Faecal Enterococcus hirae from domestic ducks were studied for their bioactivity to select bioactive strain for more detailed study with its probable use in poultry and also to bring novelty in basic research. After defecation, faeces (n=23, faecal mixture of 40 ducks) were sampled from domestic ducks in eastern Slovakia; birds were aged from eight to 14 weeks. E. hirae strains were identified using Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of flight mass spectrometry with a highly probable species identification score (2.300-3.000) or a secure genus identification/ /probable species identification score (2.000-2.299), confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and phenotypization in accordance with the properties for the type strain E. hirae ATCC 9790. Strains were hemolysis negative (γ-hemolysis), and did not have active enzyme stimulating disorders. Enterocin genes were detected in three strains out of seven. Three out of four Enterocin genes were detected in Kč1/b (Ent A, P, L50A); the most frequently detected was the Ent P gene. The strains inhibited indicator strains E. faecalis, listeriae, but also Escherichia coli and Buttiauxiella strains. Lactic-acid producing E. hirae were mostly susceptible to antibiotics. Based on parameter evaluation, E. hirae Kč1/b, Kč6 can be additionally studied to select the type of bioactive substance.
SDS-PAGE electrophoresis was used to study the effect of NaCl on protein expression in two cultivars of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.): Edkawi (salt-tolerant) and Castle rock (salt-sensitive). Five-day-old seedlings were grown on MS agar media supplemented with 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 300 mM NaCl. Two days after treatment the seedlings were examined to determine the effect of salt on their growth and to relate that to protein banding variations. Gel analysis showed differences in at least 4 protein bands with molecular weights at 20, 25, 45 and 65 kDa. These proteins were induced in the 50 mM NaCl treatment in the salt-sensitive cultivar, then decreasing to undetectability at higher concentrations. In the salt-tolerant cultivar, most of the proteins exhibited a more or less steady expression pattern and maintained expression through the 200 mM NaCl treatment. All proteins gave weak or no expression signals at 300 mM NaCl, the treatment that proved lethal. Differentially expressed bands were identified using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The putative function of each identified protein in relation to salt stress is discussed.
Many species of Trichoderma produce secondary metabolites such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that reduce plant diseases and promote their growth. In this work we evaluated the antagonistic effects of VOCs released by eight strains of two Trichoderma species against Pyrenophora teres Drechsler, the causal agent of barley net blotch. Antagonism was estimated based on the percentage of mycelial growth inhibition according to the confronted cultures method. VOCs extraction and identification were performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, through different methodologies for VOCs emitted by antagonists and pathogens alone or when confronted. VOCs produced by all Trichoderma strains inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen in a range of 3 to 32%, showing weak and unpigmented mycelia with vacuolization. In addition, P. teres stimulated the release of VOCs by both Trichoderma species. The major groups of VOCs detected were sesquiterpenes, followed by diterpenes, terpenoids and eight-carbon compounds. This is the first report about characterization of volatiles emitted by Trichoderma in the presence of P. teres.