4%. The study showed that external organics loading was the deciding factor in the elemental composition of biomass. At 540 mg COD/(L·cycle) the granules contained more weight% of C, S and N, suggesting more volatile material in the granule structure. At lower organics loadings granules had the higher diameter of granules which limited the diffusion of oxygen and favored precipitation of mineral compounds in the granule interior. In this biomass higher content of Mg, P and Ca, was observed.
Usnea aurantiaco-atra is the dominant flora around King George Island, Antarctica, whose specimens exhibited various phenotypes, even for those with the same ITS sequences in both mycobiont and photobiont. A comprehensive analysis of morphological traits of U. aurantiaco-atra including the reproductive structures, growth forms and ornamentation, cross section of the branches, and the substratum was carried out. Four arbitrary groups were identified based on their reproductive characters, but these groups cannot be distinguished from molecular phylogenetic trees based on fungal or algal ITS sequences. Further, the complicated morphological diversity of the thalli with the same ITS haplotypes in both mycobiont and photobiont suggest that some other factors in addition to the symbionts could influence the morphology of lichens. This implies that lichen is indeed a complex-mini-ecosystem rather than a dual symbiotic association of fungus and alga. Also, a lichenous fungi Phacopsis sp. was identified based on its anatomical characters and ITS sequence, which was also responsible for the black burls-like structures on U. aurantiaco-atra.