The aim of this study was to estimate the measurement uncertainty for a material produced by additive manufacturing. The material investigated was FullCure 720 photocured resin, which was applied to fabricate tensile specimens with a Connex 350 3D printer based on PolyJet technology. The tensile strength of the specimens established through static tensile testing was used to determine the measurement uncertainty. There is a need for extensive research into the performance of model materials obtained via 3D printing as they have not been studied sufficiently like metal alloys or plastics, the most common structural materials. In this analysis, the measurement uncertainty was estimated using a larger number of samples than usual, i.e., thirty instead of typical ten. The results can be very useful to engineers who design models and finished products using this material. The investigations also show how wide the scatter of results is.
According to metrological guidelines and specific legal requirements, every smart electronic electricity meter has to be constantly verified after pre-defined regular time intervals. The problem is that in most cases these pre-defined time intervals are based on some previous experience or empirical knowledge and rarely on scientifically sound data. Since the verification itself is a costly procedure it would be advantageous to put more effort into defining the required verification periods. Therefore, a fixed verification interval, recommended by various internal documents, standardised evaluation procedures and national legislation, could be technically and scientifically more justified and consequently more appropriate and trustworthy for the end user. This paper describes an experiment to determine the effect of alternating temperature and humidity and constant high current on a smart electronic electricity meter’s measurement accuracy. Based on an analysis of these effects it is proposed that the current fixed verification interval could be revised, taking into account also different climatic influence. The findings of this work could influence a new standardized procedure in respect of a meter’s verification interval.
The paper deals with the accuracy of measurements of strains (elongation and necking) and stresses (tensile strength) in static room-temperature tensile strength tests. We present methods for calculating measurement errors and uncertainties, and discuss the determination of the limiting errors of the quantities measured for circular and rectangular specimens, which is illustrated with examples.
The error reduction technique, based on inverse transformation, for a shunt active resistance measurement using an ammeter and voltmeter is considered. When computing a corrected reading only multiplicative operations on two measurement results are used, namely squaring and division. The proposed method allows to increase re-sistance measurement accuracy by about two orders of magnitude what has been validated by both theoretical and experimental outcomes.
The objective of the paper is to analyse traceability issues in real-life gas flow measurements in complex distribution systems. The initial aim is to provide complete and traceable measurement results and calibration certificates of gas-flow meters, which correspond to specific installation conditions. Extensive work has been done to enable a more credible decision on how to deal in particular situations with the measurement uncertainty which is always subject of a flow meter’s calibration as a quantitative parameter value obtained in laboratory, and with the qualitative statement about the error of an outdoor meter. The laboratory simulation of a complex, real-life distributed system has been designed to achieve the initial aim. As an extension of standardized procedures that refer to the laboratory conditions, the proposed methods introduce additional “installation-specific” error sources. These sources could be either corrected (if identified) or considered as an additional “installation-specific” uncertainty contribution otherwise. The analysis and the results of the experimental work will contribute to more precise and accurate measurement results, thus assuring proper measurements with a known/estimated uncertainty for a specific gas flow installation. Also, the analysis will improve the existing normative documents by here presented findings, as well as fair trade in one of the most important and growing energy consumption areas regarding the legal metrology aspects. These facts will enable comparing the entire quantity of gas at the input of a complex distributed system with the cumulative sum of all individual gas meters in a specific installation.
This paper presents a low-cost and smart measurement system to acquire and analyze mechanical motion parameters. The measurement system integrates several measuring nodes that include one or more triaxial accelerometers, a temperature sensor, a data acquisition unit and a wireless communication unit. Particular attention was dedicated to measurement system accuracy and compensation of measurement errors caused by power supply voltage variations, by temperature variations and by accelerometers’ misalignments. Mathematical relationships for error compensation were derived and software routines for measurement system configuration, data acquisition, data processing, and self-testing purposes were developed. The paper includes several simulation and experimental results obtained from an assembled prototype based on a crank-piston mechanism
The aim of this study is to examine the importance of the decision in Engelhart CTP (US) LLC v Lloyd’s Syndicate 1221 with regard to the insurance of economic losses and non-existent goods in the context of all-risks cover. It also strives to analyse to what extent the principles of construction described in this decision are applicable to the interpretation of all risks cover in marine insurance disputes subject to Polish law. Assureds and beneficiaries of cargo policies are defrauded into taking up false documents for non-existent goods yet Polish law fails to address the questions which arise in such situations. It is thus important not only to investigate and evaluate the answers provided by English law but also to explore if and how Polish law may employ them. It follows from this study that Engelhart may be used in construction of all-risks policies subject to Polish law in most scenarios.