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Abstract

Production of sanitary safe water of high quality with membrane technology is an alternative for conventional disinfection methods, as UF and MF membranes are found to be an effective barrier for pathogenic protozoa cysts, bacteria, and partially, viruses. The application of membranes in water treatment enables the reduction of chlorine consumption during final disinfection, what is especially recommended for long water distribution systems, in which microbiological quality of water needs to be effectively maintained. Membrane filtration, especially ultrafiltration and microfiltration, can be applied to enhance and improve disinfection of water and biologically treated wastewater, as ultrafiltration act as a barrier for viruses, bacteria and protozoa, but microfiltration does not remove viruses. As an example of direct application of UF/MF to wastewater treatment, including disinfection, membrane bioreactors can be mentioned. Additionally, membrane techniques are used in removal of disinfection byproducts from water. For this purpose, high pressure driven membrane processes, i.e. reverse osmosis and nanofiltration are mainly applied, however, in the case of inorganic DBPs, electrodialysis or Donnan dialysis can also be considered.
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Abstract

A number of inorganic compounds, including anions such as nitrate(V), chlorate(VII), bromate (V), arsenate(III) and (V), borate and fluoride as well as metals forming anions under certain conditions, have been found in potentially harmful concentrations in numerous water sources. The maximum allowed levels of these compounds in drinking water set by the WHO and a number of countries are very low (in the range of µg/l to a few mg/l), thus the majority of them can be referred to as charged micropollutants. Several common treatment technologies which are nowadays used for removal of inorganic contaminants from natural water supplies, represent serious exploitation problems. Membrane processes such as reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF), ultrafiltration (UF) and microfiltration (MF) in hybrid systems, Donnan dialysis (DD) and electrodialysis (ED) as well as membrane bioreactors (MBR), if properly selected, offer the advantage of producing high quality drinking water without inorganic anions. I
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